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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 September 2016, Volume 32 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Preface to the Special Issue: Bioadaption of Biomaterials
    Wang Yingjun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 799-800.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.003
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    Biosynthesis of Bioadaptive Materials: A Review on Developing Materials Available for Tissue Adaptation
    Ma Junxuan,Zhou Zhiyu,Gao Manman,Yu Binsheng,Xiao Deming,Zou Xuenong,Bünger Cody
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 810-814.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.002
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    Biomaterials are increasingly being evolved to actively adapt to the desired microenvironments so as to introduce tissue integration, reconstruct stability, promote regeneration, and avoid immune rejection. The complexity of its mechanisms poses great challenge to current biomimetic synthetic materials. Although still at initial stage, harnessing cells, tissues, or even entire body to synthesize bioadaptive materials is introducing a promising future.

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    Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review
    Ma Jun,Zhao Nan,Betts Lexxus,Zhu Donghui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 815-826.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.018
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    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

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    Surface Modification on Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys as Orthopedic Implant Materials to Improve the Bio-adaptability: A Review
    Wan Peng,Tan Lili,Yang Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 827-834.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.003
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    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys as a novel kind of biodegradable material have attracted much fundamental research and valuable exploration to develop its clinical application. Mg alloys degrade too fast at the early stage after implantation, thus commonly leading to some problems such as osteolysis, early fast mechanical loss, hydric bubble aggregation, gap formation between the implants and the tissue. Surface modification is one of the effective methods to control the degradation property of Mg alloys to adapt to the need of organism. Some coatings with bioactive elements have been developed, especially for the micro-arc oxidation coating, which has high adhesion strength and can be added with Ca, P, and Sr elements. Chemical deposition coating including bio-mimetic deposition coating, electro-deposition coating and chemical conversion coating can provide good anticorrosion property as well as better bioactivity with higher Ca and P content in the coating. From the biodegradation study, it can be seen that surface coating protected the Mg alloys at the early stage providing the Mg alloy substrate with lower degradation rate. The biocompatibility study showed that the surface modification could provide the cell and tissue stable and weak alkaline surface micro-environment adapting to the cell adhesion and tissue growth. The surface modification also decreased the mechanical loss at the early stage adapting to the load-bearing requirement at this stage. From the interface strength between Mg alloys implants and the surrounding tissue study, it can be seen that the surface modification improved the bio-adhesion of Mg alloys with the surrounding tissue, which is believed to be contributed to the tissue adaptability of the surface modification. Therefore, the surface modification adapts the biodegradable magnesium alloys to the need of biodegradation, biocompatibility and mechanical loss property. For the different clinical application, different surface modification methods can be provided to adapt to the clinical requirements for the Mg alloy implants.

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    Bio-Functional Cu Containing Biomaterials: a New Way to Enhance Bio-Adaption of Biomaterials
    Jin Shujing,Ren Ling,Yang Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 835-839.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.022
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    Although being an essential trace element required for human body health, Cu has long been seriously considered toxic when its amount exceeds certain limitation, which significantly limited the wide application of Cu in biomaterials. However, more and more bio-functions and benefits of Cu were found and confirmed, attracting the attention from biomaterials researchers in recent years. People have tried to immobilize Cu into biomaterials by various ways, in order to develop novel bio-functional Cu containing biomaterials with better bio-adaptions, and several different bio-functions of them have been demonstrated. This paper makes a review of the development of novel bio-functional Cu containing biomaterials, and focuses on their unique roles in enhancing bio-adaption of biomedical materials, including antibacterial performance, stimulating angiogenesis, promoting osteogenesis and inhibition of in-stent restenosis, aiming at proposing a prospective development direction for biomedical materials with better bio-adaptions.

