Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      10 October 2016, Volume 32 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Frontiers of 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing: from Human Organs to Aircraft Fabrication
    E. Murr Lawrence
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 987-995.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.011
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    It has been more than three decades since stereolithography began to emerge in various forms of additive manufacturing and 3D printing. Today these technologies are proliferating worldwide in various forms of advanced manufacturing. The largest segment of the 3D printing market today involves various polymer component fabrications, particularly complex structures not daihattainable by other manufacturing methods. Conventional printer head systems have also been adapted to selectively print various speciated human cells and special molecules in attempts to construct human organs, beginning with skin and various tissue patches. These efforts are discussed along with metal and alloy fabrication of a variety of implant and bone replacement components by creating powder layers, which are selectively melted into complex forms (such as foams and other open-cellular structures) using laser and electron beams directed by CAD software. Efforts to create a “living implant” by bone ingrowth and eventual vascularization within these implants will be discussed briefly. Novel printer heads for direct metal droplet deposition as in other 3D printing systems are briefly described since these concepts will allow for the eventual fabrication of very large and complex products, including automotive and aerospace structures and components.

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    Effect of Monolithic LaB6 on the Ablation Resistance of ZrC/SiC Coating Prepared by Supersonic Plasma Spraying for C/C Composites
    Jia Yujun,Li Hejun,Li Lu,Fu Qiangang,Li Kezhi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 996-1002.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.019
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    Ablation resistance of monolithic LaB6-doped ZrC coating for SiC-coated carbon/carbon composites by supersonic atmospheric plasma spray was investigated under an oxyacetylene torch with a heat flux of 4.18 MW/m2. Result shows that ZrC coating with 10 vol.% LaB6 has a good ablation resistance compared with pure ZrC, ZrC with 20 vol.% LaB6 and SiC-doped ZrC coating. After ablation for 15 s, the weight is increased by 1.12 mg/s. The good ablation resistance is ascribed to the formation of a stabilized scale which consists of protective La2Zr2O7-containing molten phase and ZrO2 particles keeping the integrity of the coating.

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    High Temperature Stress Rupture Anisotropy of a Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy
    Wang Guanglei,Liu Jinlai,Liu Jide,Jin Tao,Sun Xiaofeng,Sun Xudong,Hu Zhuangqi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1003-1007.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.018
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    High temperature stress rupture anisotropies of a second generation Ni-base single crystal (SC) superalloy specimens with [001], [011] and [111] orientations under 900 °C/445 MPa and 1100 °C/100 MPa have been investigated in the present study, with attentions to the evolution of γ/γ′ microstructure observed by scanning electron microscopy and the dislocation configuration characterized by transmission electron microscopy in each oriented specimen. At 1100 °C/100 MPa as well as 900 °C/445 MPa, the single crystal superalloy exhibits obvious stress rupture anisotropic behavior. The [001] oriented specimen has the longest rupture lifetime at 900 °C/445 MPa, and the [111] oriented sample shows the best rupture strength at 1100 °C/100 MPa. While the [011] oriented specimen presents the worst rupture lifetime at each testing condition, its stress rupture property at 1100 °C/100 MPa is clearly improved, compared with 900 °C/445 MPa. The evident stress rupture anisotropy at 900 °C/445 MPa is mainly attributed to the distinctive movement way of dislocations in each oriented sample. Whereas, at 1100 °C/100 MPa, together with the individual dislocation configuration, the evolution of γ/γ′ microstructure in each orientation also plays a key role in the apparent stress rupture anisotropy.

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    Aging Behavior of Nano-SiC/2014Al Composite Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy and Hot Extrusion Techniques
    Wang Zhiguo,Li Chuanpeng,Wang Huiyuan,Zhu Xian,Wu Min,Li Jiehua,Jiang Qichuan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1008-1012.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.011
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    The aging-hardening kinetics of powder metallurgy processed 2014Al alloy and its composite have been studied. The existence of n-SiC particulates leads to the increase of peak hardness. Interestingly, the aging-hardening peak of the composite takes place at earlier time than that of the unreinforced alloy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies indicated that the major precipitation phases are Al5Cu2Mn3 and θ′ (Al2Cu). Besides, Ω phase appeared in both specimens at peak hardening condition, which has been rarely observed previously in aluminum metal matrix composites without Ag. Accelerated aging kinetics and increased peak hardness may be attributed to the higher dislocation density resulted from the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion between n-SiC and 2014Al matrix. The results are beneficial to fabricating high performance composites for the application in automobile field such as pistons, driveshaft tubes, brake rotors, bicycle frames, railroad brakes.

