Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      10 May 2016, Volume 32 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Adapting Nanotech Research as Nano-Micro Hybrids Approach Biological Complexity, A Review
    Sascha Vongehr, Shaochun Tang, Xiangkang Meng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 387-401.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.003
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    Today's emergence of nano-micro hybrid structures with almost biological complexity is of fundamental interest. Our ability to adapt intelligently to the challenges has ramifications all the way from fundamentally changing research itself, over applications critical to future survival, to posing globally existential dangers. Touching on specific issues such as how complexity relates to the catalytic prowess of multi-metal compounds, we discuss the increasingly urgent issues in nanotechnology also very generally and guided by the motto ‘Bio Is Nature's Nanotech’. Technology belongs to macro-evolution.for example integration with artificial intelligence (AI) is inevitable. Darwinian adaptation manifests as integration of complexity, and awareness of this helps in developing adaptable research methods that can find use across a wide range of research. The second half of this work reviews a diverse range of projects which all benefited from ‘playful’ programming aimed at dealing with complexity. The main purpose of reviewing them is to show how such projects benefit from and fit in with the general, philosophical approach, proving the relevance of the ‘big picture’ where it is usually disregarded.

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    Assessment of Elasticity, Plasticity and Resistance to Machining-induced Damage of Porous Pre-sintered Zirconia Using Nanoindentation Techniques
    Abdur-Rasheed Alao, Ling Yin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 402-410.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.009
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    Porous pre-sintered zirconia is subject to white machining during which its elasticity, plasticity and resistance to machining-induced damage determine its machinability and final quality. This study used nanoindentation techniques and the Sakai's series elastic and plastic deformation model to extract the resistance to plastic deformation from the plane strain modulus and the contact hardness for pre-sintered zirconia. The modulus and the resistance to plasticity were used to calculate the relative amount of elasticity and plasticity. The fracture energy and the normalized indentation absorbed energy were used to deconvolute the resistance to machining-induced cracking based on the Sakai-Nowak model. All properties were extracted at a 10 mN peak load and loading rates of 0.1-2 mN/s to determine the loading rate effects on these properties. We found that the resistance to plasticity and the resistance to machining-induced cracking were independent of the loading rate (ANOVA, p > 0.05). The elastic and plastic displacements depended on the loading rate through power laws. This loading rate-dependent deformation behaviour was explained by the maximum shear stress generated underneath the indenter and the indentation energy. The plastic deformation components and the indentation absorbed energy at all loading rates were higher than the elastic deformation components and the elastic strain energy, respectively. Finally, we established the linkage among the pore structure, indentation behaviour and machinability of pre-sintered zirconia.

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    Low Temperature Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Hot-plate for Nanocomposites Applications
    Abdelrahman Hussein, Sourav Sarkar, Byungki Kim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 411-418.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.001
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    A green, easy to reproduce method to obtain thermally reduced graphene oxide (GO) is described. The only requirement is a heating source, like a hot plate, that can reach ~225 °C without any special setup requirements. Upon addition of graphene oxide, effective reduction could be achieved within 10 s. Starting flake size affects the yield of graphene, final structure and composition. A detailed characterization of the produced graphene using thermal analysis, spectroscopic methods, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy is presented. Application of the produced graphene as a filler to epoxy resin for mechanical reinforcement is also reported. Smaller flakes (D50 = 5.7 µm) showed improved ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain and plane strain fracture toughness compared to larger flakes (D50 = 47.9 µm) that showed negative effect. Both flake sizes showed a negligible effect on Young's modulus.

