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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 November 2016, Volume 32 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Effect of Primary and Eutectic Mg2Si Crystal Modifications on the Mechanical Properties and Sliding Wear Behaviour of an Al-20Mg2Si-2Cu-xBi Composite
    Farahany Saeed,Ghandvar Hamidreza,Azmah Nordin Nur,Ourdjini Ali,Hasbullah Idris Mohd
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1083-1097.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.014
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    This work investigated the microstructure evolution, tensile, impact, hardness, and sliding wear properties of an Al-20Mg2Si-2Cu in situ composite treated with different Bi contents. The desired modification of primary Mg2Si particles was achieved with the addition of 0.4 wt% Bi. Increasing Bi beyond 0.4 wt% resulted in a loss of modification, possibly due to the formation of Al8MgBiSi4 compound before the precipitation of the primary Mg2Si. Additionally, the structure of the pseudo-eutectic Mg2Si was transformed from plate to fibrous, which was consistent with decrease of growth temperature extracted from the cooling curve thermal analysis. Addition of Bi had an effect on the morphology of Al5FeSi (β), Al2Cu (θ) and Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 (Q) intermetallic compounds. The tensile strength, elongation percentage, impact toughness, and hardness increased by 6%, 13%, 75%, and 23%, respectively, due to modification of both the primary and eutectic Mg2Si crystals. The tensile and impact fracture surfaces showed fewer decohered particles in the Bi-treated composite. The enhancement in wear resistance of the Bi-treated composite could be attributed to solid lubricant function of insoluble soft Bi phase and modification effects on Mg2Si particles.

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    Longitudinal Compression Behavior of Functionally Graded Ti-6Al-4V Meshes
    Zhang Shangzhou,Li Cong,Hou Wentao,Zhao Shuo,Li Shujun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1098-1104.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.008
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    The compressive deformation behavior in the longitudinal direction of graded Ti-6Al-4V meshes fabricated by electron beam melting was investigated using experiments and finite element methods (FEM). The results indicate that the overall strain along the longitudinal direction is the sum of the net strain carried by each uniform mesh constituent and the deformation behavior fits the Reuss model well. The layer thickness and the sectional area have no effect on the elastic modulus, whereas the strength increases with the sectional area due to the edge effect of each uniform mesh constituent. By optimizing 3D graded/gradient design, meshes with balanced superior properties, such as high strength, energy absorption and low elastic modulus, can be fabricated by electron beam melting.

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    Synthesis and Characterization of Iron-Rich Glass Ceramic Materials: A Model for Steel Industry Waste Reuse
    Carlini Riccardo,Alfieri Ilaria,Zanicchi Gilda,Soggia Francesco,Gombia Enos,Lorenzi Andrea
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1105-1110.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.008
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    Wastes deriving from steel industry, containing large amounts of iron oxides and heavy metals, when collected in landfills are subjected to atmospheric agents, with consequent release of toxic substances in the soil and groundwater. The reuse of these wastes as raw materials for the production of advanced materials is a viable way both to overcome the environmental impact and to reduce the disposal costs, proposing new technologically advanced materials. This work aims to simulate these interesting glass-ceramics by using glass cullet coming from recycled municipal waste and high amount of iron(III) oxide (from 25 wt% to 50 wt%), the prevalent component of steel waste. The oxide was mixed with glass cullet and vitrified. The samples composition and the microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the nature of the crystalline phases. The chemical stability of the materials, in terms of ionic release into saline solution, was assessed. The electrical behavior of the samples was also investigated by varying the iron ions content and controlling the crystallization process. It is possible to obtain chemically stable materials with a nearly semiconducting behavior.

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    High-efficiency Joining of Cf/Al Composites and TiAl Alloys under the Heat Effect of Laser-ignited Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis
    Li Zhuoran,Feng Guangjie,Wang Shiyu,Feng Shicheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1111-1116.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.016
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    The aim of this study was to develop a high-efficiency joining method of Cf/Al composites and TiAl alloys under the heat effect of laser-ignited self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The SHS reaction of Ni-Al-Zr interlayer was induced by laser beam and acted as local high-temperature heat source during the joining. Sound joint was obtained and verified the feasibility of this joining method. Effect of filler metals on the joint microstructure and shear strength was evaluated. When the joining pressure was 2 MPa with additive filler metals, joint shear strength reached the maximum of 41.01 MPa.

