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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      10 July 2016, Volume 32 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Low-temperature Degradation of Zirconia-based All-ceramic Crowns Materials: A Mini Review and Outlook
    Huazhe Yang, Yang Ji
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 593-596.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Zirconia-based bioceramics have been widely applied in the field of prosthodontics owing to its desirable mechanical performance, biocompatibility and aesthetics. However, the low-temperature degradation (LTD) of tetragonal zirconia (ZrO2) under intraoral condition can lead to the deterioration of mechanical properties of ZrO2 dental crowns, which contribute to many clinical failures in long-term observations. The long-term tetragonal phase stability and mechanical properties of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) are influenced by grain size of ZrO2 crystals, distribution and properties of stabilizers, the humid environment, etc. However, it is still difficult to control the abovementioned factors at the same time. This review summarizes the major advances in researches dealing with LTD and clarifies the obstacles to stabilization of the tetragonal ZrO2. Furthermore, the suggestions on improving the LTD resistance of tetragonal ZrO2 are proposed, which is the catalyst to promote the long-term stability of ZrO2-based all-ceramic crowns.
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    Effects of Process-Induced Voids on the Properties of Fibre Reinforced Composites
    Chensong Dong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 597-604.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.011
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    It is well known that voids have detrimental effects on the performance of composites. This study aims to provide a practical method for predicting the effects of process induced voids on the properties of composites. Representative volume elements (RVE) for carbon fibre/epoxy composites of various fibre volume fractions and void contents are created, and the moduli and strengths are derived by finite element analysis (FEA). Regression models are fitted to the FEA data for predicting composite properties including tensile, compressive and shear. The strengths of composite laminates including tensile strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) are calculated with the aid of the developed models. The model predictions are compared with various experimental data and good agreement is found. The outcome from this study provides a useful optimisation and robust design tool for realising affordable composite products when process induced voids are taken into account.
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    A Simple Method for the Fabrication of Metallic Copper Nanospheres-Decorated Cellulose Nanofiber Composite
    Hyunsik Bang, Ke Ma, Kai Wei, Chang-Yong Kang, Byoung-Suhk Kim, Mayakrishnan Gopiraman, Jung Soon Lee, Ick-Soo Kim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 605-610.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.015
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Herein, we report a new and simple method for the preparation of metallic copper nanospheres-decorated cellulose nanofiber composite (CuNSs/CNFs). Initially, the cellulose acetate nanofibers (CANFs) were electrospun followed by deacetylation and anionization to produce functional anionic cellulose nanofibers (f-CNFs). The CuCl2precursor was deposited on the f-CNFs (CuCl2/CNFs) by a simple dipping method. Then the CuCl2/CNFs were reduced under vacuum by using aluminum foil to produce the CuNSs/CNFs. The resultant CuNSs/CNFs composite was characterized by various microscopic and spectroscopic methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the successful functionalization of anionic groups with the CNFs. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results confirmed the formation of CuNSs on the surface of CNFs. From the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis, the weight percentage of Cu was found to be 23.5 wt%. The successful reduction of CuO to metallic Cu was confirmed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Mechanism has been proposed for the formation of metallic Cu sphere on CNFs.
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    Influence of ZrB2 Nanoparticles on the Mechanical and Thermal Behaviors of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Resol Composite
    Zahra Amirsardari, Rouhollah Mehdinavaz-Aghdam, Masoud Salavati-Niasari, Mohammad Reza Jahannama
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 611-616.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.021
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The present study focuses on the thermal response of carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic composites, where the matrix has been modified with different reinforcements. Two types of materials, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and zirconium diboride (ZrB2), were used in a new design of mixture to produce the heat-resistant ablative composite system. The CNT/ZrB2/carbon/phenolic nanocomposite (Z/NT-CR) system corresponding to CNT/carbon/phenolic nanocomposite (NT-CR) showed a reasonable decrease in mass loss and the ablation rate as compared to carbon/phenolic composite (CR). However, substantial drop in two factors was found for Z/NT-CR as compared to carbon/phenolic and NT-CR. Ablation mechanisms for all three composites were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis in conjunction with microstructural studies using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The microstructural studies revealed that CNTs acted as an ablation resistant phase for protection against 2000?°C, and the conversion from ZrB2 to ZrO2 played an important role as an insulator in the performance of char layer in the ablation resistance.
