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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2020, Vol. 37 Issue (0): 26-37    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2019.07.036
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Influence of minor Ce additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca alloy
Yanfu Chaia, Chao Hea, Bin Jiangab*(), Jie Fua**(), Zhongtao Jiangc, Qingshan Yangd, Haoran Shenge, Guangsheng Huanga, Dingfei Zhanga, Fusheng Panab
a State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmissions, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China
b Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, 401123, China
c Research Institute for New Materials Technology, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, 402160, China
d School of Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing, 401331, China
e Shanghai Aerospace Equipment Manufactory, Shanghai, 200245, China
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The microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Sn-Ca-Ce alloys with different Ce contents (0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 wt%) were studied at room temperature. Ce additions to ternary Mg-Sn-Ca alloy resulted in grain refinement as well as a change in the category of second phase from CaMgSn to (Ca, Ce)MgSn and Mg12Ce. The volume fraction of second phase increased with rising Ce content, which aggravated the restriction of DRXed grain growth during the extrusion process and eventually led to texture weakening of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca based alloys. In terms of plasticity, owing to vigorously activated basal slip and homogeneous distributed tensile strain in tension, the tensile ductility of as-extruded alloys reached the maximum value of 27.6% after adding 0.2 wt% Ce, which enhanced by about 26% than that of ternary Mg-Sn-Ca alloy. However, further Ce additions (0.5 and 1.0 wt%) would coarsen the second phase particles and then impair ductility. The tension-compression yield asymmetry of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca ternary alloy was alleviated greatly via Ce additions, due to the joint effects of grain refinement, increased amount of strip distributed second phase particles and texture weakening.

Key words:  Mg-Sn-Ca alloy      Ce content      Microstructure      Texture      Mechanical properties     
Received:  31 May 2019     
Corresponding Authors:  Jiang Bin,Fu Jie     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Yanfu Chai, Chao He, Bin Jiang, Jie Fu, Zhongtao Jiang, Qingshan Yang, Haoran Sheng, Guangsheng Huang, Dingfei Zhang, Fusheng Pan. Influence of minor Ce additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca alloy. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2020, 37(0): 26-37.

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Designation Nominal alloy Composition (wt%)
Sn Ca Ce Mg
TXE110 Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-0.0Ce 1.31 0.64 - Bal.
TXE1102 Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-0.2Ce 1.26 0.68 0.14 Bal.
TXE1105 Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-0.5Ce 1.32 0.69 0.53 Bal.
TXE111 Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-1.0Ce 1.29 0.68 1.17 Bal.
Table 1  Chemical compositions of the as-cast Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-based alloys.
Fig. 1.  OM and backscattered electron- (BSE-) SEM images of the as-cast Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-based alloys: (a) TXE110 alloy; (b) TXE1102 alloy; (c) TXE1105 alloy; (d) TXE111 alloy.
Fig. 2.  OM and BSE-SEM images of the as-extruded Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-based alloys: (a) TXE110 alloy; (b) TXE1102 alloy; (c) TXE1105 alloy; (d) TXE111 alloy.
Fig. 3.  (Ca, Ce)MgSn phase particles in as-extruded TXE111 alloy sheet.
Fig. 4.  Mg12Ce phase particles in as-extruded TXE111 alloy sheet.
Fig. 5.  EBSD inverse pole figure maps and (0001) pole figures from the ED-ND plane of as-extruded Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca based alloys: (a) TXE110 alloy; (b) TXE1102 alloy; (c) TXE1105 alloy; (d) TXE111 alloy.
Fig. 6.  True tensile and compressive stress-strain curves of as-extruded Mg-1.0Sn-0.6Ca-based alloys: (a) in tension; (b) in compression.
Samples In tension In compression CYS/TYS
TYS (MPa) UTS (MPa) EL (%) CYS (MPa) UCS (MPa) EL (%)
TXE110 93.3 244.6 21.9 64.2 249.2 21.8 0.69
TXE1102 96.8 263.6 27.6 79.4 250.2 22.8 0.82
TXE105 109.4 266.3 25.2 93.3 260.9 23.1 0.85
TXE111 104.2 261.9 22.2 89.8 251.8 22.4 0.86
Table 2  Summary of mechanical properties of four as-extruded alloys which suffer from uniaxial tensile and compressive tests along the ED.
Fig. 7.  Different types of grains, EBSD IPF maps in the ED-ND plane and {0001} pole figures of four as-extruded alloys corresponding to grains with size < 3?μm, 3-12?μm and > 12?μm, respectively: (a) TXE110 alloy; (b) TXE1102 alloy; (c) TXE1105 alloy; (d) TXE111 alloy.
Fig. 8.  Experimental (lines) and simulated (symbol) true stress and true strain curves in tension and compression with correspondingly relative activities of different deformation modes in tension: (a) TXE110 alloy sheet; (b) TXE1102 alloy sheet.
Fig. 9.  EBSD measurement results of TXE110 and TXE1102 alloys deformed to tensile strains of (a, b) 10% and (c, d) 20%.
Samples Modes τ0 (MPa) τ1
TXE110 Basal slip 28 20 200 155 1
Prismatic <a> slip 70 12 500 70 1
Pyramidal <c+a> slip 150 100 2800 0 1
{10-12} tensile twin 40 0 0 0 1
TXE1102 Basal slip 34 4 200 165 1
Prismatic <a> slip 90 5 60 40 1
Pyramidal <c+a> slip 130 85 1800 0 1
{10-12} tensile twin 45 0 0 0 1
Table 3  Parameters for VPSC constitutive model of as-extruded TXE110 and TXE1102 alloys.
Fig. 10.  Quantitative analysis of basal slip and prismatic slip Schmid factor (SF) of the as-extruded TXE110 and TXE1102 alloys during tensile deformation process.
Fig. 11.  Quantitative analysis of (0001)/<11-20> basal slip Schmid factor (SF) of the as-extruded alloys under tension along the ED: (a, e) TXE110 alloy; (b, f) TXE1102 alloy; (c, g) TXE1105 alloy; (d, h) TXE111 alloy.
Fig. 12.  Schmid factor as a function of relative spatial position and relative distributions for {10-12} twinning under compression along the ED: (a, e) TXE110 alloy; (b, f) TXE1102 alloy; (c, g) TXE1105 alloy; (d, h) TXE111 alloy. Note that a negative value of SF for {10-12} twinning would lead to contraction along the C-axes of grains and not be activated. A minus SF for {10-12} twinning is therefore treated as zero during calculation of the distribution of SFs.
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