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    A Novel Multiscale Reinforcement by In-Situ Growing Carbon Nanotubes on Graphene Oxide Grafted Carbon Fibers and Its Reinforced Carbon/Carbon Composites with Improved Tensile Properties
    Yunyu Li, Ling-jun Guo, Ya-wen Wang, He-jun Li, Qiang Song
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 419-424.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.022
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    In-situ growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly on carbon fibers (CFs) always lead to a degraded tensile strength of CFs and then a poor fiber-dominated mechanical property of carbon/carbon composites (C/Cs). To solve this issue, here, a novel carbon fiber-based multiscale reinforcement is reported. To synthesize it, carbon fibers (CFs) have been first grafted by graphene oxide (GO), and then carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been in-situ grown on GO-grafted CFs by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Characterizations on this novel reinforcement show that GO grafting cannot only nondestructively improve the surface chemical activity of CFs but also protect CFs against the high-temperature corrosion of metal catalyst during CNT growth, which maintains their tensile properties. Tensile property tests for unidirectional C/Cs with different preforms show that this novel reinforcement can endow C/C with improved tensile properties, 32% and 87% higher than that of pure C/C and C/C only doped with in-situ grown CNTs. This work would open up a possibility to fabricate multiscale C/Cs with excellent global performance.

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    Corrosion Resistance of Graphene-Reinforced Waterborne Epoxy Coatings
    Shuan Liu, Lin Gu, Haichao Zhao, Jianmin Chen, Haibin Yu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 425-431.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.017
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    Graphene (G) was dispersed uniformly in water and used as an inhibitor in waterborne epoxy coatings. The effect of dispersed G on anticorrosion performance of epoxy coatings was evaluated. The composite coatings displayed outstanding barrier properties against H2O molecule compared to the neat epoxy coating. Open circuit potential (OCP), Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis confirmed that the corrosion rate exhibited by composite coatings with 0.5 wt% G was an order of magnitude lower than that of neat epoxy coating. Salt spray test results revealed superior corrosion resistance offered by the composite coating.

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    Temperature Dependence and P/Zn Ratio in Phosphoric Acid Treatment of Zinc Oxide
    Hiroaki Onoda, Yurie Sato
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 432-436.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.006
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    Zinc oxide, which has photocatalytic activity, is used as white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, zinc oxide was shaken with phosphoric acid to synthesize a white pigment for cosmetics. Zinc oxide was set with 0.1 mol/L of phosphoric acid at P/Zn = 1/1 and 1/2, and then shaking in hot water for 1 h. The chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness of the obtained powder were studied. The P/Zn ratio in preparation had an effect on the reaction between phosphoric acid and zinc oxide. The photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide was inhibited by phosphoric acid treatment. The obtained samples had enough high reflectance at the visible light region.

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    In vitro Degradation of Pure Mg for Esophageal Stent in Artificial Saliva
    Rong-Chang Zeng, Xiao-Ting Li, Li-Jun Liu, Shuo-Qi Li, Fen Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 437-444.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.007
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Magnesium and its alloys as biodegradable implant materials can be potentially used in cardiovascular and orthopedic devices. However, few studies have focused on its application in esophageal stents. In this paper, time-lapse degradation characteristics of pure Mg were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen evolution, pH and electrochemical measurements after immersion in artificial saliva for different times. Results revealed that a dense degradation product film formed on samples, which mainly consisted of two kinds of layers: one was calcium phosphate compounds with different structures; the other was thin magnesium hydrate layer close to the substrate. Less pH increase and low degradation rate were observed in the first 5 days of immersion, which can be ascribed to the formation of a thicker and denser layer on the sample surface with increasing immersion time. And then there was an increase in degradation rate and pH values; the deposition layer remained almost intact after immersion for 6 and 8 days. After 10 days of immersion, the degradation rate and pH value remained stable, and the calcium phosphate layer was delaminated and the inner magnesium hydrate layer was exposed. This study indicated that pure Mg exhibited desirable degradation resistance in artificial saliva, which provided magnesium-based materials with the potential to be used as esophageal stents.

