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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 February 2013, Volume 29 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanoengineering Titania for High Rate Lithium Storage: A Review
    Chunhai Jiang, Jinsong Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 97-122.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.017
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    Nanostructured titania have been intensively investigated as anode materials of Li-ion batteries for their excellent high rate performance. The size effects of TiO2 polymorphs (mainly rutile, anatase and TiO2-B) on their electrochemical performance and the latest efforts in nanoengineering titania anodes through enhancing their ionic or electronic transportation or both are reviewed in this work. We suppose that micron-or submicron­sized porous structures assembled by TiO2 nanoparticles, nanowires/nanotubes or nanosheets with a high percentage of exposing high reactive facets together with a conductive percolating network are ideal anodes not only for high rate lithium storage but also for high packing densities of the active materials.

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    Preparation of Cauliflower-like ZnO Films by Chemical Bath Deposition:Photovoltaic Performance and Equivalent Circuit of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
    Yuqiao Wang, Xia Cui, Yuan Zhang, Xiaorui Gao, Yueming Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 123-127.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.019
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    The uniform cauliflower-like ZnO films were deposited on the conducting substrate by a chemical bath deposition in urea/water solution. The film structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermo­gravimetric differential thermal analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The average diameter of ZnO nanoparticles and the petal thickness were 25 nm and 8 mm, respectively. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the cauliflower-like ZnO film electrode showed the short-circuit current density of 6.08 mA/cm2, the open-circuit photovoltage of 0.66 V, the fill factor of 0.55 and the overall conversion efficiency of 2.18%. The equivalent circuit of cells based on the ZnO film electrodes was measured by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the analysis of equivalent circuit provided the relationship between the cell performance and the interfacial resistance, such as the shunt resistance and the series resistance.

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    MOVPE Growth of InxGa1-xN(x w 0.4) and Fabrication of Homo-junction Solar Cells
    Md. Rafiqul Islam, Md. Rejvi Kaysir, Md. Jahirul Islam, A. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 128-136.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.005
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    The metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of indium gallium nitride (InGaN) has been discussed in detail towards the fabrication of solar cell. The InGaN film with In contents up to 0.4 are successfully grown by controlling the fundamental growth parameters such as the precursor gas flow rates, temperature etc. The formation of metallic In originates from the higher value (0.74) of trimethylindium/ (trimethylindium + triethylgallium) (TMI/(TMI + TEG)) molar ratio with low (4100) V/III weight molar ratio while the lower value (0.2) of TMI/(TMI + TEG) causes the phase separation. It is also necessary to control the growth rate and epitaxial film thickness to suppress the phase separation in the material. The crystalline quality of grown films is studied and it is found to be markedly deteriorated with increasing In content. The lattice parameters as well as the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between GaN template and InGaN epi-layer are primarily considered as the reasons to deteriorate the film quality for higher In content. By using In0.16Ga0.84N films, an nep homo-junction structure is fabricated on 0.65 mm GaN template. For such a device, the response to the light illumination (AM 1.5) is observed with an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V and the short circuit current density of 0.25 mA/cm2. To improve the performance as well as increase solar photon capturing, the device is further fabricated on thick GaN template with higher In content. The In0.25Ga0.75Nn+-p junction solar cell is found better performance with an open circuit voltage of 1.5 V and the short circuit current density of 0.5 mA/cm2. This is the InGaN p-n homo-junction solar cell with the highest In content ever reported by MOVPE.

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    Effect of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure and Hydrogen Permeation Properties of Perovskite Membrane
    Marzieh Heidari, Akbar Zamaniyan, Aliakbar SafeKordi, Ensieh Ganji Babakhani, Mahdi Amanipour
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 137-141.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.003
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    The BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-d (BCY) perovskite membrane was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. Sintering temperatures and dwell time during sintering influence the final microstructure of the ceramic. Results showed that increasing sintering temperature resulted in a dense membrane with clear grains. An increase of dwell time was favorable to produce membranes with larger grains in the sintered ceramics. A density of 5.87 g/cm3 was reached for the membrane after sintering at 1200 oC with dwell time of 10 h. This resulted in the formation of dense membranes with clear structure and average grain size of 0.27 mm. The influence of microstructure on the hydrogen permeation flux through BCY was observed by measuring the hydrogen permeation flux, and the results showed that hydrogen permeation flux increases with increasing the average grain size of the membrane. From H2 permeation rates, it was found that bulk diffusion rather than surface reaction played the dominant role in H2 transport.

