Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
Impact factor:6.155

The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      30 January 2013, Volume 29 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Phase Composition of Sputtered Film from a Mixture Target of Hydroxyapatite and Strontium-apatite
    K. Ozeki, T. Hoshino, H. Aoki, T. Masuzawa
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 1-6.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.014
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    To obtain an Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite thin film, sputter-coating was performed on a cellulose filter acting as a substrate from the mixture target of hydroxyapatite (HA) and strontium-apatite (SrAp) at an Ar pressure of 0.5e5.0 Pa. The ratio of the SrAp in the mixture target was varied from 25% to 100%. After coating, the films were heated at 700 oC to remove the cellulose filter substrate, and the crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sputter-coated film was identified as the Sr-substituted b-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and the Sr-substituted b-calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) as well as the Sr-substituted HA. The weight ratio of the Sr-substituted HA decreased with increasing Ar pressure or with an increasing ratio of SrAp to HA in the target. The average Sr/(Ca þ Sr) molar ratio in the film was 1.9%e3.5% slightly lower than the initial SrAp ratio of the target, and the ratio was not influenced by the Ar pressure. In the (Sr þ Ca)/P ratio, the ratio decreased while increasing the SrAp ratio in the target.

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    Application of Electroless FeL42Ni(P) Film for Under-bump Metallization on Solder Joint
    Haifei Zhou, Jingdong Guo, Qingsheng Zhu1, Jianku Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 7-12.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.006
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    Because Fe has a more negative standard reduction potential than Ni, the simultaneous electroless deposition of Fe and Ni is difficult. In this study, Fee42Ni(P) electroless deposit was prepared by using disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (ETDA-2Na) as complexing agent to reduce the difference in the electrode potential between Ni2+ and Fe2+. The solderability and the interfacial reaction between Fe-42Ni(P) alloy and Sn were investigated. It was found that the electroless Fe-42Ni(P) alloy has excellent wettability with Sn. Moreover, the interfacial reaction rate between Fe-42Ni(P) and Sn is very slow. These results suggest that Fee42Ni(P) alloy may become an attractive under-bump metallization (UBM).

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    Preparation and Characterization of Ca3Co4O9 Thin Films on Polycrystalline Al2O3 Substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition
    Yankun Fu, Xianwu Tang, Jie Yang, Hongbin Jian, Xuebin Zhu, Yuping Sun1
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 13-16.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.007
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      Ca3Co4O9 thin films have been first prepared on polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates using chemical solution deposition method by multiple annealing processing. It is observed that the derived thin films are c-axis oriented although the substrates are polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates, suggesting the self-assembled c-axis orientation. The annealing temperature effects on the properties are investigated and discussed. The best performances are attributed to the 850 oC-annealed sample, whose resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and power factor at 300 K are 7.4 mΩ cm, 117 μV/K and 0.18 mW/m K-2 respectively, which is even better than those of the thin films deposited on single crystal substrates. The results will provide an effective route to optimize the properties of Ca3Co4O9 thin films using chemical solution deposition by multiple annealing processing even the substrates are polycrystalline.

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    Influence of Annealing on Physical Properties of CdO Thin Films Prepared by SILAR Method
    B. Gokul, P. Matheswaran, R. Sathyamoorthy
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 17-21.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.015
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    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and annealed at 250e450 oC for 2 h. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Hall effect measurement. The XRD analysis reveals that the films were polycrystalline with cubic structure. Both crystallinity and the grain size were found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. SEM analysis shows the porous nature of the surface with spherical nanoclusters. Energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) confirmed the presence of Cd and O elements without any additional impurities. The films exhibited maximum transmittance (82%--86%) in infra-red (IR) region. Transmittance was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature and the estimated band gap energy (Eg) was in the range of 2.24e2.44 eV. Hall effect measurement shows an increase in carrier concentration and a decrease in resistivity with increasing annealing temperature. The carrier concentration (N) and resistivity (r)of about 1.26 x 1022 cm-3 and 8.71 x10-3   Ω cm are achieved for the film annealed at 450 oC for 2 h.

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    Effects of Anodic Voltages on Microstructure and Properties of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Biomedical NiTi Alloy
    Jilin Xu, Fu Liu, Junming Luo, Liancheng Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 22-28.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.009
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    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings, formed under various anodic voltages (320–440 V) on biomedical NiTi alloy, are mainly composed of γ-Al2O3 crystal phase. The evolution of discharging sparks during the PEO process under different anodic voltages was observed. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, composition, bonding strength, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), surface roughness, direct pull-off test, ball-on-disk friction and wear test and potentiodynamic polarization test, respectively. The results showed that the evolution of discharging sparks during the PEO process directly influenced the microstructure of the PEO coatings and further influences the properties. When the anodic voltage increased from 320 V to 400 V, the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the coatings slowly increased, and all the bonding strength was higher than 60 MPa; further increasing the anodic voltages, especially up to 440 V, although the thickness and γ-Al2O3 crystallinity of the coatings further increased, the microstructure and properties of the coatings were obviously deteriorated.

