Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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Chemical Compositions, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Roll Core used Ductile Iron in Centrifugal Casting Composite Rolls
Yunlong Bai,Yikun Luan, Nannan Song, Xiuhong Kang, Dianzhong Li, Yiyi Li
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2012, 28 (9): 853-858.  
Abstract948)   HTML6)         

The industrial manufacture processes of three kinds of roll core used ductile irons have been investigated via systematical experiments. Effects of the ratio of C/Si, pig iron, nodularizer and alloying method on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the heavy section ductile iron have been analyzed. It has been found that when treated with RE-Mg plus Sb, high quality nodular castings can be produced even if much anti spheroidizing alloy elements are included in the pig iron. The alloy element Sb played an important role in the control of graphite morphology.

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Antibacterial Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles against E. Coli ATCC-15224
M.Raffi, F.Hussain, T.M.Bhatti, J.I.Akhter, A.Hameed, M.M.Hasan
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (02): 192-196.  
Abstract3703)   HTML3)    PDF (533KB)(8273)      
Silver nanoparticles of mean size 16 nm were synthesized by inert gas condensation (IGC) method. Crystalline structure, morphology and nanoparticles size estimation were conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antibacterial activity of these silver nanoparticles as a function of particles concentration against gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E.coli) was carried out in liquid as well as solid growth media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TEM studies showed that silver nanoparticles after interaction with E.coli have adhered to and penetrated into the bacterial cells. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles are attributed to their total surface area, as a larger surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles provides more efficient means for enhanced antibacterial activity.
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Review on Sol-Gel Derived Coatings: Process, Techniques and Optical Applications
S.M.Attia, Jue WANG, Guangming WU, Jun SHEN, Jianhua MA
J Mater Sci Technol    2002, 18 (03): 211-217.  
Abstract2565)   HTML1)    PDF (1658KB)(7583)      
Sol-gel process is one of the simplest techniques to manufacture thin films. The quality of the prepared films depends on the parameters of the sol-gel process and the used technique for deposition. A great variety of the sol-gel derived films have been prepared for different applications. We present a review on the sol-gel derived coatings. The description of the process is introduced in details. Different sol-gel deposition techniques are mentioned. The optical applications of the sol-gel derived coatings are reviewed.
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Effects of Alloying Elements on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Heavy Section Ductile Cast Iron
G.S.Cho, K.H.Choe, K.W.Lee, A.Ikenaga
J Mater Sci Technol    2007, 23 (01): 97-101.  
Abstract2349)   HTML6)    PDF (1032KB)(7546)      
The effects of alloying elements on the as-cast microstructures and mechanical properties of heavy section ductile cast iron were investigated to develop press die material having high strength and high ductility. Measurements of ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% proof strength, elongation and unnotched Charpy impact energy are presented as a function of alloy amounts within 0.25 to 0.75 wt pct range. Hardness is measured on the broken tensile specimens. The small additions of Mo, Cu, Ni and Cr changed the as-cast mechanical properties owing to the different as-cast matrix microstructures. The ferrite matrix of Mo and Ni alloyed cast iron exhibits low strength and hardness as well as high elongation and impact energy. The increase in Mo and Ni contents developed some fractions of pearlite structures near the austenite eutectic cell boundaries, which caused the elongation and impact energy to drop in a small range. Adding Cu and Cr elements rapidly changed the ferrite matrix into pearlite matrix, so strength and hardness were significantly increased. As more Mo and Cr were added, the size and fraction of primary carbides in the eutectic cell boundaries increased through the segregation of these elements into the intercellular boundaries.
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Effect of Electroplating Parameters on Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Nickel Coatings
A.M. Rashidi A. Amadeh
J Mater Sci Technol    2010, 26 (1): 82-86.  
Abstract1513)   HTML1)    PDF (647KB)(6792)      

In order to achieve the optimum conditions for electroplating nanocrystalline nickel coating from Watts-type bath, the effect of some process parameters namely, bath temperature, current density, and saccharin addition on grain size and texture coefficient (TC= I(200) /I(111) ) of the deposits were investigated by X-ray diffraction
(XRD). The results showed that in a bath containing 5 g/L saccharin, by increasing the bath temperature from 45°C to 55°C, the grain size decreased, whereas further increase of bath temperature resulted in a contrary effect. By increasing the current density from 10 to 75 mA/cm2, both the grain size and TC decreased, while further increase in current density had no significant effect on the grain size. At a given current density, the grain size and TC decreased rapidly by increasing the saccharin content before leveling off at 3 g/L of saccharin. Finally, based on the grain refining the optimum conditions for producing nanocrystalline nickel coating from Watts-type bath have been proposed.

