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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      10 June 2016, Volume 32 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    A Rational Design of Heterojunction Photocatalyst CdS Interfacing with One Cycle of ALD Oxide
    Mengyin Liu, Xinjian Xie, Lei Chen, Xuewei Wang, Yahui Cheng, Feng Lu, Wei-Hua Wang, Jing Yang, Xiwen Du, Junda Zhu, Haitao Liu, Hong Dong, Weichao Wang, Hui Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 489-495.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Photo-corrosion is one of the major obstacles for CdS application in wet chemical fields, and atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been proposed as an effective way to suppress the corrosion. Here, prior to ALD coating, CdS, one facilely corrosive photocatalyst, was synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis to access the fundamental corrosion mechanism and the according corrosive sites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that the failure of catalytic decomposition of methylene blue originated from the formation of soluble CdSO4 by oxidizing S2- of as-prepared CdS. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) further identified the active sites in the V-shaped regions of CdS nanoparticles, confirmed by the simulated electric field distribution. To rationally coat oxides on CdS, the right candidates and their thicknesses have been considered by our tunneling model with transfer matrix method based on quantum mechanism, upon which the thickness of protective layer should be less than 0.5?nm to maintain a high tunneling probability, and thus one cycle of ALD TiO2 or Al2O3 was proposed to passivate the CdS powder to balance the carrier transportation and corrosion suppression. Based on HRTEM results, we found that the active V-shaped region was covered by ALD oxides (TiO2 or Al2O3). For each case, no soluble CdSO4 has been found before and after photocatalytic reactions based XPS measurements. Importantly, we noticed that with the passivation of one cycle of ALD, the catalyst's lifetime was elongated up to >14 times higher than that of the as-prepared CdS.
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    Bulk Metallic Glasses: MRI Compatibility and Its Correlation with Magnetic Susceptibility
    Da-Bo Zhou, Shao-Ping Wang, Shao-Gang Wang, Hong-Jun Ai, Jian Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 496-504.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Several bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were selected to in vitro assess their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility with agarose gel as a phantom, in terms of the extent of susceptibility artifacts in magnetic resonance image. The investigated metals include the Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3, Zr61Ti2Cu25Al12, Cu50.4Ni5.6Ti31Zr13 and Ti47Cu38Zr7.5Fe2.5Sn2Si1Ag2, together with pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy (ASTM-F799) for comparison. The artifact extent in MR images was quantitatively characterized according to the total volume in reconstructed 3D images with a series of slices under acquisition by fast spin echo (FSE) sequence and gradient echo (GRE) sequence. As indicated, artifact severity of the BMGs is much less than that of the CoCrMo alloy. The AuAgPdCuSi BMG manifested the smallest artifact among the four BMGs, while the TiCuZrFeSnSiAg BMG is comparative to the CP-Ti. The MRI compatibility of BMGs is ranked as a sequence of the Au-, Zr-, Cu- and Ti-based alloys. Dependence of material magnetic susceptibility on artifact extent is also the case of the BMGs, even though it does not follow a simple linear relationship within a range of Δχv?=?30-180?ppm. These findings are of interest to reveal that the BMGs are potentially applied in the fields associated with an interventional MRI for MRI-guided surgeries.
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    Electron Beam Melted Beta-type Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Porous Structures With High Strength-to-Modulus Ratio
    Yujing Liu, Shujun Li, Wentao Hou, Shaogang Wang, Yulin Hao, Rui Yang, Timothy B. Sercombe, Lai-Chang Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 505-508.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Electron beam melting (EBM) has been used to manufacture β-type Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn porous components with 70% porosity. EBM-produced components have favorable structural features (i.e. smooth strut surfaces, fewer defects) and an (α?+?β)-type microstructure, similar to that subjected to aging treatment. EBM-produced components exhibit more than twice the strength-to-modulus ratio of porous Ti-6Al-4V components having the same porosity. The processing-microstructure-property relationship and deformation behavior of EBM-produced components are discussed in detail. Such porous titanium components composed of non-toxic elements and having high strength-to-modulus ratio are highly attractive for biomedical applications.