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    Folic Acid Functionalized Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube (FA-VACNT) Electrodes for Cancer Sensing Applications
    Somayeh Zanganeh, Fatemeh Khodadadei, S. Rafizadeh Tafti, Mohammad Abdolahad
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 617-625.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    An electrical cancer biosensor was developed using amine-functionalized vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) conjugated to folic acid (FA) molecules. Specific binding of FA to folate receptor (FR) existing on the membrane of cancer cells assisted their entrapment on VACNTs. For the conjugation of FA to CNTs, amine (-NH2) functional groups were attached to the side walls of the nanotubes by plasma treatment. The amount and shape of entrapped cancer cells on FA-VACNTs were noticeably higher and more uniform than the cells entrapped on bare VACNTs. The comparative signal spike of the FA-VACNTs and VACNTs covered impedance sensor in interaction with the same concentration of lung cancer cells (QUDB) showed sharper response for the functionalized sensor. Moreover, electron microscopy and florescent images as well as impedance diagrams verified the spherical and non-deformed shape of the cells entrapped by FA-VACNT. This sensor would be useful in assaying the cells vitality in time evolution. This device could be applied in diagnostic and time monitoring applications in the field of cancer such as extreme drug resistance assay (EDR).
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    Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Graphene Oxide-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite
    T. Kavinkumar, S. Manivannan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 626-632.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Graphene oxide (GO)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro Raman, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible near infrared spectroscopy techniques. Spectral characteristics of cladding modified fiber optic gas sensors were studied for various concentrations of ammonia, ethanol and methanol at 27?°C. Thickness of the gas sensing layer was controlled by varying the concentration of composite in ethanol medium (0.5 and 1?mg/mL) for three times dipping process. The 0.5?mg/mL concentrated GO-MWCNT coated sensor showed 1.20, 1.40 and 1.15 times higher sensitivity than the GO coated sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors, respectively. Furthermore, it exhibited 1.50, 1.80 and 1.80 times better sensitivity than 1?mg/mL concentrated GO-MWCNT coated sensor for ammonia, ethanol and methanol vapors, respectively. The presence of functional groups in GO increased the sensitivity. This is mainly attributed to the effective electron charge transfer between the composite materials and analytes.
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    Enhanced Fracture Toughness of Pressureless-sintered SiC Ceramics by Addition of Graphene
    Qisong Li, Yujun Zhang, Hongyu Gong, Haibin Sun, Wenjie Li, Li Ma, Yanshuang Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 633-638.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    To enhance the fracture toughness of pressureless-sintered SiC ceramic, graphene was introduced as an additive. The effects of graphene contents on the fracture toughness, bending strength, micro-hardness, phase compositions, and microstructure evolutions of the SiC ceramics were investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and metallographic microscopy. The fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness increased initially, and then decreased with the graphene content increasing from 0 to 5.0 wt%. The highest fracture toughness of 5.65?MPa m1/2 was obtained for sample with 1.0 wt% graphene sintered at 2130?°C for 1?h in Ar, which was about 22.6% higher than that of SiC sample without graphene. In addition, the highest bending strength and micro-hardness of 434.14?MPa and 29.21 GPa corresponded to the SiC samples with graphene content of 0.5 wt% and 2.0 wt%, respectively.
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    Controlled Growth of Pt-Au Alloy Nanowires and Their Performance for Formic Acid Electrooxidation
    Yu Han, Yuejun Ouyang, Zhihui Xie, Jinri Chen, Fangfang Chang, Gang Yu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 639-645.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Pt-Au alloy nanowires have been controllably electrodeposited on microelectrodes by applying an alternating current and were used as the electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation. The frequency and voltage of the alternating current and the electrolyte composition were adjusted to precisely control the morphologies, alloying structures and composition. The characteristics of Pt-Au alloy nanowires were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic performance of formic acid oxidation at Pt-Au alloy nanowires electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results showed that the Pt-Au alloy nanowires possessed highly-crystalline morphologies, the controllable bimetallic composition and single-phase alloy structures, which mainly grow in the <111> crystal orientation. The electrocatalytic activity of formic acid oxidation strongly depended on the bimetallic Pt/Au composition. The Pt35Au65 alloy nanowires displayed superior electrocatalytic performance and high stability toward the electrooxidation of formic acid in acidic solution, owing to the ensemble effect of the Pt and Au components. These findings provided insights into the design of the Pt-Au bimetallic nanomaterials as electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation.