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    Novel Gelatin-based Nano-gels with Coordination-induced Drug Loading for Intracellular Delivery
    Fan Changjiang,Wang Dong-An
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 840-844.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.009
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    In this study, we develop the gelatin-dopamine (Gel-Dopa) nano-gels (GDNGs) and explore their potential as drug delivery vehicles. The Gel-Dopa precursor is synthesized using EDC/NHS coupling reaction, in which the catechols can coordinate with transition metal ions such as Fe3+. These novel GDNGs exhibit excellent cytocompatibility. The model drug, doxorubicin (Dox), is readily conjugated into catechol of GDNGs by the coordination cross-link of Fe3+ ion. The morphology and size distribution of the nano-gels are characterized via field emission scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The GDNGs loaded with Dox (GDNGs-Dox) is capable of efficiently penetrating cell membrane and enter the HeLa cells. The endocytosed GDNGs-Dox release Dox molecules and subsequently kill the tumor cells.

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    Enhanced Anti-corrosion Ability and Biocompatibility of PLGA Coatings on MgZnYNd Alloy by BTSE-APTES Pre-treatment for Cardiovascular Stent
    Liu Jing,Xi Tingfei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 845-857.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.021
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    Bioabsorbable magnesium alloys are widely studied for various implant applications, as they reduce the risks such as severe inflammatory response existing in permanent metallic implants. However, the over-fast corrosion rate of magnesium alloy is usually an obstacle in biomedical applications. Here we report a simple two-step reaction to introduce anticorrosive silane pre-treatment on MgZnYNd alloys before coating with poly (glycolide-co-lactide) (PLGA). The first step is to immerse the NaOH-activated MgZnYNd with bistriethoxysilylethane (BTSE) to form a cross-linked silane coating layer with enhanced corrosion resistance; the second step involves immobilizing amine functional groups for forming hydrogen bond with outer PLGA coating by treating the BTSE-modified MgZnYNd with 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane (APTES). We characterized the BTSE-APTES pre-treated PLGA coating on MgZnYNd by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static contact angle and Acid Orange 7 measurement. Nano-scratch test was to verify that the scratch resistance of the PLGA coating with BTSE-APTES pre-treatment was superior to direct PLGA coating. Standard electrochemical measurements along with the long-term immersion results indicated that the BTSE-APTES pre-treatment rendered better in vitro degradation behavior. Cell adhesion and cell viability tests with both vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA. hy926) demonstrated that BTSE-APTES pre-treated MgZnYNd substrate had significantly more beneficial effects. The favorable anti-corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of BTSE-APTES pre-treated PLGA coatings on MgZnYNd alloy suggest that the novel two-step silanization procedure may have the great potential to enhance the performance of the magnesium-based biomaterials and provide a valid solution for the conversion modification of cardiovascular implants, taking the magnesium-based bioabsorbable materials closer to clinical application.

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    AZ91 Magnesium Alloy/Porous Hydroxyapatite Composite for Potential Application in Bone Repair
    Chen Bin,Yin Kai-Yang,Lu Tian-Feng,Sun Bing-Yi,Dong Qing,Zheng Jing-Xu,Lu Chen,Li Zhan-Chun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 858-864.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.010
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    AZ91/HA composite was prepared by AZ91 magnesium alloy and porous HA using squeeze casting method. The microstructure and mechanical property of the AZ91/HA composite were studied. The results show that the molten AZ91 alloy completely infiltrated the preform without destroying the porous structure of the HA preform. The compressive strength of AZ91/HA composite increased significantly compared with that of the porous HA. The immersion test indicated that AZ91 alloy shows a lower corrosion resistance and is easier to be corroded in comparison with HA.

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    Enoxacin-loaded Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) Coating on Porous Magnesium Scaffold as a Drug Delivery System: Antibacterial Properties and Inhibition of Osteoclastic Bone Resorption
    Li Yang,Liu Xuqiang,Tan Lili,Ren Ling,Wan Peng,Hao Yongqiang,Qu Xinhua,Yang Ke,Dai Kerong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 865-873.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.013
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    Implant-associated infection remains a difficult medical problem in orthopedic surgery. Therefore, the development of multifunctional bone implants for treating infection and regenerating lost bone tissue, which may be a result of infection, is important. In the present study, we report the fabrication of enoxacin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coating on porous magnesium scaffold (Enox-PLGA-Mg) which combine the favorable properties of magnesium, the antibacterial property and the effect of inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption of enoxacin. The drug loaded PLGA coating of Mg scaffold enables higher drug loading efficiency (52%-56%) than non-coating enoxacin loaded Mg scaffold (Enox-Mg) (4%-5%). Enox-PLGA-Mg exhibits sustained drug release for more than 14 days, and this controlled release of enoxacin significantly inhibits bacterial adhesion and prevented biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC35984) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923). Biocompatibility tests with Balb/c mouse embryo fibroblasts (Balb/c 3T3 cells) indicate that PLGA-Mg has better biocompatibility than Mg. Finally, we also demonstrate that Enox-PLGA-Mg extract potently inhibited osteoclast formation in vitro. Therefore, Enox-PLGA-Mg has the potential to be used as a multifunctional controlled drug delivery system bone scaffolds to prevent and/or treat orthopedic peri-implant infections.