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    Mold-Filling Ability of Aluminum Alloy Melt during the Two-Step Foaming Process
    H. Wang, Y.M. Zhang, B.C. Zhou, D.H. Yang, Y. Wu, X.J. Liu, Z.P. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 509-514.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    For the two-step foaming method, one of the most cost-effective ways to fabricate three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foams with dense outer surface skin, it is crucial to describe and predict the mold-filling behavior of the shaped aluminum alloy foams with a favorable pore-distribution accurately. In this paper, a mold-filling model for semi-solid aluminum alloy foams was initially established and subsequently employed to predict the filling height, which represents the mold-filling ability of semi-solid aluminum alloy foams in a specially designed tube-like mold. Our results indicate that the proposed model can be applied to characterize the mold-filling property of aluminum alloy melts in a quantitative manner. Theoretically, our findings actually provide a guideline for mass-production of the shaped aluminum alloy foams by using the two-step foaming process.
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    Influence of Process Parameters and Sr Addition on the Microstructure and Casting Defects of LPDC A356 Alloy for Engine Blocks
    Giulio Timelli, Daniele Caliari, Jovid Rakhmonov
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 515-523.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effects of Sr addition and pressure increase on the microstructure and casting defects of a low-pressure die cast (LPDC) AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy have been studied. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes and the amount of porosity occurring at different Sr levels and pressure parameters. The results indicate that an increase in the filling pressure induces lower heat dissipation of the liquid close to the die/core surfaces, with the formation of slightly greater dendrite arms and coarser eutectic Si particles. On the other hand, the increase in the Sr level leads to finer microstructural scale and eutectic Si. The analysed variables, within the experimental conditions, do not affect the morphology of eutectic Si particles. Higher applied pressure and Sr content generate castings with lower amount of porosity. However, as the filling pressure increases the flow of metal inside the die cavity is more turbulent, leading to the formation of oxide films and cold shots. In the analysed range of experimental conditions, the design of experiment methodology and the analysis of variance have been used to develop statistical models that accurately predict the average size of secondary dendrite arm spacing and the amount of porosity in the low-pressure die cast AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy.
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    Synergistic Effect of Metal Nanoparticles on the Antimicrobial Activities of Antibiotics against Biorecycling Microbes
    Chandni Khurana, Purnima Sharma, O.P. Pandey, Bhupendra Chudasama
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 524-532.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.004
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Biorecycling microbes, which have critical functionalities in natural cycles, are essential to sustain ecosystem of the earth. Any alterations in these cycles caused by the mutations of microbes could be a potential threat to life on earth. Antibiotics leached from pharmaceutical waste, animal food and agribusiness products are accumulating in the environment. Metal nanoparticles are also accumulating in environment because of their extensive use as biocidal agent in domestic products. Interaction of antibiotics and metal nanoparticles with eco-friendly microorganisms has a potential to alter the ecosystem of the earth. In this article, we have studied the antibacterial activities of silver and copper nanoparticles and their formulations with antibiotics, tetracycline, and kanamycin against biorecycling microbes, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Strong synergistic effect of metal nanoparticles on the antimicrobial activities of commercial antibiotics has been observed. Antimicrobial activity of tetracycline improves by 286%-346% and 0%-28% when being tested in the presence of 250?ppm of silver and copper nanoparticles, respectively. For kanamycin, the improvement is 154%-289% for silver and 3%-20% for copper nanoparticles. Irrespective of the antibiotics and tested organisms, synergy is more prominent for silver nanoparticles even at their minimum active concentration (100?ppm). This study demonstrates that the combination of metal nanoparticles with antibiotics could be more fatal to ecosystem than either the metal nanoparticles or the antibiotics alone.
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    Ozone-Mediated Functionalization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Activities for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
    Hengheng Xia, Yexin Zhang, Chunlin Chen, Wenlin Wu, Ken Yao, Jian Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 533-538.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by ozone treatment has been systematically investigated by using Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), organic elemental analysis (OEA) and Boehm titration. The results showed that the functionalization process occurred at defective sites (opened mouths, tube caps, debris, etc.) before opening caps and truncating walls, and finally the graphitic structure was deteriorated. The surface oxygen content first increased with the treatment time but kept at around 8.0 wt% after 5?h. The analysis of the distribution of oxygen-containing groups revealed that phenolic hydroxyl was gradually converted to carboxyl and lactone. The carboxyl was found to play a pivotal role to reduce the over-potentials when we used the functionalized MWCNTs as the catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).