     
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    Mullite Oxidation Resistant Coating for SiC-coated Carbon/Carbon Composites by Supersonic Plasma Spraying
    Chao Ma, Hejun Li, Heng Wu, Qiangang Fu, Can Sun, Xiaohong Shi, Yulei Zhang, Zhengzhong Zhang, Jun Tao, Zhihai Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 29-33.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.001
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    To improve the oxidation resistance of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, mullite coating was prepared on the surface of SiC-coated C/C composites by supersonic plasma spraying. Phases and microstructures of mullite coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coating primarily consists of a single phase of mullite (3Al2O3−2SiO2). The SEM results show that mullite coating was continuous and well bonded with the SiC inner layer without penetrating crack. Mullite coating exhibited good oxidation resistance. After 98.5 h oxidation at 1773 K and 9 thermal shock cycles between 1773 K and room temperature, the weight loss of the coated C/C composites was only 2.57%.

     
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    Synthesis and Characterization of NiFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles by Combustion Method
    M. Kooti, A. Naghdi Sedeh
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 34-38.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.016
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    Magnetic nanoparticles of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) have been successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted combustion method using stable ferric and nickel salts as precursors and glycine as fuel. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The effect of different dose of glycine on the structural parameters and magnetic properties of the prepared NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was also investigated. This study revealed that it was possible to produce larger size of nanoparticles with lower saturation magnetization by using higher dose of fuel.

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    Characterization of Ga-doped ZnO Nanorods Synthesized via Microemulsion Method
    Sang Kyoo Lim, Seong Hui Hong, Sung-Ho Hwang, Soonhyun Kim, Hyunwoong Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 39-43.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.005
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    Gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) nanorods were synthesized by microemulsion method with different types of surfactants. The phase and morphology of the above nanorods were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM observations show that the ZnO nanorods have diameters around 70–200 nm and lengths up to several micrometers. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of GZO nanorods exhibited a sharp and strong ultraviolet bandgap at 383 nm and a relatively weaker emission associated with the defect level. Resistivity of GZO nanorods synthesized with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium benzene sulfonate (SBS) surfactants showed 2.84 Ω m and 14.2 Ω m, respectively.

     
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    Shape-controllable Synthesis of Ultrafine ZnO Powders of Different Morphologies
    Xiaoyi Shen, Yuan Liang, Yuchun Zhai, Zhiqiang Ning
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 44-48.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.004
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    By employing zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide as raw materials, ultrafine ZnO powders with different morphologies were successfully synthesized through hydrothermal method. The influences of the reaction temperature, the OH-/Zn2+ mol ratio and the reaction time on the morphologies of the ZnO powders were discussed. The reaction conditions were obtained, under which the ZnO of flower-like particles, micro-rods and flake particles was synthesized, respectively. The crystal structures and morphologies of those ZnO particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ZnO with flower-like structures was composed of lots of micro-rods with hexagon morphology. The XRD patterns indicated that the ZnO powders were hexagonal wurtzite structures with high purity. Finally, the growth mechanism of the ZnO particles was discussed.

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    Evaluation on Properties of CaO-BaO-B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramic Sealants for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    Fatemeh Heydari, Amir Maghsoudipour, Zohreh Hamnabard, Sajad Farhangdoust
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 49-54.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.011
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    To develop suitable sealants for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC), glass–ceramics based on the CaO–BaO–B2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 system were studied. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), glass transition temperature (Tg) and dilatometric softening point temperature (Td) of specimens were determined by means of dilatometer analysis and crystallization temperature was measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Also, crystallization behavior during prolonged heat-treatment and microstructure properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Electrical properties were measured at different temperatures, and the results showed a high resistance (>104 Ω) at the SOFC operation temperature (600–800 °C). Moreover, mechanical properties of heat-treated specimens (1, 10, 30, 50 h) were measured. Microstructure investigation revealed a well-adhered bonding between the sealant glass–ceramic electrolyte and glass.

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    Dielectric and Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties of Two Types of SiC Fibres with Different Compositions
    Fang Ye, Litong Zhang, Xiaowei Yin, Yongsheng Liu, Laifei Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 55-58.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.006
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    The dielectric and electromagnetic properties of two types of SiC fibres with different compositions were investigated. The permittivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) of SiC fibre bundles were measured in 8.2–12.4 GHz by waveguide method. The reflection coefficient (RC) of unidirectional SiC fibre laminates was determined in 8–18 GHz using naval research laboratory (NRL)-arc method. Results showed that the electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbing properties of SiC fibres were correlated with their composition, microstructure and instinct performance of electrical resistance. SiC fibres with higher content and greater size of nano-scale β-SiC showed higher permittivity, conductivity, SE and lower RC, which resulted in their better EMW absorbing ability, i.e. the lower reflection to EMW.