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    Effect of Texture on Biodegradable Behavior of an As-Extruded Mg-3%Al-1%Zn Alloy in Phosphate Buffer Saline Medium
    Baojie Wang, Daokui Xu, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 646-652.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this work, the corrosion behavior of two differently oriented surfaces of an as-extruded Mg-3%Al-1%Zn (AZ31) bar in a simulated body fluid of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) medium was investigated and compared, and the effect of crystallographic texture on corrosion resistance of the alloy was deeply described. The results showed that at the early stage of immersion, a layer of compact and flat film formed easily on surfaces of both oriented samples. With prolonged immersion time, the degradation of formed corrosive films started and their severity was quite sensitive to the composed crystallographic planes of sample surfaces. For the surface containing highly concentrated orientation of {10-10} and {11-20} prism planes, the degradation of formed corrosive film was quite slight and only occurred at some particular sites even after immersion for 48?h. Thus, the film could keep good corrosive protection to the underneath substrate. However, for the surface containing {0002} basal planes, {10-10} and {11-20} prism planes, the degradation of corrosive production film occurred widely, resulting in further decrease in the corrosion resistance of immersed samples.
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiB-Containing Al-Zn Binary Alloys
    Sang-Soo Shin, Gil-Yong Yeom, Tae-Yang Kwak, Ik-Min Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 653-659.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed Al-35Zn cast alloys with TiB refiner addition were evaluated by X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry. The microstructure of these alloys featured α-Al dendrites surrounded by Al-Zn (α?+?η) eutectic structures. After the addition of TiB refiner, the alloy grain sizes decreased, and its morphology abruptly changed from dendritic to equiaxed grains. Such an improved microstructure of the modified alloys was accompanied by a significant increase in the tensile strength and elongation percentage compared to those of the Al-Zn or Zn-Al-based alloys. The results showed that with the increase of TiB content up to 0.05%, the morphology of α-Al dendrites and α?+?η phases changed from coarse dendrite and lamellar structures into independent and fine ones. Based on these results, the effect of TiB refiner addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-35Zn binary alloys was investigated.
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    Difference in the Hot Compressive Behavior and Processing Maps between the As-cast and Homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7075) Alloys
    S.Y. Park, W.J. Kim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 660-670.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The deformation mechanisms and processing maps of the as-cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7075) aluminum (Al) alloy were studied and compared with those of the homogenized 7075 Al alloy in the temperature range of 573-723?K and in the strain rate range of 10-3-10?s-1 to explore a possibility for directly using the as-cast 7075 Al alloy as a billet for hot working. The as-cast and homogenized 7075 Al alloys had similar grain sizes and showed similar high-temperature deformation behaviors. The as-cast 7075 Al alloy, however, exhibited higher power efficiencies and smaller unstable flow regions compared to the homogenized 7075 Al alloy because of the presence of secondary phases (MgZn2) segregated at the dendritic interfaces in the as-cast microstructure, which were formed during non-equilibrium solidification. These segregated phases provided nucleation sites for dynamic recovery or continuous dynamic recrystallization, and as a result a fine and more homogeneous (sub)grain structure could be obtained from the as-cast microstructure compared to the homogenized microstructure. The current work suggested the possibility and advantage of using as-cast microstructures for hot working of aluminum alloys with high content of solutes.