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    Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Atrazine Based on Polyaniline/Graphene
    Nguyen Van Chuc, Nguyen Hai Binh, Cao Thi Thanh, Nguyen Van Tu, Nguyen Le Huy, Nguyen Tuan Dzung, Phan Ngoc Minh, Vu Thi Thu, Tran Dai Lam
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 539-544.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.004
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, a novel layer-by-layer polyaniline/graphene (PANi/Gr) structure for electrochemical detection of atrazine was developed. Gr film was synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and transferred onto the PANi-predeposited microelectrode. The properties of PANi/Gr film were thoroughly investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman techniques. The most attractive feature of this system is a suitable microenvironment, which could provide an amplification of the conductive signal, thus may contribute to enhancing electron transfer and subsequently improve the sensitivity in electrochemical measurements. With low detection limit (~ 43?×?10-12?g/L), acceptable stability and good reproducibility, the proposed electrochemical immunosensor could be advantageously extended for multiplexed detection of other agents of environmental pollution.
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    Effect of Cooling Rate and Vanadium Content on the Microstructure and Hardness of Medium Carbon Forging Steel
    Weijun Hui, Yongjian Zhang, Chengwei Shao, Silian Chen, Xiaoli Zhao, Han Dong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 545-551.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    This paper reports the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and hardness of a kind of medium carbon steel microalloyed with two levels of V content (0.15% and 0.28%) after hot deformation by using single compression tests on a Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. The results show that cooling rate has a significant effect on the microstructure and hardness of the tested steels. Both the fraction of pearlite and hardness increase with increasing cooling rate, whereas a further increase of the cooling rate above a critical value promotes the formation of acicular ferrite (AF), and thus leads to a decrease of hardness mainly owing to the decrease of pearlite fraction and replacing it by AF and the less effective precipitation strengthening. Increasing V content results in a significant increase of hardness, and this tendency enhances with increasing cooling rate until the formation of AF. Furthermore, increasing V content also significantly enhances the formation of AF structure at a lower cooling rate. The results also suggest that by controlling microstructure, especially the precipitation of fine V(C,N) particles through adjusting post-forging cooling, the strengthening and gradient function in one hot-forging part could be obtained.
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    Effects of Cr Content on the Microstructure and Properties of 26Cr-3.5Mo-2Ni and 29Cr-3.5Mo-2Ni Super Ferritic Stainless Steels
    Li Ma, Shengsun Hu, Junqi Shen, Jian Han, Zhixiong Zhu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 552-560.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.022
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    By using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, strength and hardness measurements, the microstructure, precipitation, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance have been investigated for two super ferritic stainless steels, 26Cr-3.5Mo-2Ni and 29Cr-3.5Mo-2Ni, with the aim to consider the effect of Cr content. The results showed that with the addition of Cr content, the recrystallization temperature was increased; the precipitation of Laves and Sigma (σ) phases was promoted and the mechanical properties of super ferritic stainless steel were modified. Furthermore, the pitting corrosion resistance and corrosion resistance to H2SO4 of the two super ferritic stainless steels were improved. In addition, suitable annealing processing is a key factor to maintain integrated performance by optimizing microstructure and removing detrimental precipitation phases.
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    Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welded Components of High Strength Austenitic Stainless Steel
    Wei Liu, Hailong Fan, Xiangzhong Guo, Zhihong Huang, Xiaohui Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 561-565.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.023
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Resistance multi-spot welding (MSW) in column, triangle and tetragonal symmetry arrangements was prepared using cold-rolled 301L high-strength sheets, and their static and fatigue properties were investigated. The effects of spot welds on the fracture strengths and fatigue limits were discussed. The results show that the static strengths can be estimated using an inherent linear relationship formula of the load versus the welding area. It was based on the 28%-33% volume fraction of α′ martensite induced at the interfacial spot weld fracture because of the failure deformation. The fatigue limits of the MSW nonlinearly increase with the number of spot welds. The arrangement of spot welds in the MSW significantly affects the average fatigue limit of each spot weld; its 26% maximum reduction occurred in the triangle, and the interaction stress between spot welds led to its 18% reduction in the tetragonal symmetry. The calculated fatigue stress of all MSW loadings with their mean fatigue limits was 230-270?MPa.