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Controlled Growth of One-Dimensional Oxide Nanomaterials
Xiaosheng FANG, Lide ZHANG
J Mater Sci Technol    2006, 22 (01): 1-18.  
Abstract5858)   HTML1)    PDF (10236KB)(6487)      
This article reviews the recent developments in the controlled growth of one-dimensional (1D) oxide nanomaterials, including ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, SiOx, MgO, and Al2O3. The growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials was carried out in a simple chemical vapor transport and condensation system. This article will begin with a survey of nanotechnology and 1D nanomaterials achieved by many researchers, and then mainly discuss on the controlled growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials with their morphologies, sizes, compositions, and microstructures controlled by altering experimental parameters, such as the temperature at the source material and the substrate, temperature gradient in the tube furnace, the total reaction time, the heating rate of the furnace, the gas flow rate, and the starting material. Their roles in the formation of various morphologies are analyzed and discussed. Finally, this review will be concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.
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Comparison of Impact Properties for Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
O.H. Ibrahim
J Mater Sci Technol    2011, 27 (10): 931-936.  
Abstract1064)   HTML0)         
The impact properties of hot rolled carbon steel (used for the manufacture of reinforcement steel bars) and the quenched & tempered (Q&T) low alloy steel (used in the pressure vessel industry) were determined. The microstructure of the hot rolled carbon steel contained ferrite/pearlite phases, while that of the quenched and tempered low alloy steel contained bainite structure. Impact properties were determined for both steels by instrumented impact testing at temperatures between -150 and 200°C. The impact properties comprised total impact energy, ductile to brittle transition temperature, crack initiation and propagation energy, brittleness transition temperature and cleavage fracture stress. The Q&T low alloy steel displayed much higher resistance to ductile fracture at high test temperatures, while its resistance to brittle fracture at low test temperatures was a little higher than that of the hot rolled carbon steel. The results were discussed in relation to the di®erence in the chemical composition and microstructure for the two steels.
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Die Casting Mold Design of the Thin-walled Aluminum Case by Computational Solidification Simulation
Young-Chan Kim, Chang-Seog Kang, Jae-Ik Cho, Chang-Yeol Jeong, Se-Weon Choi, Sung-Kil Hong
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (03): 383-388.  
Abstract2453)   HTML0)    PDF (3805KB)(5918)      
Recently, demand for the lightweight alloy in electric/electronic housings has been greatly increased. However, among the lightweight alloys, aluminum alloy thin-walled die casting is problematic because it is quite difficult to achieve sufficient fluidity and feedability to fill the thin cavity as the wall thickness becomes less than 1 mm. Therefore, in this study, thin-walled die casting of aluminum (Al-Si-Cu alloy: ALDC 12) in size of notebook computer housing and thickness of 0.8 mm was investigated by solidification simulation (MAGMA soft) and actual casting experiment (Buhler Evolution B 53D). Three different types of gating design, finger, tangential and split type with 6 vertical runners, were simulated and the results showed that sound thin-walled die casting was possible with tangential and split type gating design because those gates allowed aluminum melt to flow into the thin cavity uniformly and split type gating system was preferable gating design comparing to tangential type gating system at the point of view of soundness of casting and distortion generated after solidification. Also, the solidification simulation agreed well with the actual die-casting and the casting showed no casting defects and distortion.
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Mathematical Model for the Rotary Kiln Process and Its Application
XIAO Xingguo LI Jiaxin CAO Tongyou XIAO Zeqiang Northeast University of Technology,Shenyang,110006,China.
J Mater Sci Technol    1991, 7 (1): 55-64.  
Abstract1649)   HTML1)    PDF (688KB)(5543)      
A mathematical model to predict the operation behaviours of the rotary kiln process and to describe the axial distribution of process variables along the length of the reactor has been developed in present work.The model is established based on the principle of mass and heat balance in the system under a steady state with the consideration of kinetic characteristics of the processes.Four examples of the simulation processes in a pi- lot kiln and 3 commercial kilns by using the present mathematical model are given in this paper.The good agreement between the predicted results and the measured data has been obtained.
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Investigation on Structure and Properties of Brass Casting
M.M.Haque, A.A.Khan
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (03): 299-301.  
Abstract2256)   HTML0)    PDF (5589KB)(5511)      
In this work, alpha (α) brass was poured in green sand mould and metallic chill mould at about 1050℃. Sand casting method and metallic chill casting method are representing the slow and fast cooling rates of the castings, respectively. The slow cooling rate in the sand mould produces larger grains, while the metallic chill mould produces smaller grains in the castings. As the grain size decreases, the strength of the cast brass increases; micro-porosity in the casting decreases and the tendency for the casting to fracture during solidification decreases. Thus, the faster cooling rate casting offers higher strength, density and hardness compared to the slow cooling rate casting.
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Mathematical Model for Tempering Time Effect on Quenched Steel Based on Hollomon Parameter
Nong WAN, Weihao XIONG, Jinping SUO
J Mater Sci Technol    2005, 21 (06): 803-806.  
Abstract1682)   HTML0)    PDF (861KB)(5358)      
Through the differentiating and integrating process, a mathematical model for tempering time effect on quenched steel was derived based on the attribute of state function and the general equation of Hollomon parameter, which correlates the tempering hardness with the tempering time at different tempering temperature. Using the established model, the linear relationship between the tempering hardness and the tempering time in logarithm was proved theoretically, and the tempering hardness for various tempering time was reduced to the measurement and calculation of a hardness experiment tempered for 1~h at different tempering temperatures. Moreover, the hardness of steel 42CrMo and T8Mn tempered for various times at 200~600℃ was calculated using this method. The predicted results are in good agreement with those of the available experiments.
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Thin-Wall Aluminum Die-Casting Technology for Development of Notebook Computer Housing
Chang-Seog Kang, Jae-Ik Cho, Chang-Yeol Jeong, Se-Weon Choi, Young-Chan Kim
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (01): 65-69.  
Abstract1502)   HTML1)    PDF (2311KB)(5039)      
Silicon-based aluminum casting alloys are known to be one of the most widely used alloy systems mainly due to their superior casting characteristics and unique combination of mechanical and physical properties. However, manufacturing of thin-walled aluminum die-casting components, less than 1.0 mm in thickness, is generally known to be very difficult task to achieve aluminum casting alloys with high fluidity. Therefore, in this study, the optimal die-casting conditions for producing 297 mm×210 mm×0.7 mm thin-walled aluminum component was examined experimentally by using 2 different gating systems, tangential and split type, and vent design. Furthermore, computational solidification simulation was also conducted. The results showed that split type gating system was preferable gating design than tangential type gating system at the point of view of soundness of casting and distortion generated after solidification. It was also found that proper vent design was one of the most important factors for producing thin-wall casting components because it was important for the fulfillment of the thin-wall cavity and the minimization of the casting distortion.
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Effect of Reactivity of Quick Lime on the Properties of Hydrated Lime Sorbent for SO2 Removal
H.G. Shin,H. Kim,Y.N. Kim,H.S. Lee
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (03): 329-332.  
Abstract1280)   HTML2)    PDF (407KB)(4906)      