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    Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Corrosion Behavior and Biocompatibility of As-Extruded Biodegradable Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn Alloy
    Hou Lida,Li Zhen,Zhao Hong,Pan Yu,Pavlinich Sergey,Liu Xiwei,Li Xinlin,Zheng Yufeng,Li Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 874-882.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.004
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    The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloys were investigated by the optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and a universal material testing machine. The corrosion and degradation behaviors were studied by potentiodynamic polarization method and immersion test in a simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the as-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloy has the fine equiaxed grains which underwent complete dynamic recrystallization during the hot extrusion process, with the second phase particles of Mg2Sn precipitated on the grain boundaries and inside the grains. The tensile strength and elongation of as-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloys were 244?±?3.7?MPa and 19.3%?±?1.7%, respectively. The potentiodynamic polarization curves in SBF solution indicated the better corrosion resistance of the as-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloy in the SBF solution. Immersion test in the SBF solution for 720?h revealed that the corrosion rate of as-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloy was nearly 4?±?0.33?mm/year. The hemolysis rate of as-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloy was lower than the safe value of 5% according to ISO 10993-4. As-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloy showed good biocompatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and the femoral shaft of the rabbit, and no abnormalities were found after short-term implantation. It was revealed that the as-extruded Mg-3Sn-1Zn-0.5Mn alloy is a promising material for biodegradable implants, which possesses an interesting combination of preferred mechanical properties, better corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

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    Site-Dependent Osseointegration of Biodegradable High-Purity Magnesium for Orthopedic Implants in Femoral Shaft and Femoral Condyle of New Zealand Rabbits
    Cheng Pengfei,Zhao Changli,Han Pei,Ni Jiahua,Zhang Shaoxiang,Zhang Xiaonong,Chai Yimin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 883-888.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.012
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    Magnesium (Mg) has been widely accepted as osteoconductive biomaterial, but osseointegration of Mg device at different implantation sites is still unclear. In the present study, high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) pins were implanted into femoral shaft and condyle of New Zealand rabbits concurrently. 2, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after surgery, rabbit femurs were harvested for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and subsequent histological examinations. HP Mg pins were retrieved for scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS) analyses. HP Mg pins at both implantation sites performed stable corrosion with mineral deposition and bone incorporation on surface. However, difference in distribution of contact osteogenesis centers and biological properties of peri-implant bone tissues was detected between femoral shaft and femoral condyle. In femoral condyle, contact osteogenesis centers originated from both periosteum and cancellous bones and the whole HP Mg pin was encapsuled in trabecular bone at 16 weeks. Meanwhile, bone volume to total bone volume (BV/TV) and bone mineral density (BMD) of peri-implant bone tissues were above those of normal bone tissues. In femoral shaft, contact osteogenesis centers were only from periosteum and direct bone contact was confined in cortical bone, while BV/TV and BMD kept lower than normal. Furthermore, new formation of peri-implant bone tissues was more active in femoral condyle than in femoral shaft at 16 weeks. Therefore, although HP Mg performed good biocompatibility and corrosion behavior in vivo, its bioadaption of osseointegration at different implantations sites should be taken into consideration. Bone metaphysic was suitable for Mg devices where peri-implant bone tissues regenerated rapidly and the biological properties were close to normal bone tissues.