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    Microfibrillated Cellulose Based Ink for Eco-Sustainable Screen Printed Flexible Electrodes in Lithium Ion Batteries
    Oussama El Baradai, Davide Beneventi, Fannie Alloin, Roberta Bongiovanni, Nadege Bruas-Reverdy, Yann Bultel, Didier Chaussy
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 566-572.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Free organic solvent ink containing graphite, carboxymethyl cellulose and microfibrillated cellulose as active material, dispersing and binder, respectively, has been formulated to produce flexible and eco-sustainable electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Content ratio of components and dispersion protocol were tailored in order to have rheological properties suitable for a large and cheap manufacturing process as well as screen printing. The bio-sourced printed electrodes exhibit a high porosity value of 70% that limits the electrochemical performances. However, the calendering process enhances electrode performances by increasing the reversible capacity from 85 until 315?mAh/g and reducing porosity to an optimal value of 34%. Moreover the introduction of 2% w/w of monofluoro-ethylene carbonate in the electrolyte reduced their reversible capacity loss of 11% in the printed electrode.
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    Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles onto Sepiolite Needles and Determination of Their Sensitivity toward Humidity, NO2 and H2
    M. Hassan, Ahmed S. Afify, J.M. Tulliani
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 573-582.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    This work investigated the sensitivity toward humidity, NO2 and H2 of ZnO modified sepiolite (Si12Mg8O30(OH)4.(H2O)4⋅8H2O). To this aim, sepiolite powder was first modified by leaching magnesium ions in HCl then by precipitating nano-sized Zn-based compounds under basic conditions. A subsequent thermal treatment at 550?°C for 1 h was performed. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area measurements, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy, as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The XRD patterns showed that all leached heat treated samples were made of anhydrous sepiolite and of ZnO. Sensors were then obtained by screen printing these materials onto commercial alumina substrates with Pt electrodes. All the investigated compositions were capable of detecting NO2 down to ppm level and 20?ppm H2, at an optimal working temperature of 300?°C. These detection limits are in line with the current best results reported in literature.
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    Laser Properties of Nd2O3 Doped Na2O-CaO-SiO2 Transparent Glass-Ceramics for Space Solar Energy
    Shuming Wang, Fenghua Kuang, Qing Ye, Yanxin Wang, Minghui Tang, Changchun Ge
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 583-586.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.023
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    A series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass ceramics containing different content of Nd3+ ions were prepared by the method of high temperature melting and subsequent crystallization. The absorption, excitation and emission spectra of these glass ceramics were investigated; effects of Nd3+ content and crystallization behavior on the laser properties of this material had been studied. The results show that the emission bands originating from the 4F3/2 state of Nd3+ were firstly enhanced with the increase of the Nd2O3 doping content and the crystallinity degree, and then decreased with more doping content and deepened crystallization. The possible reasons of this phenomenon were analyzed. Research will be favored to promote the development of glass ceramics laser materials for space solar energy.
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    Preparation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of a NiCrAlY?+?AlNiY Composite Coating
    Xin Peng, Sumeng Jiang, Jun Gong, Xudong Sun, Cao Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (6): 587-592.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, a NiCrAlY?+?AlNiY composite coating was prepared by arc ion plating technique and subsequent annealing treatment. Cyclic hot corrosion tests of the composite coating and a reference NiCrAlY coating coated with mixed salts of Na2SO4?+?K2SO4 and Na2SO4?+?NaCl were carried out at 700?°C. The results indicated that the composite coating performed better against the corrosion due to the gradient element distribution in Al-enriched outer layer and Cr-enriched inner layer. The corrosion mechanisms for the two coatings were also discussed.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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