The hydration of quick lime and the sulfation of hydrated lime were carried out for verification of relationship between the reactivity of quick lime and the properties of hydrated lime as a sorbent. The effect of reactivity of quick lime was investigated with the change of calcination temperature and time. Results obtained showed that the temperature rise during the hydration of quick limes varied from 31 to 69°C with the variation of calcination temperature and time. The specific surface area and the sulfation ability of hydrated lime prepared by hydration of quick lime showed a proportional relationship with the reactivity of quick lime. The hydrated lime which was prepared by hydration of quick lime calcined at 1100°C had the highest reactivity and showed 41.53 m2/g of the speci¯c surface area, 0.16 cm3/g of the pore volume and 87% of the removal effciency for SO2 removal.

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Toughening of Epoxy Resin with Microspheres
Shijiu JIN; Xiaobing FENG; Jianquan PANG; Xiaoling HUA; Yiming LI and Yunzhao YU(Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China)
J Mater Sci Technol    1996, 12 (1): 46-50.  
Abstract1044)   HTML0)    PDF (2108KB)(4821)      
Special microspheres dispersed in epoxy resin prior to curing can toughen brittle resin by formationof a second phase. In this work, rigid particles (HP), hollow particles (PO) and rubber powders(PR) are used to modify epoxy resins for the study on the toughening mechanism. The single-edge notched three-point bending test and T peel test have been used to measure the toughnessof epoxy resin. The morphology (particle/matrix interfacial shape) of epoxy resin modified withthese three kinds of microspheres has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The results show that these three kinds of modifiers are all effective, and the core-shellrubber particle (PR) is the best toughening modifier among them. It is also found that thetoughening effect is dependent on the morphology of the interface between the particles andmatrix and the different curing conditions really result in obviously different interface states.The excellent interfacial interaction plays a significant role in toughening epoxy resin.
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High-cycle Fatigue Fracture Behavior of Ultrahigh Strength Steels
Weijun HUI, Yihong NIE, Han DONG, Yuqing WENG, Chunxu WANG
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (05): 787-792.  
Abstract2116)   HTML0)    PDF (2832KB)(4659)      
The fatigue fracture behavior of four ultrahigh strength steels with different melting processes and therefore different inclusion sizes were studied by using a rotating bar two-point bending fatigue machine in the high-cycle regime up to 107 cycles of loading. The fracture surfaces were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that the size of inclusion has significant effect on the fatigue behavior. For AISI 4340 steel in which the inclusion size is smaller than 5.5 μm, all the fatigue cracks except one didnot initiated from inclusion but from specimen surface and conventional S-N curve exists. For 65Si2MnWE and Aermet 100 steels in which the average inclusion sizes are 12.2 and 14.9 μm, respectively, fatigue cracks initiated from inclusions at lower stress amplitudes and stepwise S-N curves were observed. The S-N curve displays a continuous decline and fatigue failures originated from large oxide inclusion for 60Si2CrVA steel in which the average inclusion size is 44.4 μm. In the case of internal inclusion-induced fractures at cycles beyond about 1×106 for 65Si2MnWE and 60Si2CrVA steels, inclusion was always found inside the fish-eye and a granular bright facet (GBF) was observed in the vicinity around the inclusion. The GBF sizes increase with increasing the number of cycles to failure Nf in the long-life regime. The values of stress intensity factor range at crack initiation site for the GBF are almost constant with Nf , and are almost equal to that for the surface inclusion and the internal inclusion at cycles lower than about 1×106. Neither fish-eye nor GBF was observed for Aermet 100 steel in the present study.
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A New Curve Fitting Method for Forming Limit Experimental Data
Jieshi CHEN, Xianbin ZHOU
J Mater Sci Technol    2005, 21 (04): 521-525.  
Abstract1718)   HTML0)    PDF (741KB)(4630)      
The forming limit curve (FLC) can be obtained by means of curve fitting the limit strain points of different strain paths. The theory of percent regression analysis is applied to the curve fitting of forming limit experimental data. Forecast intervals of FLC percentiles can be calculated. Thus reliability and confidence level can be considered. The theoretical method to get the limits of limit strain points distributing region is presented, and the FLC position can be adjusted according to practical requirement. Method for establishing FLC with high reliability using small samples is presented at the same time. This method can make full use of the current experimental data and the previous data. Compared with the traditional method that can only use current experimental data, fewer specimens are required in the present method to obtain the same precision and the result is more accurate with the same number of specimens.
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Low-temperature Preparation of Photocatalytic TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Substrates by Direct Deposition from Anatase Sol
Yan HU, Chunwei YUAN
J Mater Sci Technol    2006, 22 (02): 239-244.  
Abstract2040)   HTML1)    PDF (4287KB)(4590)      
Anatase TiO2 sol was synthesized under mild conditions (75℃ and ambient pressure) by hydrolysis of titanium-n-butoxide in abundant acidic aqueous solution and subsequent reflux to enhance crystallization. At room temperature and in ambient atmosphere, crystalline TiO2 thin films were deposited on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), SiO2-coated PMMA and SiO2-coated silicone rubber substrates from the as-prepared TiO2 sol by a dip-coating process. SiO2 layers prior to TiO2 thin films on polymer substrates could not only protect the substrates from the photocatalytic decomposition of the TiO2 thin films but also enhance the adhesion of the TiO2 thin films to the substrates. Field-emission type scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) investigations revealed that the average particle sizes of the nanoparticles composing the TiO2 thin films were about 35~47 nm. The TiO2 thin films exhibited high photocatalytic activities in the degradation of reactive brilliant red dye X-3B in aqueous solution under aerated conditions. The preparation process of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on the polymer substrates was quite simple and a low temperature route.
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Tensile and Impact Properties of Shielded Metal Arc Welded AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints
K. Shanmugam,A.K. Lakshminarayanan,V. Balasubramanian
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (02): 181-186.  
Abstract1700)   HTML1)    PDF (2820KB)(4483)      