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    Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate/Hydroxyapatite Nanohybrids: Microstructure and Bone Cell Response
    Sadat-Shojai Mehdi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1013-1020.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.007
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    A substantial amount of nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAp) was tried to incorporate into the electrospun polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and electrospinning parameters were optimized to fabricate defect-free PHB/HAp fibers with the smallest possible diameter. According to the results, while the needle inner diameter could not be an effective factor for controlling the fiber morphology, the fiber diameter was observed to increase with increasing the applied voltage and solution concentration. More importantly, it was found that nanoparticles could be successfully encapsulated and distributed inside the ultrafine fibers fabricated under relatively optimum conditions. In vitro cell assays demonstrated that while preosteoblasts had high cell viability and cell spreading on the fibrous nanohybrids, cell metabolic activity can also increase with increasing incubation time. Accordingly, encapsulation of HAp nanoparticles within the PHB in the fibrous form may be promising for bone regeneration applications.

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    Properties and Cytocompatibility of Anti-Washout Calcium Phosphate Cement by Introducing Locust Bean Gum
    Liu Jingqun,Li Jiyan,Ye Jiandong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1021-1026.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.011
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    The washout resistance of injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly requisite for more widely clinical applications. In this work, locust bean gum (LBG) was used as the anti-washout agent to improve the washout resistance of CPC. The results indicated that the washout resistance was greatly improved, and meanwhile the injectability, setting time and compressive strength slightly decreased when the content of LBG was no more than 1.0%. Additionally, the CPC with 1.0% LBG exhibited good cell compatibility of the mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Therefore, the 1.0% LBG content was proposed to serve as a useful additive in CPC as a result of its ability to promote washout resistance, which may play an important role in clinical applications.

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    Anode Plasma Electrolytic Saturation of Titanium Alloys with Nitrogen and Oxygen
    Belkin P.N.,Kusmanov S.A.,Zhirov A.V.,Belkin V.S.,Parfenyuk V.I.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1027-1032.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.005
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    In this work, we investigated the features of the anode plasma electrolytic saturation of titanium alloys with nitrogen and oxygen. In this case, the titanium samples may be heated to 1050 °C using aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride as working electrolyte. The weight of titanium samples is found to change due to their oxidation and anode dissolution. An X-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope, nuclear proton backscattering and an optical microscope were used to characterize the phase and elemental composition of the modified layer. The electrolyte composition (10 wt% ammonium chloride, 5 wt% ammonia) and processing mode (850 °C, 5 min) of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) allowing to obtain the hardened surface layer up to 0.1 mm with microhardness of 220 HV were proposed. Surface roughness Ra of samples after their nitriding for 5 min at 800 °C decreases from 1.67 to 0.082 μm. The anode plasma electrolytic nitriding could decrease friction coefficient and increase wear resistance of the CP-Ti. It is found that the anodic nitriding of low alloy titanium alloys reduces their corrosion rate in an aqueous solution of sulphuric (4.5%) and salt (0.2%) acids by 2 orders of magnitude. Results of cyclic testing show that anodic nitriding of commercial titanium leads to a decrease in corrosion rate by 8 times in solution of hydrochloric acid (6%) with addition of protein and vitamin.

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    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Tensile Deformation and Fracture of γ-TiAl with and without Surface Defects
    Wu H.N.,Xu D.S.,Wang H.,Yang R.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1033-1042.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.001
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    Molecular dynamics simulation of uniaxial tension along [001] has been performed to study the influence of various surface defects on the initiation of plastic deformation and fracture of γ-TiAl single crystals. The results indicate that brittle fracture occurs in perfect bulk; surfaces and edges will be detrimental to the strength of materials and provide dislocation nucleation site. The defects on surfaces and edges cause further weakening with various effects depending on defect type, size, position and orientation, while the edge dimples are the most influential. For γ-TiAl rods with surface dimples, dislocations nucleate from an edge of the rod when dimples are small, dimple dislocation nucleation occurs only when the dimples are larger than a strain rate dependent critical size. The dislocations nucleated upon [001] tension are super dislocations with Burger vectors <011] or 1/2 < 112] containing four 1/6 < 112 > partials. The effects of surface scratches are orientation and shape sensitive. Scratches parallel to the loading direction have little influence, while sharp ones perpendicular to the loading direction may cause crack and thus should be avoided. This simulation also shows that, any type of surface defect would lower strength, and cause crack in some cases. But some may facilitate dislocation nucleation and improve ductility of TiAl if well controlled.

