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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2020, Vol. 45 Issue (0): 117-124    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.11.026
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Ultrahigh strength Mg-Y-Ni alloys obtained by regulating second phases
S.Z. Wu, X.G. Qiao, M.Y. Zheng*()
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China
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Mg-Y-Ni alloys with different second phases were designed by changing Y/Ni atomic ratio from 1.5 to 0.5. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast and as-extruded alloys were investigated. The as-cast Mg-Y-Ni alloy with Y/Ni ratio of 1.5 is composed of α-Mg and long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. When Y/Ni ratio is equal to 1, nanoscale lamellar γ' phase and eutectic Mg2Ni phase are formed in addition to LPSO phase. As Y/Ni ratio decreases further, the amount of eutectic Mg2Ni phase increases, while the amount of LPSO phase decreases. After extrusion, the LPSO and γ' phases are distributed along the extrusion direction, while eutectic Mg2Ni phase is broken and dispersed in the as-extruded alloys. LPSO phase and Mg2Ni phase in the alloys promote dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during extrusion, while γ' phase inhibits DRX. Consequently, the Mg96Y2Ni2 (at.%) alloy with LPSO phase and γ' phase as the main second phases shows the strongest basal texture after extrusion. The tensile yield strength of the as-extruded Mg-Y-Ni alloys increases first and then decreases with decreasing Y/Ni ratio. The as-extruded Mg96Y2Ni2 (at.%) alloy with Y/Ni = 1 exhibits excellent mechanical properties with tensile yield strength of 465 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 510 MPa and elongation to failure of 7.2%, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of bulk LPSO phase and nanoscale γ' phase.

Key words:  Mg-Y-Ni alloys      LPSO      γ' Phase      Mg2Ni      Mechanical properties     
Received:  18 September 2019     
Corresponding Authors:  M.Y. Zheng     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

S.Z. Wu, X.G. Qiao, M.Y. Zheng. Ultrahigh strength Mg-Y-Ni alloys obtained by regulating second phases. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2020, 45(0): 117-124.

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Alloys Composition
Y/Ni ratio
Mg95Y3Ni2 Mg95.1Y3.0Ni1.9 Mg-9.8Y-4.2Ni 1.5
Mg96Y2Ni2 Mg96.1Y2.0Ni1.9 Mg-6.7Y-4.3Ni 1
Mg97Y1Ni2 Mg96.9Y1.1Ni2.0 Mg-3.7Y-4.6Ni 0.5
Table 1  Chemical compositions of Mg-Y-Ni alloys.
Fig. 1.  XRD patterns of the as-cast Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy, Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy and Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy.
Fig. 2.  SEM images of the as-cast Mg-Y-Ni alloys with different Y/Ni atomic ratios: (a) Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy; (b) Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy; (c) Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy.
Fig. 3.  (a) TEM bright field image and selected area electron diffraction pattern and (b) corresponding composition of 18R-LPSO in Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy; (c) TEM bright field image and selected area electron diffraction pattern and (d) corresponding composition of Mg2Ni phase in Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy; (e) TEM bright field image, (f) HADDF-STEM image and (g) elemental mappings of γ' phase in Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy.
Alloys α-Mg LPSO Mg2Ni
Mg95Y3Ni2 40.6 59.4
Mg96Y2Ni2 47.8 50.3 1.9
Mg97Y1Ni2 65.9 30.0 4.1
Table 2  Volume fraction of the main phases in the as-cast Mg-Y-Ni alloys.
Alloys Mg Y Ni
Mg95Y3Ni2 98.4 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.1
Mg96Y2Ni2 98.5 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.3
Mg97Y1Ni2 99.1 ± 0.4 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2
Table 3  EDS analysis of the matrix by SEM mapping in the as-cast Mg-Y-Ni alloys (at.%).
Fig. 4.  SEM images of (a) Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy, (b) Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy and (c) Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy after preheating at 420 °C for 15 min; (d) TEM bright field image and the HADDF-STEM images of (e) γ' and (f) 18R-LPSO in Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy after preheating.
Fig. 5.  SEM images of the as-extruded Mg-Y-Ni alloys with different Y/Ni atomic ratios along extrusion direction: (a) Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy; (b) Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy; (c) Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy.
Fig. 6.  (a-c) IPF images and (d-i) inverse pole ?gures of as-extruded alloys along extrusion direction: (a, d, g) Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy; (b, e, h) Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy; (c, f, i) Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy; (d-f) non-DRXed + DRXed regions and (g-i) DRXed regions.
Alloys α-Mg (%) Non-DRXed (%) DRXed (%) DRX ratio (%) Grain diameter (μm)
Mg95Y3Ni2 40.6 10.1 30.5 75.2 3.70 ± 1.36
Mg96Y2Ni2 47.8 23.1 24.7 51.7 0.67 ± 0.20
Mg97Y1Ni2 65.9 10.6 55.3 83.9 0.83 ± 0.46
Table 4  DRX ratio and DRXed grain size of as-extruded Mg-Y-Ni alloys.
Fig. 7.  SEM images observed from the position of (a-c) 10 mm and (d) 0 mm below the die-entrance of partially extruded alloys: (a) Mg95Y3Ni2 alloy; (b) Mg96Y2Ni2 alloy; (c, d) Mg97Y1Ni2 alloy.
Fig. 8.  (a) Tensile stress-strain curves of the as-extruded Mg-Y-Ni alloys, (b) mechanical properties of the as-extruded Mg-Y-Ni alloys with decreasing Y/Ni atomic ratio and (c) comparison of tensile properties of the as-extruded Mg-Y-Ni alloys and other high strength Mg alloys containing RE.
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