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    Antibacterial Performance of Cu-Bearing Stainless Steel against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Whole Milk
    Li Nan, Guogang Ren, Donghui Wang, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 445-451.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.002
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    Pathogen microorganisms exist in various environments such as dairy processing facilities. They are not easily eliminated, and significantly raise the risk of bacterial contamination. The inhibition ability of a novel type 304 Cu-bearing stainless steel (304CuSS) with nano-sized Cu-rich precipitates against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) added whole milk was investigated in this study. The results showed that after 24 h contact, the inhibition rates of the 304CuSS against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa added whole milk reached 99.2% ± 0.3% and 99.3% ± 0.2%, respectively, in contrast with the 304SS. In the plain whole milk, the inhibition rate of the 304CuSS also reached 66.9% ± 2.0% compared with the 304SS. The results demonstrated that the 304CuSS killed majority of the planktonic bacteria, and inhibited sessile bacteria adherence to the steel surface in the whole milk with and without bacteria addition, significantly reducing the bacterial growth rate. These research outcomes explicitly show an application potential of this novel antibacterial stainless steel in the dairy related food industry.

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    Numerical Simulation of Temperature Distribution and Thermal-Stress Field in a Turbine Blade with Multilayer-Structure TBCs by a Fluid-Solid Coupling Method
    W.Z. Tang, L. Yang, W. Zhu, Y.C. Zhou, J.W. Guo, C. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 452-458.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    To study the temperature distribution and thermal-stress field in different service stages, a two-dimensional model of a turbine blade with thermal barrier coatings is developed, in which the conjugate heat transfer analysis and the decoupled thermal-stress calculation method are adopted. Based on the simulation results, it is found that a non-uniform distribution of temperature appears in different positions of the blade surface, which has directly impacted on stress field. The maximum temperature with a value of 1030 °C occurs at the leading edge. During the steady stage, the maximum stress of thermally grown oxide (TGO) appears in the middle of the suction side, reaching 3.75 GPa. At the end stage of cooling, the maximum compressive stress of TGO with a value of -3.5 GPa occurs at the leading edge. Thus, it can be predicted that during the steady stage the dangerous regions may locate at the suction side, while the leading edge may be more prone to failure on cooling.

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    Formation of TiN Grid on NiTi by Laser Gas Nitriding for Improving Wear Resistance in Hanks' Solution
    C.H. Ng, O.K. Chan, H.C. Man ,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 459-464.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.012
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    Laser gas nitriding (LGN) is a common surface modification method to enhance the wear resistance of titanium (Ti) alloys, which are known to have poor tribological properties. In the present study, a titanium nitride (TiN) grid network was fabricated on the surface of nickel titanium (NiTi) by LGN. The laser processing parameters were selected to achieve nitriding without surface melting and hence to maintain a smooth surface finish. The characteristics of the grid-nitrided samples were investigated by scanning-electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, 2-D profilometry, contact angle measurements and nanoindentation. The wear resistance of the nitrided samples was evaluated using reciprocating wear test against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in Hanks' solution. The results indicate that the wear rates of the grid-nitrided samples and the UHMWPE counter-body in the wear pair are both significantly reduced. The decrease in wear rates can be attributed to the combination of a hard TiN grid and a soft NiTi substrate. In Hanks' solution, the higher hydrophilicity of the nitrided samples also contributes to the better performance in wear test against hydrophobic UHMWPE.

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    Effect of Microstructures on Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Coatings: (II) Competitive Effect of Grain Size and Twins Density on Corrosion Behavior
    Guozhe Meng, Yang Li, Yawei Shao, Tao Zhang, Yanqiu Wang, Fuhui Wang, Xuequn Cheng, Chaofang Dong, Xiaogang Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 465-469.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.11.013
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    Nanocrystalline nickel coatings with grain size of 50 nm were annealed in vacuum at 200 °C and 400 °C for 10 min. Their microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). And their corrosion behaviors were studied by means of polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that their grain size grew up to about 60 nm (200 °C) and 500 nm (400 °C), respectively. The specimen annealed at 200 °C possessed higher density of twins in compared with the counterparts of as-deposited and annealed at 400 °C. The normal grain size effect on the corrosion behavior was not observed. However, it was found that the corrosion resistance of the coating linearly changed with the density of twins.

