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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2020, Vol. 49 Issue (0): 117-125    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.04.048
Research Article Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
A simultaneous improvement of both strength and ductility by Sn addition in as-extruded Mg-6Al-4Zn alloy
Xiao-Yuan Wanga,b, Yu-Fei Wanga,b, Cheng Wanga,b,c,*(), Shun Xua,b, Jian Ronga,b, Zhi-Zheng Yanga,b, Jin-Guo Wanga,b,*(), Hui-Yuan Wanga,b,c
a State Key Laboratory of Super Hard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China
b Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus, Jilin University, No.5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, 130025, China
cInternational Center of Future Science, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China
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Commercial wrought Mg alloys normally contain low alloying contents to ensure good formability. In the present work, high-alloyed Mg-6Al-4Zn-xSn (x = 1, 2 and 3 wt.%, respectively) alloys were fabricated by extrusion. Hereinto, Sn was proven to play an effective contribution to simultaneous improvement in strength and ductility that are traditional trade-off features of synthetic materials. It was found that the average grain size of those alloys decreases significantly from ~11 to ~4 μm as a function of Sn contents increasing from 0 to 3 wt.%, while the amounts of Mg2Sn and Mg17Al12 particles continuously increase. More importantly, the addition of Sn leads to the transformation of dominated deformation modes from {10$\bar{1}$2} extension twinning (1 wt.%) to pyramidal <c+a> slip (3 wt.%) during tensile tests along the extrusion direction at room temperature. The advantageous combination of ultimate tensile strength (~366 MPa) and elongation (~19 %) in Mg-6Al-4Zn-3Sn alloy is mainly attributed to the strong strain hardening ability induced by the enhanced activity of non-basal <c+a> slip. This work could provide new opportunities for the development of high-alloyed wrought Mg alloys with promising mechanical properties.

Key words:  Magnesium alloys      Microstructure      Deformation modes      Ductility     
Received:  21 January 2019     
Corresponding Authors:  Cheng Wang,Jin-Guo Wang     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Xiao-Yuan Wang, Yu-Fei Wang, Cheng Wang, Shun Xu, Jian Rong, Zhi-Zheng Yang, Jin-Guo Wang, Hui-Yuan Wang. A simultaneous improvement of both strength and ductility by Sn addition in as-extruded Mg-6Al-4Zn alloy. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2020, 49(0): 117-125.

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Notation Nominal composition Measured composition (wt.%)
Al Zn Sn Mg
AZ64 Mg-6Al-4Zn 5.80 4.13 - Bal.
AZT641 Mg-6Al-4Zn-1Sn 5.98 4.27 0.99 Bal.
AZT642 Mg-6Al-4Zn-2Sn 6.11 4.63 1.89 Bal.
AZT643 Mg-6Al-4Zn-3Sn 6.18 4.52 2.95 Bal.
Table 1  Nominal and measured compositions of the studied alloys.
Fig. 1.  Engineering stress-strain curves of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys under tension along extrusion direction at RT.
Nominal composition Yield strength σ0.2 (MPa) Ultimate tensile strength σb (MPa) Elongation ε (%) Fracture strain εb (%)
AZ64 $163_{-1}^{+2}$ $283_{-2}^{+3}$ $11.9_{-0.2}^{+0.8}$ $12.1_{-0.2}^{+0.8}$
AZT641 $171_{-6}^{+5}$ $328_{-7}^{+6}$ $14.8_{-1.7}^{+1.4}$ $16.3_{-1.7}^{+1.4}$
AZT642 $197_{-1}^{+2}$ $349_{-2}^{+3}$ $17.8_{-0.4}^{+0.9}$ $17.9_{-1.2}^{+1.9}$
AZT643 $207_{-3}^{+3}$ $366_{-1}^{+2}$ $19.1_{-0.6}^{+0.9}$ $20.3_{-0.6}^{+0.9}$
Table 2  Tensile properties of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys with different Sn contents tested along extrusion direction at RT.
Fig. 2.  Elongation and ultimate tensile strength of various Mg based as-extruded alloys with extrusion ratio varied from 25:1 to 40:1 reported in literatures [12,14,[20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28]].
Fig. 3.  Optical micrographs (inset: corresponding grain size distribution, dave represents the average grain size) of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys: (a) AZ64; (b) AZT641; (c) AZT642; (d) AZT643. (ED and TD stand for extrusion direction and transverse direction, respectively).
Fig. 4.  X-ray diffraction patterns of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys: (a) AZ64; (b) AZT641; (c) AZT642; (d) AZT643.
Fig. 5.  BSE-SEM and corresponding SE-SEM micrographs of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys: (a, e and i) AZ64; (b, f and j) AZT641; (c, g and k) AZT642; (d, h and l) AZT643. Af Mg2Sn and Af represent the area fraction of Mg2Sn and total precipitates, respectively.
Fig. 6.  (a) BSE-SEM micrograph of as-extruded AZT643 sample; (b) EDS line scan for Mg, Al, Zn and Sn of the particle in (a).
Fig. 7.  EBSD inverse pole figure (IPF) maps of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys and the different types of grains: (a,e) AZ64; (b,f) AZT641; (c,g) AZT642; (d,h) AZT643: blue-recrystallized, yellow-substructured, red-deformed.
Nominal composition Recrystallized (%) Substructured (%) Deformed (%)
AZ64 98.20 1.51 0.28
AZT641 95.08 3.57 1.35
AZT642 94.20 2.32 3.47
AZT643 89.99 3.85 6.15
Table 3  Corresponding area fraction of different types of grains in as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys.
Fig. 8.  Pole figures of as-extruded AZ64-xSn alloys sheets: (a) AZ64; (b) AZT641; (c) AZT642; (d) AZT643.
Fig. 9.  Hardening curves for AZ64 and AZT643 alloys under tension at RT.
AZ64 AZT643
Non-deformed 8% deformed Variation (%) Non-deformed 8% deformed Variation (%)
Basal <a> 0.3 0.312 4 0.339 0.236 -30.4
Prismatic <a> 0.138 0.146 5.8 0.161 0.082 -49
Pyramidal <a> 0.276 0.274 -0.7 0.301 0.203 -32.6
Pyramidal <c+a> 0.396 0.386 -2.5 0.369 0.442 19.8
Table 4  Average Schmid factors calculated from the inverse pole figures of AZ64 and AZT643 samples at different tensile stages along ED.
Fig. 10.  EBSD band contrast maps of (a-c) AZ64 and (d-f) AZT643 samples superimposed by specific twin boundaries at different stages of tensile strain: 10$\bar{1}$2 extension twins identified by red lines reorient the basal planes by 86°, 10$\bar{1}$1 contraction twins marked by blue lines reorient the basal planes by 56° and 10$\bar{1}$1-10$\bar{1}$2 double twins in green lines reorient the basal planes by 38°.
Fig. 11.  Kernel average misorientation map and misorientation histograms of (a-f) AZ64 and (g-l) AZT643 samples at different stages of tensile strain.
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