The present study is concerned with the effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel on tensile and impact properties of the ferritic stainless steel conforming to AISI 409M grade. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt
welded joints. Tensile and impact properties, microhardness, microstructure and fracture surface morphology of the joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals were evaluated and the results were reported. From this investigation, it is found that the joints fabricated by
duplex stainless steel filler metal showed higher tensile strength and hardness compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Joints fabricated by austenitic stainless steel filler metal exhibited higher ductility and impact toughness compared with the joints fabricated by ferritic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel filler metals.

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One-dimensional (1D) ZnS Nanomaterials and Nanostructures
Xiaosheng FANG, Lide ZHANG
J. Mater. Sci. Technol.    2006, 22 (06): 721-736.  
Abstract4389)   HTML0)    PDF (3313KB)(4455)      

One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and nanostructures have received much attention due to their potential interest for understanding fundamental physical concepts and for applications in constructing nanoscale electric and optoelectronic devices. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is an important semiconductor compound of II-VI group, and the synthesis of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures has been of growing interest owing to their promising application in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. This paper reviews the recent progress on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures, including nanowires, nanowire arrays, nanorods, nanobelts or nanoribbons, nanocables, and hierarchical nanostructures etc. This article begins with a survey of various methods that have been developed for generating 1D nanomaterials and nanostructures, and then mainly focuses on structures, synthesis, characterization, formation mechanisms and optical property tuning, and luminescence mechanisms of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards future research on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures.

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Study of Debond Fracture Toughness of Sandwich Composites with Metal Foam Core
Xinzhu Wang,Linzhi Wu,Shixun Wang
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (05): 713-716.  
Abstract1770)   HTML1)    PDF (441KB)(4310)      

Two types of experiments were designed and performed to evaluate the adhesive bond in metal foam composite sandwich structures. The tensile bond strength of face/core was determined through the flatwise tensile test (FWT). The test results show that the interfacial peel strength is lower than the interlaminar peel strength in FWT test. The mode I interfacial fracture toughness (GIC) of sandwich structures containing a pre-crack on the upper face/core interface is determined by modified cracked sandwich beam (MCSB) experiment. It is found that the crack propagates unsynchronously on the two side of the specimen and the propagation of interfacial debonding always stays on the face/core interface during the MCSB tests. In order to simulate the failure of metal foam composite sandwich structures, a computational model based on the Tsai-Hill failure
criterion and cohesive zone model is used. By comparing with experiment results, it can be concluded that the computational model can validly simulate the interfacial failure of metal foam composite sandwich structures with reasonable accuracy