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    Effects of Mg Enhancement and Heat Treatment on Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Al2Ca-Added ADC12 Die Casting Alloys
    Yeom ?Gil-Yong,Kyu Lim Hyun,K. Kim Shae,Hyun Soong-Keun,Yoon Young-Ok
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1043-1048.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.015
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The effects of Mg enhancement and heat treatment on the microstructures and tensile properties of Al2Ca-added ADC12 die casting alloys were investigated. 0.3% and 0.5% Mg in the form of a master alloy including a trace amount of Al2Ca were added to conventional ADC12 (383 and AlSi10Cu2Fe) alloy with an initial Mg-content of 0.3% to increase the Mg content to 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. To avoid heat treatment-induced surface blisters, shortened solution treatment for 15 min at 490 °C and artificial aging for 6 h at 150 °C was undertaken. The results show that a 10% improvement in the shape factor of eutectic Si particles was achieved for Al2Ca-added ADC12 with 0.8% Mg compared to the conventional ADC12 in the as-aged condition. Al2Ca-added ADC12 with 0.8% Mg exhibited a yield strength of 289 MPa, a tensile strength of 407 MPa, and an elongation of 4.22%.

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    Effect of Different Aging Processes on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Novel Al-Cu-Li Alloy
    Li Hongying,Huang Desheng,Kang Wei,Liu Jiaojiao,Ou Yangxun,Li Dewang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1049-1053.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.018
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    The effects of different aging processes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel Al-Cu-Li alloy have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the tensile properties of a novel Al-Cu-Li alloy are sensitive to aging processes, which correspond to different microstructures. σ (Al5Cu6Mg2) and T1 (Al2CuLi) phases are the major precipitates for the alloy in T6 aging condition (165 °C/60 h). After duplex aging condition (150 °C/24 h + 180 °C/12 h), σ, θ' (Al2Cu) and T1 phases are detected. Only the T1 phases can be found in the T8 state alloy (6% pre-strain+135 °C/60 h). The failure modes of alloy in T6 and duplex aging conditions are dimple-intergranular fracture, while typical quasi-cleavage fracture in T8 condition.

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    Comparative Study on the Corrosion Resistance of Al-Cr-Fe Alloy Containing Quasicrystals and Pure Al
    Li R.T.,K. Murugan Vinod,Dong Z.L.,Khor K.A.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1054-1058.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.005
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    Al-Cr-Fe alloy containing quasicrystals has been consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Its corrosion resistance properties were comparatively investigated with pure Al by electrochemical methods in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Their corrosion current density was also compared with that of three commercial steels—316 stainless steel, AISI 440C stainless steel and AISI H13 tool steel. Al-Cr-Fe alloy exhibits nobler corrosion potential and evident passivation with a potential range of around 150 mV while no passivation of pure Al sample is seen. The corrosion resistance of Al-Cr-Fe alloy is less than that of pure Al, but is close to that of 316 stainless steel and superior to that of AISI 440C stainless steel and AISI H13 tool steel.

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    Effect of ZnO Electrodeposited on Carbon Film and Decorated with Metal Nanoparticles for Solar Hydrogen Production
    Kwang Kim Young,Seo Hye-Jin,Kim Soonhyun,Hwang Sung-Ho,Park Hyunwoong,Kyoo Lim Sang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1058-1065.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.010
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    In this study, we prepared horn-like ZnO structures on carbon films (ZnO/CF) by electrodeposition and decorated the ZnO horns with different metals (Ag, Au, and Pt) via photodeposition (M-ZnO/CF). Using M-ZnO/CF as photocatalysts, we examined ways to enhance solar hydrogen production from various points of view, such as modifying the intrinsic physical properties and thermodynamics of the materials, and varying the chemical environment during M-ZnO/CF fabrication. In particular, we focused on the effects of the carbon film and metals in M-ZnO/CF hybrid photocatalysts on solar hydrogen production. The type of metal nanoparticles is an important factor in solar hydrogen production because the deposition rate and electrical conductivity of each metal affect the proton-water reduction ability.