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    Sintering Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of Mechanically Alloyed W-Bronze Composite Powders by Two-step Ball Milling Process
    Kahtan S. Mohammed, Azmi Rahmat, Khairel R. Ahmad
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 59-69.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.001
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    The miscibility of W in Sn and Cu is extremely poor. Sintering of W–bronze composites to their full density is proved to be difficult. To tackle this problem, the ball milling process of the W–bronze powder mixture proposed in this study was split into two steps. In the first step, the softness of Sn powder was exploited to modify the surface morphology of W particles. In the second step, Cu was added to the ball milled mixture. To achieve this goal, four 50 wt% W–bronze compact sets of different powder precursors and activator additions were produced. The sintering process was performed at 1150 °C. The two-step ball milled powder yielded sintered compacts of homogeneous microstructure of fine polygonal W grains dispersed in bronze matrix. They showed the highest hardness and densification levels. The sintered density, microstructure, hardness and densification mechanisms of the sintered compacts were investigated, examined and evaluated using different metallographic, microscopic and measurement facilities.

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    Relationship between Atmospheric Dew Point and Sinterability of Al-Si Based Alloy
    A. Manonukul, A. Salee
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 70-76.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.010
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    Al–Si based alloys are interestingly used to produce automotive components. Fabrication of such components by powder metallurgy (PM) has been developed continuously. During PM, several parameters affect the sinterability of the aluminium powder, including atmospheric dew point which is regarded as one of the crucial parameters. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the atmospheric dew point on the sinterability of Al–14.9Si–2.4Cu–0.55Mg by studying the sintering characters obtained under various atmospheric dew points. The aluminium alloy powder was pressed into tensile specimens and subsequently sintered in a nitrogen atmosphere at 560 °C for 60 min with varied atmospheric dew points. The results show that as the dew point decreased, the sintered properties were improved. The atmospheric dew point of –38.4 °C is sufficient to obtain good sintering characters and it is achievable in a commercial furnace.

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    Structural Characterization of AlMgB14 Prepared by Field-activated, Pressure-assisted Synthesis
    Wen Liu, Yang Miao, Qingsen Meng, Shaoping Chen1
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 77-81.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.008
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    Mechanical alloying (MA) and field-activated, pressure-assisted synthesis (FAPAS) were used for the in situ synthesis and densification of ultra-hard, super-abrasive AlMgB14 metallic ceramic, performed at 1500 °C under a pressure of 60 MPa with the elemental constituents of aluminum, magnesium, and boron. The microstructure and components of synthesized metallic ceramic were observed and determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main components of the samples were AlMgB14 with a few MgAl2O4·MgAl2O4 was derived from the contamination of the preliminary powders and the milling process. The average hardness of the samples that provided the results was 26.1 GPa. The average density of the samples was 2.62 g/cm3, which is 98% of its theoretical density. The sample of AlMgB14–TiB2 composite with 30 wt% TiB2 had a hardness of 29.5 GPa, which is consistent with that of AlMgB14–TiB2 composite with 30 wt% TiB2 prepared by mechanical alloying/hot uniaxial pressing. Thus, a new approach was developed using the mechanical alloying and FAPAS process to synthesize AlMgB14 with fast heating, high efficiency, energy saving, and high yield.

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    Heredity in the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot-rolled Spring Steel Wire 60Si2MnA during Heat Treatment Process
    Chaolei Zhang, Leyu Zhou, Yazheng Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 82-88.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.012
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    Heredity in the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled spring steel wire 60Si2MnA during heat treatment process was investigated comprehensively. The steel was isothermally transformed to obtain various hot-rolled microstructure (pearlite fineness within the range of 140–510 nm) and mechanical properties, and followed by some quenching–tempering treatment. Afterwards, microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and quantitative metallography, and mechanical properties were determined by tensile test. The results indicated that the hot-rolled microstructure with a coarsen pearlite structure had been changed after reheating, to a austenite microstructure with bigger and more uneven grain size, and finally to a coarsen tempered microstructure. And the average austenite grain size and standard deviation of its distribution in quenched microstructure were observed to depend linearly on the interlamellar spacing in hot-rolled microstructure. Besides, to obtain a good combination of the final strength and plasticity, an optimum value range (190–280 nm) of the interlamellar spacing had been determined for the interlamellar spacing in hot-rolled microstructure.

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    Corrosion of AISI 4130 Steel Alloy under Hydrodynamic Condition in Ethylene Glycol+ Water+NO2-­­­­ Solution
    I. Danaee, M. Niknejad Khomami, A.A. Attar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (1): 89-96.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.013
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    The electrochemical behavior of steel alloy in ethylene glycol–water mixture at different solution rotating speeds was investigated by polarization curves and AC impedance measurements (EIS). The results obtained showed that corrosion rate was not changed significantly at different rotating speeds and was decreased with increasing ethylene glycol concentration. The effect of nitrite as an inhibitor was studied and high inhibition efficiency was obtained. It was found that surface passivation occurred in the presence of inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of the nitrite was explained on the basis of the competitive adsorption between the inorganic anions and the aggressive Cl ions and the adsorption isotherm basically obeys the Flory–Huggins adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for steel corrosion and inhibitor adsorption were determined, which revealed that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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