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    Effects of Angular Fillers on Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion Battery
    Wang Meng,V. Le Anh,Shi Yang,J. Noelle Daniel,Yoon Hyojung,Zhang Minghao,Shirley Meng Y.,Qiao Yu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1117-1121.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.10.001
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    By adding 1 wt% damage homogenizer (DH), i.e. carbon black microparticles, into the electrodes of lithium-ion batteries, thermal runaway can be mitigated as the battery cells are subjected to impact loadings. In a drop tower test, the generated heat of the modified cells is reduced by nearly 40%, compared with the reference cells. This phenomenon may be attributed to the weakening effect of the carbon black fillers. The shape of the filler grains does not have a pronounced influence on the temperature profile.

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    Titanate Nanorods Modified with Nanocrystalline ZnS Particles and Their Photocatalytic Activity on Pollutant Removal
    Naudin G.,Entradas T.,Barrocas B.,Monteiro O.C.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1122-1128.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.001
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    Aiming to produce materials with enhanced photocatalytic properties, the synthesis of new crystalline nanocomposites by combining titanate nanorods (TNR) with ZnS nanocrystallites is described in this work. The TNR modification was accomplished by an in situ nucleation and growth process of ZnS nanoparticles. Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate was used as the metal chalcogenide precursor. The prepared materials were structural, morphological and optical characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and powder diffuse reflectance spectra. Crystalline ZnS nanoparticles were obtained as a homogeneous and continuous layer, covering completely the TNR surface. The application of these new nanocomposite materials on photocatalytic degradation of pollutants was investigated. First, the evaluation of hydroxyl radical formation, using the terephthalic acid as probe, was studied. Afterwards, the adsorption and photodegradation of safranine-T, used here as a model pollutant molecule, was investigated. The obtained data indicate that the prepared nanocomposites have potential to be used as photocatalysts for organic pollutant removal. The best removal results (97% removal) were obtained using the 0.01ZnS/HTNR sample as catalyst (0.2 g/L; 10 ppm safranin-T solution) with a combination of a low dye adsorption (20%) and a high dye photocatalytic degradation (77%).

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    Effect of Cobalt Doping on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Lead Free Solder Joint Subjected to Electromigration
    Nasir Bashir M.,Haseeb A.S.M.A.,Zayed Mohammad Saliqur Rahman Abu,Fazal M.A.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1129-1136.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.007
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    Rapid Cu diffusion is one of the main causes of electromigration (EM) failure in lead-free solder joints. In this study, an effort has been made to investigate the detrimental effects of EM on microstructure and mechanical performance of solder joint by introducing Co nanoparticles (NP) doped flux at the interface between SAC305 solder and copper substrate. EM tests were conducted on un-doped SAC305 and Co-doped SAC305 solder joints for different time intervals, with the maximum duration of 1128 h. A DC current was applied to the both types of solder joints to achieve a current density of 1 × 104 A/cm2. EM tests were performed in an oil bath maintained at a constant temperature of 80 °C. It is found that Co-doped flux significantly reduced the formation of cracks and voids at the cathode interface. Co atoms entered into the lattice of Cu6Sn5 leading to the formation of (Cu, Co)6Sn5. This thermodynamically stabilized the interfacial intermetallic (IMC) layers both at the anode and cathode sides and suppressed the change in their thickness. The average anodic growth rate of (Cu, Co)6Sn5 interfacial IMC in the doped sample was about one order of magnitude lower compared with that of Cu6Sn5 in the un-doped samples. Co-NP also improved the tensile strength considerably before and after EM. The report suggests that the reliability of solder joint during EM can be improved by using Co-NP doped flux.

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    Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of IN738LC/MBF-15/IN738LC: Solidification Behavior and Mechanical Properties
    Binesh B.,Jazayeri Gharehbagh A.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1137-1151.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.017
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    Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of IN738LC superalloy was carried out using a rapidly solidified MBF-15 Ni-based foil. The effects of bonding temperature (1130-1170 °C) and time (5-120 min) as well as foil thickness (35-140 µm) were studied on the microstructure of joint region and its mechanical properties. The solidification sequence in the joint region was found to be (i) formation of γ solid solution in the isothermally solidified zone, followed by (ii) ternary eutectic of γ + Ni3B + CrB, and finally (iii) binary eutectic of γ + Ni3Si in the athermally solidified zone. Fine Ni3Si particles were also formed via a solid state transformation within the γ matrix in the vicinity of eutectic products. A deviation of isothermal solidification kinetics from the standard parabolic TLP model was observed by increasing the bonding temperature to 1170 °C, which resulted in the formation of eutectic constituents at the joint centerline. The analysis of mechanical and fractographic test results revealed that the samples with complete isothermal solidification exhibit the highest shear strength, whereas the hard eutectic constituents act as preferential failure sites and lead to a significant reduction in the joint shear strength in samples with incomplete isothermal solidification.