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    3D Bioplotting of Gelatin/Alginate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Influence of Crosslinking Degree and Pore Architecture on Physicochemical Properties
    Pan Ting,Song Wenjing,Cao Xiaodong,Wang Yingjun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 889-900.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.007
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    Gelatin/Alginate hydrogels were engineered for bioplotting in tissue engineering. One major drawback of hydrogel scaffolds is the lack of adequate mechanical properties. In this study, using a bioplotter, we constructed the scaffolds with different pore architectures by deposition of gelatin/alginate hydrogels layer-by-layer. The scaffolds with different crosslinking degree were obtained by post-crosslinking methods. Their physicochemical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. Different crosslinking methods had little influence on scaffold architecture, porosity, pore size and distribution. By contrast, the water absorption ability, degradation rate and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were dramatically affected by treatment with various concentrations of crosslinking agent (glutaraldehyde). The crosslinking process using glutaraldehyde markedly improved the stability and mechanical strength of the hydrogel scaffolds. Besides the post-processing methods, the pore architecture can also evidently affect the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The crosslinked gelatin/alginate scaffolds showed a good potential to encapsulate cells or drugs.

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    Influence of 3D Microgrooves on C2C12 Cell Proliferation, Migration, Alignment, F-actin Protein Expression and Gene Expression
    Gao Huichang,Cao Xiaodong,Dong Hua,Fu Xiaoling,Wang Yingjun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 901-908.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.011
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    In this paper, we fabricated three kinds of 3D microgrooves with different depth on biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrate via combination of soft-lithography and melt-casting methods, and investigated in detail their influence on C2C12 cell behaviors. It is found that cell proliferation, migration, alignment, spatial distribution, F-actin protein expression and gene expression are all remarkably distinct on these microgrooved samples and the smooth control PLGA substrate. The associated underlying mechanisms were further analyzed and discussed using real-time living cell monitoring, confocal laser scanning microscopy and gene microarray. Our preliminary results suggested that 3D microstructure could affect cell behaviors in a much more extensive manner than what we had understood before.

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    In Vitro Evaluation of the Feasibility of Commercial Zn Alloys as Biodegradable Metals
    Wang C.,Yang H.T.,Li X.,Zheng Y.F.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 909-918.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.003
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    In this work, three widely used commercial Zn alloys (ZA4-1, ZA4-3, ZA6-1) were purchased and prepared by hot extrusion at 200?°C. The microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of Zn alloys were studied with pure Zn as control. Commercial Zn alloys demonstrated increased strength and superb elongation compared with pure Zn. Accelerated corrosion rates and uniform corrosion morphologies were observed in terms of commercial Zn alloys due to galvanic effects between Zn matrix and α-Al phases. 100% extracts of ZA4-1 and ZA6-1 alloys showed mild cytotoxicity while 50% extracts of all samples displayed good biocompatibility. Retardant cell cycle and inhibited stress fibers expression were observed induced by high concentration of Zn2+ releasing during corrosion. The hemolysis ratios of Zn alloys were lower than 1% while the adhered platelets showed slightly activated morphologies. In general, commercial Zn alloys possess promising mechanical properties, appropriate corrosion rates, significantly improved biocompatibility and good hemocompatibility in comparison to pure Zn. It is feasible to develop biodegradable metals based on commercial Zn alloys.

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    Zn and Ag Co-doped Anti-microbial TiO2 Coatings on Ti by Micro-arc Oxidation
    Zhang Lan,Gao Qin,Han Yong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 919-924.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.008
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    Micro-porous TiO2 coatings co-doped with Zn2+ and Ag nanoparticles were fabricated on Ti by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) for 0.5, 1.5, 2 and 4?min, respectively. The evolutions of morphology and phase component of the coating as a function of processing time were investigated. The microstructure of the 2?min treated coating was further observed by transmission electron microscopy to explore the coating formation mechanism. The amounts of Ag and Zn released from the 2?min treated coating were measured and the antibacterial properties of the coatings against Staphylococcus aureus (S.?aureus) were also investigated. The obtained results showed that with prolonged MAO time, the contents of Ag and Zn on the coating surfaces increased. All the coatings were micro-porous with pore diameters of 1-4?μm; however, some pores were blocked by deposits on the 4?min treated coating. The 2?min treated coating was composed of amorphous TiO2, anatase, rutile, ZnO, Zn2TiO4 and homogenously distributed Ag nanoparticles. After immersion, Zn2+, Ag+, Ti2+ and Ca2+ were released from the coating and with the immersion time prolonged, the accumulated concentrations of these ions increased. After immersion for 36 weeks, the accumulated Zn2+ and Ag+ concentrations were 6.88 and 0.684?ppm, respectively, which are higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration but much lower than the cytotoxic concentration. Compared with polished Ti control, the coatings co-doped with Zn2+ and Ag nanoparticles significantly inhibited the adhesions of S.?aureus and reduced the amounts of planktonic bacteria in culture medium, indicating that the Zn and Ag co-doped TiO2 could be a bio-adaptable coating for long-lasting anti-microbial performance.