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Preparation of AgCl Nano-Crystal Embedded Tellurite Nonlinear Optical Glasses under Electric Field Accompanied Heat Treatment
Jian LIN, Wenhai HUANG, Bofang LI, Chong JIN, Changcheng LIU, Shuhua LEI
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (06): 863-866.  
Abstract1851)   HTML0)    PDF (1557KB)(4296)      
The quantum effect of nano-crystals is an important factor to improve nonlinear optical performance of nano-crystal embedded glasses, while controlling the size distribution and content of nano-crystals in the glass accurately is a key to obtain good quality. The auxiliary direct current electric field, accompanied with heat treatment, was applied on AgCl containing niobic tellurite glass sheet. The nucleation and crystallization of the glass were well controlled under auxiliary electric field. It was found that the average size of AgCl nano-crystal particles in the glass is smaller than that under single heat treatment, and the content of nano-crystals is higher. Therefore the third-order nonlinear optical performance of the glass was increased a lot. The local-area distributed AgCl nano-crystal particles can also be embedded into a glass sheet by using locally applied electric field.
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Microstructures of an Ultrafine Grained SS400 Steel in an Industrial Scale
Hua DING, Long LI, Chunzheng YANG, Dan SONG, Linxiu DU
J Mater Sci Technol    2006, 22 (02): 145-148.  
Abstract1962)   HTML0)    PDF (1030KB)(4294)      
The microstructures of a SS400 steel after thermomechanical control process (TMCP) in an industrial production were observed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that the size of ferrite grains was 4 ~μm, and the volume fraction of ferrite was around 70%. The types of the ultrafine ferrite grains were analyzed and the strengthening mechanisms were discussed. The results show that the ultrafine ferrite grains came from three processes, i.e. deformation induced ferrite transformation (DIFT), dynamic recrystallization of ferrite and accelerated cooling process. The increase in the strength of the material was mainly due to the grain refining.
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Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded Cast LM6 Aluminium Alloy Joints
M. Jayaraman,R. Sivasubramanian,V. Balasubramanian
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (05): 655-664.  
Abstract1201)   HTML0)    PDF (2327KB)(4257)      

This paper reports the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters on tensile strength of cast LM6 aluminium alloy. Joints were made by using different combinations of tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force each at four levels. The quality of weld zone was investigated using macrostructure and microstructure analysis. Tensile strength of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the weld zone hardness and microstructure. The joint fabricated using a rotational speed of 900 r/min, a welding speed of 75 mm/min and an axial force of 3 kN showed superior tensile strength compared with other joints. The tensile strength and microhardness of the welded joints for the optimum conditions were 166 MPa and 64.8 Hv respectively.

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Gating System Design for a Magnesium Alloy Casting
Zhizhong SUN, Henry HU, Xiang CHEN, Qigui WANG, Wenying YANG
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (01): 93-95.  
Abstract1516)   HTML3)    PDF (1558KB)(4252)      
The gating system of a cylindrical magnesium casting has been designed by using multiple objective optimization and Taguchi method. Mold filling and solidification processes were simulated by using MAGMASOFT®. The simulation results indicate that the gating system design has a significant effect on the quality of magnesium castings. In an effort to obtain the optimal design of gating system, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was used to analyze the effect of various gating designs on cavity filling and casting quality by using a weighting method based on the design of an orthogonal array. Four gating system parameters, namely, ingate height, ingate width, runner height, runner width, were optimized with a consideration of multiple objective criteria including filling velocity, shrinkage porosity and product yield.
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Formation Mechanism of Chunky Graphite and Its Preventive Measures
Hideo Nakae, Sanghoon Jung, Ho-Chul Shin
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (03): 289-295.  
Abstract1516)   HTML1)    PDF (9278KB)(4186)      
The formation mechanism of chunky graphite has been reviewed and studied. The study consisted of a unidirectional solidification method, a small droplet method and a furnace cooling method. Four kinds of iron samples were prepared, namely, the pure Fe-C, Fe-C-S, Fe-C-Ce and Fe-C-Si-Ce alloys, and three kinds of nickel samples, namely the Ni-C, Ni-C-S and Ni-C-Mg alloys. The results of the unidirectional solidification of the Ni-C alloys showed that spheroidal graphite is not observed in the continuous solidified region, in which only flake-like graphite is observed, while spheroidal graphite is usually observed in the quenched liquid region.The existence of spheroidal graphite in the solidified phase is recognized only in the discontinuous growth mode of the Ni-C-Mg alloy solidified at 150 mm/h. This means that the spheroidal graphite is directly crystallized from the melt and entrapped by the flake-like chunky graphite that is formed by the continuous growth mode. In the small droplet method, a small piece of the Fe-C or Fe-C-Ce sample was melted on a pure graphite plate then cooled at a different cooling rate in a He-3%H2 atmosphere. The graphite in the Fe-C-Ce alloy is usually spherical. Nevertheless, the graphite morphology of the final solidified area changed from spherical to chunky and chunky to ledeburite with an increase in the cooling rate. This means that the chunky graphite is formed in the residual liquid region by the solidification into Fe-graphite system. The sample was cooled in a furnace, and the graphite morphology changes from spherical to chunky and chunky to ledeburite with the decrease in the Si content. These phenomena can be confirmed by the cooling curves of these samples.
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Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Nitric Acid from Ag-Au0:04-Cu0:10 and Ag-Cu0:23 Scraps
S.K.Sadrnezhaad, E.Ahmadi, M.Mozammel
J Mater Sci Technol    2006, 22 (05): 696-700.  
Abstract2055)   HTML0)    PDF (3608KB)(4166)      
Kinetics of dissolution of silver present in precious metal scraps in HNO3 was studied in temperature range of 26~85℃. Dissolution rate of silver was much faster than that of copper at all temperatures. Effects of particle size, stirring speed, acid concentration and temperature on the rate of dissolving of silver were evaluated. Dissolution rate decreases with particle size and increases with temperature. Dissolving was accelerated with acid concentrations less than 10 mol/L. Concentrations greater than 10 mol/L resulted in slowing down of the dissolution rate. Shrinking core model with internal diffusion equation t/τ=1-3(1-x)2/3+2(1-x) could be used to explain the mechanism of the reaction. Silver extraction resulted in activation energies of 33.95 kJ/mol for Ag-Au0:04-Cu0:10 and 68.87 kJ/mol for Ag-Cu0:23 particles. Inter-diffusion of silver and nitrate ions through the porous region of the insoluble alloying layer was the main resistance to the dissolving process. Results were tangible for applications in recycling of the material from electronic silver-bearing scraps, dental alloys, jewelry, silverware and anodic slime precious metal recovery.
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Low Temperature DC Sputtering Deposition on Indium-Tin Oxide Film and Its Application to Inverted Top-emitting Organic Light-emitting Diodes
Hui LIN, Junsheng YU, Shuangling LOU, Jun WANG, Yadong JIANG
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (02): 179-182.  
Abstract1762)   HTML0)    PDF (615KB)(4147)      
Indium tin oxide (ITO) ultrathin films were prepared on glass substrate by DC (direct current) magnetron sputtering technique with the assistance of H2O vapor to avoid potential surface damage. The film properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, four-point probe method and spectrophotometer. The results show that the deposited ITO film with introduced H2O during sputtering process was almost amorphous. The average visible light transmission of 100 nm ITO film was around 85% and square resistivity was below 80 Ω/square. The film was used as the transparent anode to fabricate an inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (IT-OLEDs) with the structure of glass substrate/Alq3 (40 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/CuPc (x nm)/ITO anode (100 nm), where the film thickness of CuPc was optimized. It was found that the luminance of this IT-OLEDs was improved from 25 cd/m2 to more than 527 cd/m2 by increasing the thickness of CuPc, and luminance efficiency of 0.24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2 was obtained, which indicated that the optimized thickness of CuPc layer was around 15 nm.
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Stress Concentration in Offshore Welded Tubular Joints Subjected to Combined Loading
M.F.Ghanameh, D.Thevenet, A.Zeghloul
J Mater Sci Technol    2004, 20 (Supl.): 35-37.  
Abstract1430)   HTML0)    PDF (465KB)(3962)      
The stress concentrations in offshore structures usually occur at the intersections of tubular members. For some joints, the stress concentration can produce a maximum stress at the intersection as high as thirty times the nominal stress acting in the members. Stress concentrations aggravate the fatigue of tubular joints in many existing offshore structures. For this reason, accurate computation of stress concentration is very important in tubular joints design. A new study of tubular joints was presented. They were subjected to Combined loading (Com): Axial (Ax) and rotational bending “combined bending (CB)” loading since a lot of studies already done for the joints subjected to one or two of the three types of loading applied to the tubular joints: “in-plane bending (IPB), out-of-plane bending (OPB) and Ax loading”.
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Behavior of AISI 316L Steel Subjected to Uniaxial State of Stress at Elevated Temperatures
Josip Brnic,Jitai Niu,Marko Canadija,Goran Turkalj,Domagoj Lanc
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (02): 175-180.  
Abstract1962)   HTML0)    PDF (2386KB)(3884)      