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    Preparation and Characterisation of Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ Rare Earth Luminescent Material by High Temperature Mechano-Chemical Method
    Yang Xue,Shao Zhongbao,Ru Hongqiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1066-1070.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.012
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    A novel, high-temperature, mechano-chemical (HTMC) method was developed to synthesise single-phase Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ phosphor. Phosphors were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and luminescence spectra. Compared with phosphors prepared by the traditional high-temperature solid state method and citric acid gel method, single-phase Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ powders by using the HTMC method, with small average particle sizes of about 5 μm, a narrow size distribution range and uniform dispersion, were prepared at 800 °C, and reached their maximum luminescent intensity at 900 °C. Under ultraviolet excitation at 298 nm, the sample showed good luminescence with the strongest red light of 616 nm. However, Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ was prepared at the higher temperature of 1100 °C by solid state method and citric acid gel method. The particle size was too large and uneven with phosphor agglomeration by high-temperature solid state method. The luminescent intensity reached a maximum for Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ phosphor at a synthesis temperature of 1100 °C by using the high-temperature solid state method, and at 1200 °C by both citric acid gel and chemical precipitation methods. Furthermore, the advantages of the Sr2CeO4:Eu3+ powder prepared by HTMC method were discussed compared with that prepared using traditional high-temperature solid state and citric acid gel methods.

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    Microstructure and Tribological Behavior of a TiO2/hBN Composite Ceramic Coating Formed via Micro-arc Oxidation of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
    Ao Ni,Liu Daoxin,Wang Shuaixing,Zhao Qing,Zhang Xiaohua,Zhang Mengmeng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1071-1076.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.015
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    A composite coating containing hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) particles and titanium oxide (TiO2) was formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy via micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The effect of quantity of the hBN-particles added into electrolyte on microstructure, composition, and wear behavior of the resulting composite coatings was investigated. Microstructure, phase composition, and tribological behavior of the resulting MAO coatings were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ball-on-disc abrasive tests. The results reveal that the TiO2/hBN composite coating consisting of rutile TiO2, anatase TiO2, and an hBN phase was less porous than particle-free coating. Furthermore, the presence of hBN particles in the MAO coating produced an improved anti-friction property. The composite coating produced in the electrolyte containing 2 g/L of hBN particles exhibited the best wear resistance. The outer loose layer of the MAO coatings was removed by a mechanical polishing process, which led to a significant improvement in the wear resistance and anti-friction properties of the MAO coatings and highlighted an essential lubricating role of hBN particles in the composite coatings. However, wear mechanism of the MAO coatings was not relevant to the presence of hBN particles, where fatigue wear dominated the anti-fraction properties of the MAO coatings with and without hBN particles.

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    2D Carbon Fiber Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Multi-Layered Laminated Composite Panels: Structural, Mechanical, Thermal, and Morphological Profile
    Maqsood Khan Shahzad,Gull Nafisa,Azeem Munawar Muhammad,Islam Atif,Zia Saba,Shafiq Muhammad,Sabir Aneela,Muhammad Awais Syed,Arif Butt Muhammad,Taqi Zahid Butt Muhammad,Jamil Tahir
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (10): 1077-1082.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.011
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    Carbon fiber reinforced high density polyethylene multi-layered laminated composite panels (HDPE/CF MLCP) with excellent in-plane properties along transverse direction have been formulated. Composite architectures with carbon fiber (CF) designed in 2D layout in conventional composites can alleviate their properties in thickness direction, but all attempts so far developed have achieved restrained success. Here, we have exposed an approach to the high strength composite challenge, without altering the 2D stack design on the basis of concept of fiber reinforced laminated composites that would provide enhanced mechanical and thermal properties along transverse direction. CF sheets allowed the buckling of adjoining plies in 2D MLCP. We fabricated 2D MLCP by stacking the alternative CF and HDPE layers under different loading conditions, which resulted in high strength composites. These plies of CF and HDPE served as unit cells for MLCP, with CF offering much-needed fracture toughness and hardness to these materials. For 2D HDPE/CF MLCP, we demonstrated noteworthy improvement in physical and chemical interaction between CF and HDPE, in-plane fracture strain, flexural strength (30.684 MPa), bending modulus (7436.254 MPa), thermal stability (40.94%), and surface morphology, upon increasing the CF layers up to twenty, enabling these composites truly for high temperature and high strength applications.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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