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    Processing of a Novel Zn Alloy Micro-Tube for Biodegradable Vascular Stent Application
    Wang Chang,Yu Zhentao,Cui Yajun,Zhang Yafeng,Yu Sen,Qu Gongqi,Gong Haibo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 925-929.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.008
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    In recent years, zinc based alloys as a new biodegradable metal material aroused intensive interests. However, the processing of Zn alloys micro-tubes (named slender-diameter and thin-walled tubes) is very difficult due to their HCP crystal structure and unfavorable mechanical properties. This study aimed to develop a novel technique to produce micro-tube of Zn alloy with good performance for biodegradable vascular stent application. In the present work, a processing method that combined drilling, cold rolling and optimized drawing was proposed to produce the novel Zn-5Mg-1Fe (wt%) alloy micro-tubes. The micro-tube with outer diameter of 2.5?mm and thickness of 130?μm was fabricated by this method and its dimension errors are within 10?μm. The micro-tube exhibits a fine and homogeneous microstructure, and the ultimate tensile strength and ductility are more than 220?MPa and 20% respectively. In addition, the micro-tube and stents of Zn alloy exhibit superior in vitro corrosion and expansion performance. It could be concluded that the novel Zn alloy micro-tube fabricated by above method might be a promising candidate material for biodegradable stent.

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    Formation and Bioactivity of SrTiO3 Nanotubes on Titanium by Modified Anodization and Hydrothermal Treatment
    Zhang Yanni,Han Yong,Zhang Lan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 930-936.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.007
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    SrTiO3 nanotube films with good adhesion strengths to Ti substrates were fabricated by using a hybrid approach with a modified anodization and a hydrothermal treatment (HT). The effect of Sr2+ concentration in HT solutions on the morphologies and phase components of the nanotubes were investigated, the SrTiO3 nanotubes formation mechanism was explored, and the adhesion strengths, hydrophilicity and apatite-forming ability of the SrTiO3 nanotubes were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that with increasing the incorporation of Sr2+ into the nanotubes, no obvious changes of the lengths and outer diameters of the nanotubes were observed, but the wall thickness and the crystallinity of SrTiO3 in the nanotubes increased. The accumulation of Sr at the inner tube wall indicated that the reaction of Sr2+ with TiO2 mainly occurred in the vicinity of internal surfaces of the closely arranged nanotubes. The formation of the SrTiO3 nanotubes could be attributed to an in situ dissolution-recrystallization process. The SrTiO3 nanotubes exhibited good hydrophilicity and bioactivity, and the induced apatite preferred to nucleate on the nanotubes with higher crystallinity and Sr content, indicating a good bio-adaptability of the SrTiO3 nanotubes for orthopedic application.