This paper presents an experimental investigation on an AISI 316L stainless steel regarding mechanical properties and short uniaxial creep tests at elevated temperatures. The short time creep tests were carried out under different but constant stresses. The obtained data of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, creep curves and effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical properties were presented. For a selected rheological model, material parameters were obtained. As a justification, such rheological model is implemented in the finite element procedure for an uniaxially stressed specimen in selected environmental conditions.

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Synthesis of High Purity SiC Powder for High-resistivity SiC Single Crystals Growth
Li WANG, Xiaobu HU, Xiangang XU, Shouzheng JIANG, Lina NING, Minhua JIANG
J Mater Sci Technol    2007, 23 (01): 118-122.  
Abstract1355)   HTML2)    PDF (588KB)(3826)      
High purity silicon carbide (SiC) powder was synthesized in-situ by chemical reaction between silicon and carbon powder. In order to ensure that the impurity concentration of the resulting SiC powder is suitable for high-resistivity SiC single crystal growth, the preparation technology of SiC powder is different from that of SiC ceramic. The influence of the shape and size of carbon particles on the morphology and phase composition of the obtained SiC powder were discussed. The phase composition and morphology of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the composition of resulting SiC by in-situ synthesis from Si/C mixture strongly depends on the nature of the carbon source, which corresponds to the particle size and shape, as well as the preparation temperature. In the experimental conditions, flake graphite is more suitable for the synthesis of SiC powder than activated carbon because of its relatively smaller particle size and flake shape, which make the conversion more complete. The major phase composition of the full conversion products is β-SiC, with traces of α-SiC. Glow discharge mass spectroscopy measurements indicated that SiC powder synthesized with this chemical reaction method can meet the purity demand for the growth of high-resistivity SiC single crystals.
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Effect of Aging Time and Temperature on Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of 2205 Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steel
H. Keshmiri,A. Momeni,K. Dehghani,G.R. Ebrahimi,G. Heidari
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (05): 597-602.  
Abstract1416)   HTML1)    PDF (1135KB)(3796)      