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    Effect of Nano Clay on Corrosion Protection of Zinc-rich Epoxy Coatings on Steel 37
    Tohidi Shirehjini Farhad,Danaee Iman,Eskandari Hadi,Zarei Davood
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1152-1160.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.017
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    Epoxy zinc rich coatings containing clay nanoparticles were prepared and the effect of clay content on the cathodic protection performance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and immersion test. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements and immersion tests were also carried out to better understand the behavior of zinc rich coating. EIS and OCP measurements showed that addition of 1 wt% clay improved the cathodic protection duration and sacrificial properties of the epoxy zinc rich coating. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs confirmed that clay nanoparticles were successfully dispersed in the coating matrix loaded with 1 wt% clay. Immersion test results indicated that addition of 1 wt% clay nanoparticles in zinc rich epoxy coatings increased the cathodic protection ability of coatings.

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    Effects of Mechanical Milling and Sintering Temperature on the Densification, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of the Fe-Mn-Si Powder Compacts
    Xu Zhigang,A. Hodgson Michael,Cao Peng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1161-1170.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.024
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    This work reported on the effects of mechanical milling and sintering temperature on the densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of the Fe-28Mn-3Si (wt%) alloy. Elemental Fe, Mn and Si powders were used as the starting materials, and two batches of powder mixture were prepared: one was blended elemental (BE) powder mixture; the other was mechanically milled (MM) powder mixture milled for 5 h using planetary ball milling. Both powder mixtures were pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa, and subsequently sintered in a high vacuum furnace for 3 h at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300 °C. It was found that Mn depletion region (MDR) was formed on the surface of all the sintered samples. The sintered BE compacts had a low density (<68.2%) at all temperatures, while the density of the sintered MM compacts increased drastically from ~65% at 1000 °C to ~91% at 1300 °C. All the sintered MM compacts were composed of a predominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite. In comparison, additional (Fe, Mn)3Si phase was observed in the BE alloys sintered at 1000 °C, and a single α-Fe phase was identified in the BE compact sintered at 1300 °C. The tensile properties of the sintered MM compacts increased significantly with the temperature and were significantly higher than those of their BE counterparts.

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    Preparation of Core-Shell Structured Cobalt Coated Tungsten Carbide Composite Powders by Intermittent Electrodeposition
    Zhong Huan,Ouyang Yuejun,Yu Gang,Hu Bonian,Yan Dalong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1171-1178.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.021
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    Core-shell structured cobalt coated tungsten carbide (WC/Co) composite powders were prepared by intermittent electrodeposition. The influence of process parameters such as current density, single deposition pulse, pH value and surfactants on the formation of WC/Co was investigated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical station, acidometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The composite powders with 54% cobalt content were fabricated at a current density of 16 A dm-2, with a load of 10 g dm-3 WC powders and a stirring speed of 600 r min-1 at an operation temperature of 40 ± 2 °C, and 90% current efficiency was obtained with a single deposition pulse of 1.5 min and single stirring pulse of 2 min during 12 min efficient electrodeposition time. The uniformly distributed WC/Co powders could be obtained in the cobalt electrolyte containing 300 mg dm-3 PEG-2000. The spherical cobalt grains coated WC particles were prepared in the pH 4-5 electrolyte at the Co deposition rate of 0.58 g min-1. A practical process for high efficient production of WC/Co powders by electrodeposition was developed in the present work.

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    Structural Thermal Stability of Graphene Oxide-Doped Copper-Cobalt Oxide Coatings as a Solar Selective Surface
    Mahbubur Rahman M.,Jiang Zhong-Tao,Yin Chun-Yang,Siang Chuah Lee,Lee Hooi-Ling,Amri Amun,Goh Bee-Min,J. Wood Barry,Creagh Chris,Mondinos Nicholas,Altarawneh Mohmmednoor,Z. Dlugogorski Bogdan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1179-1191.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.002
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    3d transition metal oxides based thin film coatings such as copper-cobalt oxides exhibit high absorption in the visible region and low emittance in the infrared to far-infrared region of the solar spectrum which is favourable for use as potential selective surface materials in photothermal devices. These materials have the potential to minimize heating while increasing absorption in the operative spectrum range and therefore achieve higher solar selectivity. A series of mixed copper-cobalt metal spinel oxides (CuxCoyOz) doped with graphene oxide thin films were deposited on commercial grade aluminium substrates using a sol-gel dip-coating technique at an annealing temperature of 500 °C in air for 1 h. Characterizations of the synthesized films were carried out by high temperature synchrotron radiation X-ray Diffraction (SR-XRD), UV-Vis, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) techniques. High thermal stability of coatings with multiple phases, binary and ternary metal oxides, was defined through SR-XRD study. FTIR analysis shows moderate (<80%) to high (up to 99%) reflectance in the infrared region while the UV-Vis investigations demonstrate that, in the visible region, solar absorption increases gradually (up to 95%) with the addition of graphene oxide to the CuxCoyOz coatings. With the incorporation of 1.5 wt.% of graphene oxide to the copper-cobalt oxide coatings, a high solar selectivity of 29.01 (the ratio of the average solar absorptance in visible and the average thermal emittance in infrared to far infrared region; α/ε) was achieved.