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    Tribological Behavior of AlCoCrFeNi(Ti0.5) High Entropy Alloys under Oil and MACs Lubrication
    Yuan Yu, Jun Wang, Jinshan Li, Jun Yang, Hongchao Kou, Weimin Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 470-476.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.005
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    The tribological properties of AlCoCrFeNi and AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 high entropy alloys under gear oil and multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) lubrication condition have been studied. The equiaxed crystal structure of AlCoCrFeNi alloy is obtained after heat-treatment. The AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy keeps dendrite structure. Under the gear oil with good lubrication action, AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy preserves better tribological properties than AlCoCrFeNi alloy. The delamination and crack behaviors tend to occur in the grain boundary of AlCoCrFeNi alloy and along the interdendrite region of AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy. Under the MACs with relatively poor lubrication action, the applied load slightly influences the wear behavior of AlCoCrFeNi alloy, but seriously impacts the wear mechanism of AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy. Compared with AlCoCrFeNi alloy, AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy keeps better wear-resistance at low applied load of 100 N, but preserves less wear-resistance at high applied load of 200 N.

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    Improved Plasticity and Cold-rolling Workability of Fe-6.5wt%Si Alloy by Warm-rolling with Gradually Decreasing Temperature
    Yuanke Mo, Zhihao Zhang, Hongjiang Pan, Jianxin Xie
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 477-484.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The effects of warm-rolling process on the microstructure, ordering, mechanical properties and cold-rolling workability of Fe-6.5wt%Si alloy were investigated, where three processes of warm-rolling with the same total reduction of 93% were used, including (1) 500 °C/12 passes/total reduction of 93%, (2) 500 °C/3 passes/total reduction of 50% + 400 °C/9 passes/total reduction of 86%, and (3) 500 °C/3 passes/total reduction of 50% + 400 °C/5 passes/total reduction of 60% + 300 °C/4 passes/total reduction of 64%. The results show that compared with process (1) warm-rolling with constant temperature of 500 °C, process (2) and process (3) warm-rolling with gradually decreasing temperature can significantly improve the room temperature plasticity and cold-rolling workability of the Fe-6.5wt%Si alloy. For example, the three point bending fracture deflections are increased by 54.5% and 81.8% for processes (2) and (3), respectively, and the maximum reductions of single pass cold-rolling without edge crack are increased from 50% of process (1) to 55% of process (2) and 62% of process (3), respectively. The plasticity improvement of the Fe-6.5wt%Si alloy can be attributed to both reductions of surface oxidation degree and order degree of the alloy by warm-rolling with gradually decreasing temperature.

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    Influence of Interfacial Bonding between Metal Droplets on Tensile Properties of 7075 Aluminum Billets by Additive Manufacturing Technique
    Hansong Zuo, Hejun Li, Lehua Qi, Songyi Zhong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (5): 485-488.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.004
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    7075 aluminum billets were fabricated by micro droplet deposition manufacturing technique, and the influence of interfacial bonding between metal droplets on the tensile properties was studied. Three sets of samples were manufactured under different temperature conditions, and their mechanical properties were compared. The results show that the temperature of the metal droplets and substrate significantly affect the tensile strength of the sample. Moreover, with proper temperature setting, the 7075 aluminum billets manufactured by micro metal droplet deposition could achieve very good mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 373 MPa and an elongation of 9.95%, which are very similar to those of an extruded sample. Moreover, a metallurgical bonding diagram based on numerical calculations of interfacial temperature was established to predict the interfacial bonding state. In addition, the fracture morphologies of these specimens were observed. It is indicated that there was a significant transformation of failure mechanism with the improvement of metallurgical bonding, which agreed well with the numerical results.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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