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    Effect of Different Calcination Temperatures and Post Annealing on the Properties of Acetic Acid Based Sol-Gel (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) Thin Films
    Sebastian Wiegand, Stefan Flege, Olaf Baake, Wolfgang Ensinger
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 142-148. 
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    (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) lead free thin films were synthesized by means of an acetic acid based sol-gel process on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. Na-acetate, K-acetate and Nb-pentaethoxide were used as metal precursors and acetic acid as the solvent. The effect of different calcination temperatures on the properties of the NKN films was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, leakage current and hysteresis measurements. Low calcination temperatures led to low currents at high electric fields whereas high calcination temperatures led to low currents at low electric fields. Based on these findings calcination at low temperature was combined with a post annealing treatment. Low leakage currents of 4 x 10-4 A/cm2 at 150 kV/cm and 2Pr and 2Ec values of 28 mC/cm2 and 150 kV/cm, respectively, could be obtained. All films were single phase NKN with random crystal orientations and no crack or pore formation was visible on the surface.

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    Characterization of Wollastonite Glass-ceramics Made from Waste Glass and Coal Fly Ash
    Soon-Do Yoon, Jong-Un Lee, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Yeon-Hum Yun, Wang-Jung Yoon
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 149-153.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.002
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    The crystallization behavior of wollastonite glass-ceramics was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and surface morphological observations, and the chemical compositions were evaluated by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Various heat treatment temperatures (850, 900, 950, 1000 and 1050 oC) were used to obtain glass-ceramics of the ideal wollastonite crystal phase as well as optimum mechanical properties and chemical durability. From XRD, FE-SEM and EDS, the crystallization of acicular crystal phase in the matrix was achieved at heat treatment temperature of 1000 and 1050 oC, and wollastonite (CaSiO3) was found in the acicular type main crystal phase in the glass-ceramics. Various properties, such as density, compressive strength, bending strength and chemical durability were also examined. The mechanical properties of glass-ceramics obtained at the heat treatment temperature of 1000 and 1050 oC were superior to those obtained at the heat treatment temperature of 850 oC.

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    Effects of Growth Temperature on Structural and Electrical Properties of Li-N-H Codoped ZnO
    Y.F. Lu, Z.Z. Ye, L.P. Zhu, Y.J. Zeng, J.Y. Huang, B.H. Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 154-156.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.009
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    Effects of growth temperature on the structural and electrical properties of LieNeH codoped ZnO thin films grown by DC reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results showed that increasing growth temperature could improve the crystalline quality. But Hall measurement results showed that growth temperature had a nonlinear influence on the electrical property. The variation of electrical properties with the growth temperature was found to be related to the activated concentration of N in ZnO and the evaporation of Li during the growth process, derived from the Hall measurement and the second ion mass spectroscopy measurement.

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    Reduced Graphene Oxide Mediated SnO2 Nanocrystals for Enhanced Gas-sensing Properties
    Yanhong Chang, Yunfeng Yao, Bin Wang, Hui Luo, Tianyi Li, Linjie Zhi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 157-160.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.007
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    SnO2ereduced graphene oxide (SnO2erGO) composites were prepared via a hydroethermal reaction of graphene oxide (GO) and SnCl2?2H2O in the mixed solvent of ethylene glycol and water. During the redox reaction, GO was reduced to rGO while Sn2+ was oxidized to SnO2, uniformly depositing on the surface of rGO sheets. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectra analysis (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively, and their gas sensing properties were further investigated. Compared with pure SnO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared SnO2erGO gas sensor showed much better gas sensing behavior in sensitivity and responseerecovery time to ethanol and H2S at low concentrations. Overall, the highly sensitive, quick-responding and low cost SnO2erGO gas sensor could be potentially applied in environmental monitoring area.

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    Microstructural Development and Deformation Mechanisms during Cold Rolling of a Medium Stacking Fault Energy TWIP Steel
    K.A. Ofei, L. Zhao, J. Sietsma
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 161-167.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.002
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    The magnetic response, microstructural and texture changes occurring during cold rolling of aFe-14Mn-0.64C-2.4Al-0.25Si medium stacking fault energy TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel have been studied by X-ray diffraction and magnetic techniques. The changes in the sub-grain size (Ds), probability of stacking fault formation (Psf) and microstrain in the material as cold rolling progressed were determined by using a modified version of the Williamson and Hall equation. A strong development of the crystallographic texture with increasing deformation was observed. Deformation-induced formation of a small fraction α’-martensite was observed, indicating that the steel also exhibits γ’ →α’-martensite transformation during cold rolling, which is discussed via the changes of the stacking-fault probability and the texture development during cold rolling.