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with ferritic{austenitic microstructures offer good combination of resistance to pitting corrosion and high strength that are not concomitantly attainable using conventional single phase austenitic or ferritic stainless steels. The DSS used in this investigation was 2205 alloy having a stable microstructure consisting of about 45% ferrite and 55% austenite at ambient temperature. In order to investigate aging behavior of this steel and the influences on mechanical properties, different aging treatments were conducted at temperatures of 350−950°C for various aging time of 15, 30, 60 and 180 min. The aged specimens were subjected to impact testing and hardness measurements. Finally, the changes in microstructure due to aging were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that aging at temperatures lower than 550°C for different time had negligible effects on mechanical properties. Besides, no considerable changes in term of precipitation of harmful intermetallic particles were observed in microstructure below this temperature. However, a critical temperature range, 550−650 °C, was introduced here. Aging in this range led to a significant decrease in toughness and notable increase in hardness. The formation of intermetallic phases such as σ was recognized as the major reason for the observed changes.

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Doped-TiO2 Photocatalysts and Synthesis Methods to Prepare TiO2 Films
Ying CUI, Hao DU, Lishi WEN
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (05): 675-689.  
Abstract3989)   HTML0)    PDF (6912KB)(3710)      
TiO2 is a promising photocatalyst. However, the low photocatalytic efficiency calls for the modification of TiO2. Metal- and nonmetal-doping of TiO2 have been proved to be effective ways to enhance photocatalytic properties. This review provides a deep insight into the understanding of the metal- and nonmetal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts. This article begins with the introduction of the crystal structures of TiO2 and applications of TiO2 materials. We then reviewed the doped-TiO2 system in two categories: (1) metal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts system, and (2) nonmetal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts system. Both experimental results and theoretical analyses are elaborated in this section. In the following part, for the advantages of TiO2 thin films over particles, various preparation methods to obtain TiO2 thin films are briefly discussed. Finally, this review ends with a concise conclusion and outlook of new trends in the development of TiO2-based photocatalysts.
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Doping Effects on Electronic Conductivity and Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4
Jiezi Hu,Jian Xie,Xinbing Zhao,Hongming Yu,Xin Zhou,Gaoshao Cao,Jiangping Tu
J Mater Sci Technol    2009, 25 (03): 405-409.  
Abstract1606)   HTML0)    PDF (753KB)(3680)      

Olivine-structured pure LiFePO4 and doped Li(M, Fe)PO4 (M=La, Ce, Nd, Mn, Co, Ni) have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analyses indicate that the as-prepared LiFePO4 is well-crystallized nanopowders without any detectable impurity phases. The electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is enhanced by around 1-3 orders by doping. It was found that doping alone is not sufficient for the high-rate performance of LiFePO4 and surface coating with such as carbon should be needed. The best dopant for LiFePO4 is Nd among those studied in the present work. Accordingly, doping with 1 mol fraction Nd leads to an increase in 70 mAh/g at 0.1 C for the hydrothermally synthesized sample and 50 mAh/g at 1.0 C after carbon-coating in comparison with the undoped samples.

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Effect of Aging on the Toughness of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments
Omyma Hassan Ibrahim Ibrahim Soliman Ibrahim Tarek Ahmed Fouad Khalifa
J Mater Sci Technol    2010, 26 (9): 810-816.  
Abstract1288)   HTML3)    PDF (1996KB)(3666)      

In the present study, the effect of aging heat treatment at 650, 750, and 850°C on the impact toughness of 316L austenitic stainless steel, 2205 duplex stainless steel and their weldments has been investigated. Welding process was conducted using the TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding technique. Instrumented impact testing, at room temperature, was employed to determine the effect of aging treatment on the impact properties of investigated materials. Aging treatment resulted in degradation in the impact toughness as demonstrated by the reduction in the impact fracture energy and deformation parameters (strain hardening capacity, fracture deflection, and crack initiation and propagation energy). The degree of embrittlement was more noticeable in duplex stainless steel parent and weld-metal than in 316L stainless steel and became greater with the
increase of aging temperature. The degradation in impact toughness was discussed in relation to the observed precipitation of the intermetallic sigma phase in the microstructure of the stainless steel weldments and the corresponding fracture surface morphology.