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    Morphology and Structure of Nb Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition at Different Substrate Temperatures
    Gontad F.,Lorusso A.,Manousaki A.,Klini A.,Perrone A.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1192-1196.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.10.005
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    This paper reports the fabrication of Nb thin films through pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures, ranging from 300 to 660 K. While the variation of the substrate temperature does not affect significantly the excellent Nb thin film adhesion to the Si(100) substrate surface, the increase of the substrate temperature up to 570 K promotes an improvement of the grown film in terms of morphology and roughness. Such improvement is achieved through the formation of wider columnar structures with a reduced superficial roughness, around 5 nm, as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. The use of temperatures over 570 K increases the substrate roughness due to the formation of irregular structures inside the film, as observed by SEM cross section analysis, and does not produce a relevant improvement on the crystalline structure of the material.

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    Compression Mechanical Behaviour of 7075 Aluminium Matrix Composite Reinforced with Nano-sized SiC Particles in Semisolid State
    Jiang Jufu,Chen Gang,Wang Ying
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1197-1203.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.015
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    The 7075 aluminium matrix composite reinforced with nano-sized SiC particles was fabricated by ultrasonic assisted semisolid stirring method. The compression mechanical behaviour of the fabricated composite in semisolid state was investigated. The results show that the microstructure of the composite before semisolid compression consists of fine and spheroidal solid grains surrounded by liquid phase. Semisolid compression led to a nonuniform plastic deformation of solid grains. A slight plastic deformation occurred in the locations near the free surface due to the dependence of deformation on liquid flow and flow of liquid incorporating solid grains. However, obvious plastic deformation occurred in the central location and location contacting to die due to the contribution of plastic deformation of solid grains. The true stress-strain curve of the sample compressed at 500 °C consists of rapid increase of true stress and steady stage. However, rapid increase of true stress and decrease of true stress and steady stage are involved in the true stress-strain curves of the samples compressed at 550, 560, 570, 580 and 590 °C. The true stress-strain curve at 600 °C is similar to that at 500 °C. Apparent viscosity decreases with an increase of shear rate, indicating a shear thinning occurrence. When soaking time increases from 5 min to 15 min, the peak stress and steady stress decrease significantly. A further increase of the soaking time led to a slight change. Peak stress and steady stress increase with increasing volume fraction of SiC particles. A sudden increase or decrease of compression velocity led to a significant increase or decrease of the steady stress. The destruction of the samples compressed at solid state temperature mainly depends on cracks parallel to compression direction. However, the destruction forms of the samples compressed at semisolid temperatures consist of cracks parallel to compression direction and partial collapse. Increasing soaking time led to an obvious change of the destruction forms. Compression velocity affects slightly the macro appearance of the sample compressed at semisolid temperatures.

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    Fracture Characteristics of Frit Bonding through In-Situ Nano-Indentation Testing
    Je Jo Won,Ahn Hee-Jun,Hyoung Kim Jong,Kwon Dongil
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (11): 1204-1210.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Because frit bonding material is brittle, sudden impacts such as dropping may damage the bonding significantly. Strain-rate-controlled in-situ nano-indentation testing, which can determine localized material properties, was carried out on the frit-bonded specimen, especially on the frit bonding matrix and the filler. The results were compared with the drop-impact fracture behavior to understand the fracture characteristics. Mechanical properties at static condition or low strain rate did not show proper relationship with the fracture tendency of the drop tested result of the frit bonding. From the relationship between fracture toughness and the ratio of modulus/hardness, fracture characteristics at the drop impact situation could be estimated by the values at the high strain rate nano-indentation. The ratio between modulus and hardness on frit matrix showed close relationship with drop impact fracture. Though crack propagation path deflected at filler interface, filler property gave less influence on fracture tendency of drop impact fracture due to its small volume fraction. The properties of frit matrix were crucial to the fracture characteristics of the frit bonding.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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