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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2018, Vol. 34 Issue (1): 198-208    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.11.024
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Variant selection in stationary shoulder friction stir welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy
Xiaoqing Jianga*(), Bradley P. Wynneb, Jonathan Martinc
a Engineering Research Center of Advanced Manufacturing Technology for Automotive Structural Parts, Ministry of Education, College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
b Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK
c The Welding Institute, Granta Park, Great Abington Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK
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Stationary shoulder friction stir welding of Ti-6Al-4V of 7 mm thickness was conducted with varying welding speeds and rotation speeds. Variant selection analysis was carried out based on the inherited α phase texture and the reconstructed β phase texture. The weld surfaces became significantly smoother with increasing welding speed and decreasing rotation speed. Heat input decreased greatly with increased welding speed and it decreased slightly with decreased rotation speed. The orientation relationship between the prior β grains was measured based on the reconstructed electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) data. Weak Variant selection has occurred in all the welds because most of the prior β grains did not share {110} poles. Strong links between crystal orientation of the prior β grains and hardness have been found.

Key words:  Stationary shoulder friction stir welding      Texture      Variant selection      Hardness     
Received:  21 March 2017     
Corresponding Authors:  Jiang Xiaoqing     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Xiaoqing Jiang, Bradley P. Wynne, Jonathan Martin. Variant selection in stationary shoulder friction stir welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34(1): 198-208.

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Fig. 1.  Photographs of the weld surface of (a) Weld A, (b) Weld B, (c) Weld C, (d) Weld D and (e) Weld E.
Fig. 2.  Heat input of all the welded joints along the travelling distance.
Fig. 3.  Scanned macrographs of the cross sections of (a) Weld A, (b) Weld B, (c) Weld C, (d) Weld D and (e) Weld E.
Fig. 4.  A pair of {0001} pole figures of the low temperature α phase and{110} pole figures of the reconstructed high temperature β phase on a central horizontal line with maximum density for (a) Weld A, (b) Weld B, (c) Weld C, (d) Weld D and (e) Weld E.
Fig. 5.  Weld E (a) grain boundary α (GBα) grains in an IPF map of the low temperature hcp α phase; (b) specific grain boundary misorientation map, (c) color key for the specific misorientation map; (d) IPF map of the reconstructed bcc β phase; (e) {0001} and {112ˉ0} pole figures of the GBα grains; (f) pole figures of β1 and β2.
Fig. 6.  Weld B (a) α1, α2, GBα3 and GBα4 in an IPF map of the low temperature hcp α phase; (b) specific grain boundary misorientation map; (c) Euler coloring map of the reconstructed bcc β phase; (d) {0001} pole figure of α1, α2, GBα3 and GBα4; (e) {110} pole figure of β1 and β2; (f) pole figure of β1 and β3.
Fig. 7.  Weld C (a) IPF map of the low temperature hcp α phase; (b) IPF map of the reconstructed bcc β phase; (c) {0001} pole figures of α1, α2 and GBα1; (d) {0001} pole figures of α3 and GBα2; (e) {110} pole figures of β1 and β3; (f) {110} pole figures of β1 and β2.
Fig. 8.  Number of (a) pair of prior β grains with parallel (110) plane, (b) pair of prior β grains with nearly parallel {110} plane (c) pair of prior β grains that have no close crystallographic relation.
Fig. 9.  Pole intensity histograms of (a) the six poles in the {0001} pole figure of the α phase texture and (b) the corresponding six poles in the {110} pole figures of the reconstructed β phase texture from the RS to the AS of the SZ of Weld E; Similarily, (c) and (d) of Weld B, (e) and (f) of Weld C.
Fig. 10.  Histograms of ratio of {0001}α ? {110}β pole intensity for the six poles 1-6 from the RS to the AS of the SZ of (a) Weld E, (b) Weld B and (c) Weld C; (d) shows the schematic {0001}/{110} pole figure indicating the position of the six poles 1-6.
Fig. 11.  Variant selection intensity plotted as a function of the prior β grain size on the central horizontal line of all the five welds.
Fig. 12.  The largest prior β grain size and the average thickness of the α laths plotted against heat input in the weld center for all the five welds.
Fig. 13.  Comparison of (a) microhardness and (b) IPF for Weld A.
Fig. 14.  Comparison of (a) microhardness and (b) IPF for Weld D.
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