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    Anisotropic Porous Ti6Al4V Alloys Fabricated by Diffusion Bonding: Adaption of Compressive Behavior to Cortical Bone Implant Applications
    Li Fuping,Li Jinshan,Kou Hongchao,Zhou Lian
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 937-943.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.007
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    In this work, porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 30%-70% porosity for biomedical applications were fabricated by diffusion bonding of alloy meshes. Pore structure was characterized by Micro-CT and SEM. Compressive behavior in the out-of-plane direction and biocompatibility with cortical bone were studied. The results reveal that the fabricated porous Ti6Al4V alloys possess anisotropic structure with square pores in the in-plane direction and elongated pores in the out-of-plane direction. The average pore size of porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 30%-70% porosity is in the range of 240-360?μm. By tailoring diffusion bonding temperature, aspect ratio of alloy meshes and porosity, porous Ti6Al4V alloys with different compressive properties can be obtained, for instance, Young's modulus and yield stress in the ranges of 4-40?GPa and 70-500?MPa, respectively. Yield stress of porous Ti6Al4V alloys fabricated by diffusion bonding is close to that of alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping, but higher than that of fabricated by powder sintering and space-holder method. Diffusion bonding temperature has some effects on the yield stress of porous Ti6Al4V alloys, but has a minor effect on the Young's modulus. The relationship between compressive properties and relative density conforms well to the Gibson-Ashby model. The Young's modulus is linear with the aspect ratio, while the yield stress is linear with the square of aspect ratio of alloy meshes. Porous Ti6Al4V alloys with 60%-70% porosity have potential for cortical bone implant applications.

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    Bioadaptive Nanorod Topography of Titanium Surface to Control Cell Behaviors and Osteogenic Differentiation of Preosteoblast Cells
    Xu Shao,Zhou Zhiyu,Gao Manman,Zou Changye,Che Yinglin,Cody Bünger,Zou Xuenong,Zhou Lei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 944-949.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.009
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    Titanium (Ti) nanorods fabricated using selective corrosion of Ti substrate by anodic technology show better biocompatibility with pre-osteoblast cells. The current study investigated the response of the murine pre-osteoblast cell MC3T3-E1 on Ti nanorod topography and untreated Ti surfaces by means of examination of the morphology and osteogenic differentiation responsible for the pre-osteoblast reaction. The morphology of MC3T3-E1 cells was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured using a colorimetric assay after incubation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The expression of three osteogenic differentiation markers including ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen type 1A1 (COL1A1) and two transcription factors including runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix (Osx) at different time points was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in both groups. Osx was used to confirm the protein level. The results showed that Ti nanorod surfaces provided prolonged higher levels of ALP activity compared with unmodified Ti surface on the 14th and 21st days. Gene expression analysis of ALP, OCN, and COL1A1 showed significant upregulation with modified nanorod topography after incubation for 14 and 21 days. Osteogenic transcription factors of Runx2 and Osx exhibited changes consistent with the osteogenic differentiation markers, and this may contribute to the persistently active differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in the Ti nanorod group. These results demonstrated that the current nanostructured surface may be considered bioadaptive topography to control cellular behaviors and osteoblast differentiation. The in vivo performance and applicability are further required to investigate osseointegration between implant and host bone in the early stages for prevention of aseptic implant loosening.

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    Controllable Protein Adsorption and Bacterial Adhesion on Polypyrrole Nanocone Arrays
    Zhou Zhengnan,Li Weiping,He Tianrui,Yu Peng,Tan Guoxin,Ning Chengyun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 950-955.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.023
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    In this research, polypyrrole nanocone arrays doped with β-Naphthalene sulphonic acid (PPy-NSA) were built. This film was expected to control protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion by potential-induced reversibly redox. The scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and surface contact angles (SCA) tests suggested that the surface potential and wettability of PPy-NSA nanocone arrays could be controlled by simply controlling its redox property via applying potential. The controllable surface potential and wettability in return controlled the adsorption of protein and adhesion of bacteria. The proposed material might find application in the preparation of smart biomaterial surfaces that can regulate proteins and bacterial adhesion by a simple potential switching.