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    Effects of Cr, Ni and Cu on the Corrosion Behavior of Low Carbon Microalloying Steel in a Cl- Containing Environment
    Yanlei Zhou, Jun Chen, Yang Xu, Zhenyu Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 168-174.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.013
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    The effects of Cr, Ni and Cu on the corrosion behavior of low carbon microalloying steel in a Cl-containing environment were investigated. The results revealed that the corrosion process could be divided into the initial stage in which the corrosion rate increased with accumulation of corrosion products and the later stage in which homogeneous and compact inner rust layers started to protect steel substrate out of corrosion mediums. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the rust layers of the three-group steels (Cr, CreNi and CreNieCu steels) were composed of α-FeOOH, β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4 and large amounts of amorphous compounds. The content of amorphous compounds of CreNieCu steel was about 2%-3% more than that of CreNi steel. The results of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) showed that Cr concentrated mainly in the inner region of the rust of CreNieCu steel, inner/outer interface especially, whereas Ni was uniformly distributed all over the rust and Cu was noticed rarely after 73 wet/dry cycles. The addition of Cr and Ni was beneficial to the formation of dense and compact inner rust layer, which was the most important reason for the improvement of corrosion resistance of experimental steel.

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    Variation in Texture and Lankford Value of 1070 Aluminum Sheet Rolled by Cone-shaped Roll
    Yasumasa Chino, Xinsheng Huang, Kazutaka Suzuki, Mamoru Mabuchi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 175-179.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.018
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    A rolling with cone-shaped roll, the diameter of which continuously varies along the axial direction, has been proposed as a new shear rolling for controlling the texture of an aluminum alloy sheet. In this study, variations in the texture and Lankford value of a 1070 aluminum sheet rolled by the cone-shaped roll were investigated. Rolling with the cone-shaped roll was found to impose intense shear strain at the edges of the specimen, specifically near the surface. The shear directions in the left and right portions of the specimen were opposite to each other. The surface and middle layer of the specimen rolled by the cone-shaped roll and the reference specimen were characterized by a shear texture and typical recrystallization texture components, respectively. Notably, the specimen rolled by the cone-shaped roll exhibited smaller texture intensity than the reference specimen, especially at the surface, and the shear texture-components were observed at relatively deeper positions. As a result of Lankford value measurements, the specimen rolled with the cone-shape roll exhibited a smaller planar anisotropy than the reference specimen and an average Lankford value close to unity, which are likely due to the texture modifications introduced during rolling with the cone-shaped roll.

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    Effect of Post Heat Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of Phytic Acid Conversion Coated Magnesium
    R.K. Gupta, K. Mensah-Darkwa, D. Kumar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 180-186.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.014
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    An environment friendly chemical conversion coating for magnesium was obtained by using a phytic acid solution. The effect of post-coating 1heat treatment on the microstructures and corrosion properties of phytic acid conversion coated magnesium was investigated. It was observed that the microstructure and corrosion resistive properties were improved for the heat treated samples. The corrosion current density for bare magnesium, phytic acid conversion coated magnesium, and post-coating heat treated magnesium was calculated to be 2.48 x 10-5, 1.18 x 10-6, and 9.27 x 10-7 A/cm2, respectively. The lowest corrosion current density for the heat treated sample indicated its highest corrosion resistive effect for the magnesium. The maximum corrosion protective nature of the heat treated sample was further confirmed by the largest value of impedance in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies.

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    Phenomenon and Mechanism of High Temperature Low Plasticity in High-Cr Nickel-based Superalloy
    Zhongnan Bi, Jianxin Dong, Lei Zheng, Xishan Xie
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (2): 187-192. 
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    Cr is the most important element in nickel-based alloys to prevent high temperature oxidation and corrosion. However, high-Cr content will lead to a decline of hot workability which limits the addition of Cr for most nickel-based superalloys. In order to add more Cr into Ni-based alloy for improving high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance, the poor hot workability of high-Cr alloy must be first solved. Deformation characteristic of a high-Cr nickel-based alloy (40 wt% Cr) under hot compression conditions at 800-1200 oC has been investigated by using a Gleeble 3500 machine, and the microstructural evolution during hot working process has been observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that a high-temperature low-plasticity (HTLP) region exists in this high-Cr nickel-based alloy. This phenomenon can be attributed to its non-uniform interdendritic microstructure at high temperatures. These results can explain the poor hot workability of high-Cr nickel-based alloy.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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