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    Effect of Reverse-threaded Pin on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Lap Welded Alclad 2024 Aluminum Alloy
    Yumei Yue, Zhengwei Li, Shude Ji, Yongxian Huang, Zhenlu Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 671-675.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In friction stir welding (FSW), tool geometry plays an important role in joint quality. In order to improve mechanical properties of friction stir lap welding (FSLW) joint, a tool with a reverse-threaded pin was designed in the present study. Using 2024-T4 aluminum alloy as the research object, tools with the full-threaded pin and reverse-threaded pin were used in FSLW. Results showed that, when using the same parameter combination, FSLW joint using the reverse-threaded pin owned bigger effective sheet thickness (EST), bigger lap width and better lap shear failure strength. Compared with the full-threaded pin, fracture mode of the FSLW joint changed from shear fracture mode to tensile fracture mode when the reverse-threaded pin was used. Fracture morphologies presented ductile fracture.
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    Resistive Switching Properties and Failure Behaviors of (Pt, Cu)/Amorphous ZrO2/Pt Sandwich Structures
    Haifa Zhai, Jizhou Kong, Jien Yang, Jing Xu, Qingran Xu, Hongchen Sun, Aidong Li, Di Wu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 676-680.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.011
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effect of Pt and Cu electrodes on the resistive switching properties and failure behaviors of amorphous ZrO2 films were investigated. Compared with Cu/ZrO2/Pt structures, the Pt/ZrO2/Pt structures exhibit better resistive switching properties such as the higher resistance ratio of OFF/ON states, the longer switching cycles and narrow distribution of OFF state resistance (Roff). The switching mechanism in the Pt/ZrO2/Pt structure can be attributed to the formation and rupture of oxygen vacancy filaments; while in the Cu/ZrO2/Pt structure, there exist both oxygen vacancy filaments and Cu filaments. The formation of Cu filaments is related to the redox reaction of Cu electrode under the applied voltage. The inhomogeneous dispersive injection of Cu ions results in the dispersive Roffand significant decrease of operate voltage. Schematic diagrams of the formation of conductive filaments and the failure mechanism in the Cu/ZrO2/Pt structures are also proposed.
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    Electrochemical Properties of Tubular SOFC Based on a Porous Ceramic Support Fabricated by Phase-Inversion Method
    Zongying Han, Yuhao Wang, Zhibin Yang, Minfang Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 681-686.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this work, a tubular ceramic-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was successfully fabricated by a low cost and simple process involving phase-inversion, brush coating and co-sintering. Properties including sintering behavior, microstructure of the tubular support as well as the electrochemical properties of single cell were investigated. The results show that a porous tubular support with finger-like pores and macrovoids was obtained after phase-inversion process. The tubular support is proved to be gas-permeable after sintering at 1400?°C with shrinkage of about 34%. The maximum power density of single tubular SOFC is 100?mW/cm2 and 122?mW/cm2 at 850?°C when fed with wet methane and hydrogen, respectively. The current collection, thickness of electrolyte and gas permeability of tubular support should account for the large total resistance. The present tubular design could be expected to deliver a higher voltage for longer support with several segmented-in-series cell stacks.
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    Correlation of Raw Materials and Waterborne Polyurethane Properties by Sequence Similarity Analysis
    Xing Zhou, Changqing Fang, Jing Chen, Shujuan Li, Yan Li, Wanqing Lei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 687-694.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Anionomer-type waterborne polyurethane dispersions (PUDs) were obtained from poly (propylene glycol) (PPG), isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI) and dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA) through a modified prepolymer isocyanate process. Two series of polyurethanes were prepared (Groups A and B) and a new prediction model based on grey relational analysis is introduced to predict the impact order of raw materials on several properties, such as solids content, viscosity, acid number and electrolytic stability of polyurethanes. It is found that the model can successfully predict the impact of raw materials on the properties through the designed demonstration experiments. Furthermore, the results of the prediction model show that DMPA plays a key role in viscosity, partial acid values and electrolytic stability.
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    Erratum
    Corrigendum to Microstructure Characteristics of Inconel 625 Superalloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting : Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Volume 31(2015), Pages 946–952
    Shuai Li, Qingsong Wei, Yusheng Shi, Zicheng Zhu, Danqing Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2016, 32 (7): 688-688.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The authors regret that the author should be Shuai Li1, 2, Qingsong Wei1, Yusheng Shi1, Chee Kai Chua2, Zicheng Zhu2, Danqing Zhang2.
    The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.
    DOI of original article: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.020

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