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    Effect of Amino-, Methyl- and Epoxy-Silane Coupling as a Molecular Bridge for Formatting a Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium by Electrochemical Deposition
    Tan Guoxin,Ouyang Kongyou,Wang Hang,Zhou Lei,Wang Xiaolan,Liu Yan,Zhang Lan,Ning Chengyun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 956-965.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.012
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    The objective of this study was to determine the role of functional groups of silane coupling on bioactive titanium (Ti) surface by electrochemical deposition, and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating, as well as bone cell adhesion and proliferation. Methyl group (—CH3), amino group (—NH2), and epoxy group (—glyph name—C(O)C) were introduced onto the bioactive Ti surface using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different silane coupling agents as molecular bridges. The effect of the surface functional groups on the growth features of the CaP crystals was analyzed (including chemical compositions, element content, minerals morphology and crystal structure etc.). CH3-terminated SAMs showed a hydrophobic surface and others were hydrophilic by contact angle measurement; NH2-terminated SAMs showed a positive charge and others were negatively charged using zeta-potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that flower-like structure coatings consisting of various pinpoint-like crystals were formatted by different functional groups of silane coupling, and the CaP coatings were multicrystalline consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and precursors. CaP coating of CH3-terminated SAMs exhibited more excellent crystallization property as compared to coatings of —NH2 and —C(O)C groups. In vitro MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion and proliferation were performed. The results showed that CaP coatings on silane coupling functionalized surfaces supported cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus, these functional groups of silane coupling on Ti can form homogeneous and oriented nano-CaP coatings and provide a more biocompatible surface for bone regeneration and biomedical applications.

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    Mediating Mesenchymal Stem Cells Responses and Osteopontin Adsorption via Oligo(ethylene glycol)-amino Mixed Self-assembled Monolayers
    Hao Lijing,Li Tianjie,Zhao Naru,Cui Fuzhai,Du Chang,Wang Yingjun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 966-970.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.005
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    Oligo(ethylene glycol) (-OEG) and amino (-NH2) mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were employed as model substrates to investigate the effect of charge density on the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteopontin (OPN) adsorption. We found that all surfaces presenting -NH2 groups favored cell responses regardless of the surface charge. Meanwhile, OPN adsorption could remain stable on the mixed SAMs over a certain range of charge densities. Our work provides some insights into cell responses and protein adsorption to surface charge.

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    Effect of Mineralized Layer Topographies on Stem Cell Behavior in Microsphere Scaffold
    Hou Jie,Gao Huichang,Wang Yingjun,Cheng Delin,Cao Xiaodong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 971-977.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.013
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    Modifying substrates through mineralization is a popular way to improve the osteogenic performance. Screening of the best mineralization characteristics on specific substrates for stem cells is meaningful but not fully studied. In this paper, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA, PH) microsphere scaffolds with superficial pores were fabricated by a low-temperature fusion method. After the mineralization in the 5× stimulated body fluid (SBF) for 0, 7, 12 and 24?h, four mineralized scaffolds (MPH-0, MPH-7, MPH-12 and MPH-24) with different apatite topographies were obtained. It was found that the surface of MPH-7 was evenly decorated with abundant micro-pores, MPH-12 with dense and plain apatite layer, and MPH-24 with small spherical bumps. The responses of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) to the four scaffolds were further studied. The results showed that MPH-7 and MPH-24 had more obvious effects on mBMSCs attachment, proliferation and differentiation than MPH-0 and MPH-12. This work indicated that to obtain the maximum improvement, the mineralization characteristics had to be carefully chosen. This was noteworthy in the chemical modification of surfaces to form the functionalized scaffolds for bone repair.

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    Opposite Regulation of Chondrogenesis and Angiogenesis in Cartilage Repair ECM Materials under Hypoxia
    Chen Shaoming,Gao Manman,Zhou Zhiyu,Liang Jiabi,Gong Ming,Dai Xuejun,Liang Tangzhao,Ye Jiacheng,Wu Gang,Zou Lijin,Wang Yingjun,Zou Xuenong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (9): 978-985.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.001
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    Although cartilage tissue engineering has been developed for decades, it is still unclear whether angiogenesis was the accompaniment of chondrogenesis in cartilage regeneration. This study aimed to explore the process of anti-angiogenesis during cartilage regenerative progress in cartilage repair extracellular matrix (ECM) materials under Hypoxia. C3H10T1/2 cell line, seeded as pellet or in ECM materials, was added with chondrogenic medium or DMEM medium for 21 days under hypoxia or normoxia environment. Genes and miRNAs related with chondrogenesis and angiogenesis were detected by RT-qPCR technique on Days 7, 14, and 21. Dual-luciferase report system was used to explore the regulating roles of miRNAs on angiogenesis. Results showed that the chondrogenic medium promotes chondrogenesis both in pellet and ECM materials culture. HIF1α was up-regulated under hypoxia compared with normoxia (P?

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CN: 21-1315/TG
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