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Surface Nanocrystallization (SNC) of Metallic Materials-Presentation of the Concept behind a New Approach
Ke LU, Jian LU
J Mater Sci Technol    1999, 15 (03): 193-197.  
Abstract1462)   HTML2)    PDF (1527KB)(3662)      
In this paper, a concept of surface nanocrystallization (SNC) of metallic materials is introduced. Three types of SNC processes are classified. Different SNC mechanisms and possible techniques for SNC are discussed with emphasis on mechanically induced surface self-nanocrystallization. Further development and prospects are addressed with respect to the properties and behaviors of the materials with a nanocrystalline surface. Enhancement of the behavior of the engineering materials by means of the SNC technology and its industrial application possibilities are analyzed.
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Powder Forging of a Motorcycle Connecting Rod
Guangchun WANG, Guoqun ZHAO
J Mater Sci Technol    2002, 18 (06): 544-548.  
Abstract1138)   HTML1)    PDF (455KB)(3639)      
A motorcycle connecting rod is one of the major moving parts affecting the engine performance. The traditional manufacturing process results in material waste and excessive machining. A new method of hot forging P/M has been proposed and studied experimentally. In order to achieve uniform density, the punch was divided into three parts to consolidate the loose powder. The multistage movement of the three parts of the punch, called synchronous compaction, results in the desired uniform density. Powder flow during consolidation was illustrated and the density distribution of the compacts was measured. A set of forging dies with flash was used to produce densification and deformation of the sintered compact. Then a set of flashless forging dies was designed to obtain the desired shape and dimensions of the connecting rod. The effects of forging temperature and initial compact density on densification were evaluated through hot forging experiments. Based on properties achieved, Fe-C-Cu-Mo was selected as the alloy powder. Through testing and metallographic observation the physical and mechanical properties of the connecting rod produced by the P/M hot forging were found to be superior to those manufactured by the traditional method.
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Preparation and Characterization of the Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Hollow Fibre Microfiltration Membrane
Laizhou SONG, Zunju ZHANG, Shizhe SONG, Zhiming GAO
J Mater Sci Technol    2007, 23 (01): 55-60.  
Abstract1542)   HTML1)    PDF (541KB)(3622)      
A novel thermally induced graft polymerization technique was used to modify a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fibre microfiltration membrane. An artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to optimize the prepared condition of the membrane. The optimized dosing of acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM), N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) and potassium persulphate (KSP) designed by ANN was that AA was 40.63 ml/L; AM acted as 6.25 g/L; NMBA was 1.72 g/L and KSP was 1.5 g/L, respectively. The thermal stability of the PVDF modified hollow fibre membrane (PVDF-PAA) was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The polycrystallinity of the PVDF-PAA membrane was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The complex formation of the modified membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of the PVDF-PAA membrane was studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The surface compositions of the membrane were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption capacity of Cu2+ ion on the PVDF-PAA hollow fibre membrane was also investigated.
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Structural and Optical Properties and Emerging Applications of Metal Nanomaterials
Tammy Y.Olson, Jin Z.Zhang
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (04): 433-446.  
Abstract2171)   HTML1)    PDF (3737KB)(3539)      
Nanomaterials possess intriguing optical properties that depend sensitively on size, shape, and material content of the structures. Controlling such structural characteristics of the nanostructures allows the tailoring of their physical and chemical properties, e.g. optical, electronic, and catalytic, to achieve what is desired for specific applications of interest. This review will cover the development of various shapes for silver and gold nanomaterials with emphasis on their relation to optical properties. Examples of various modern synthetic methods and characterization techniques are highlighted. The influence of the metal nanomaterial′s shape and optical absorption on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and a final note on new emerging applications of metal nanostructures are also discussed.
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Effect of Cristobalite and Quartz on the Properties of Gypsum Bonded Investment
Yun-Jong Kim, Sang-Bae Kim, Hyun-Hye Park, Myeong-Deok Seo, Byoung-Cheon Lee, Man-So Han, Taik-Nam Kim, Sung-Baek Cho
J Mater Sci Technol    2008, 24 (01): 143-144.  
Abstract1064)   HTML0)    PDF (706KB)(3507)      
Generally the gold investment material consists of cristobalite, quartz and plaster. The physical property of gold investment materials depends on its thermal expansion coefficients, compressive strength, and particles size distribution. Since the thermal expansion coefficient of cristobalite and quartz are 2.6×10-6/℃ and 2.32×10-6/℃ respectively, the composition ratio of each components influence the thermal and physical properties of gold investment materials. For the clinical applications, it is necessary to improve the properties of gold investment materials such as homogeneous size distribution and thermal expansion coefficients. In the present study, effect of inorganic fillers such as cristobalite and quartz on gold alloy investment was investigated to improve the properties of it. The compressive strength and thermal expansion coefficients of the specimens were evaluated. The results showed that cristobalite and quartz were homogeneously distributed by milling. The optimum compressive strength was obtained at the ratio of 42:22 cristobalite and quartz, respectively.
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Preparation, Properties and Application of C/C-SiC Composites Fabricated by Warm Compacted-in situ Reaction
Peng Xiao Zhuan Li Zibing Zhu Xiang Xiong
J Mater Sci Technol    2010, 26 (3): 283-288.  
Abstract1328)   HTML1)    PDF (909KB)(3473)      

Carbon fibre reinforced carbon and SiC dual matrices composites (C/C-SiC) show superior tribological properties, high thermal shock resistance and good abrasive resistance, and they are promising candidates for advanced brake and clutch systems. The microstructure, mechanical properties, friction and wear properties, and application of the C/C-SiC composites fabricated by warm compacted-in situ reaction were introduced. The results indicated that the composites were composed of 50-60 wt pct carbon, 2-10 wt pct residual silicon and 30-40 wt pct silicon carbide. The C/C-SiC brake composites exhibited good mechanical properties. The value of flexural strength and compressive strength could reach 160 and 112 MPa, respectively. The impact strength was about 2.5 kJ·m-2. The C/C-SiC brake composites showed excellent tribological performance,
including high coefficient of friction (0.38), good abrasive resistance (1.10 μm/cycle) and brake steadily on dry condition. The tribological properties on wet condition could be mostly maintained. The silicon carbide matrix in C/C-SiC brake composites improved the wear resistance, and the graphite played the lubrication function, and right volume content of graphite was helpful to forming friction film to reduce the wear rate. These results showed that C/C-SiC composites fabricated by warm compacted-in situ reaction had excellent properties for use as brake materials.

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