Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      30 March 2013, Volume 29 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Ion Conduction in Superionic Glassy Electrolytes: An Overview
    Angesh Chandra, Alok Bhatt, Archana Chandra
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 193-208.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.005
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    The various theoretical and experimental models for ion conduction mechanism of fast ion conducting (FIC) glass electrolytes have been reported in the present review paper. Some characterization techniques of FIC glasses are presented. The experimental methods for determination of some ion transport parameters viz ionic conductivity (σ), ionic mobility (μ), mobile ion concentration (n), ionic drift velocity (vd), ionic transference number (tion) and activation energies of FIC glasses are explained. The solid state battery fabrication by using some FIC glasses is also reported.

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    Properties and Structures of Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 Glass
    Guoying Zhao, Ying Tian, Huiyan Fan, Junjie Zhang, Lili Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 209-214.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.003
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    Glass formation range of Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 system has been investigated (B2O3≤40 mol%). Four glasses with compositions xBi2O3-30B2O3-(70-x)TeO2 (x=40, 50, 60 and 70 mol%) have been prepared by using melt quenching technique. The effect of Bi2O3 content on thermal stability, optical properties and structures of these four Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 glasses is systematically investigated by inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the density, refractive index and optical basicity increase with increasing Bi2O3. The Raman spectra and XPS spectra show that the glass network is mainly constituted by the [BiO6] octahedron, [TeO4] trigonal bipyramidal, [TeO3] trigonal pyramid, [BO3] trigonal pyramid and [BO4] tetrahedron structural units. With increasing Bi2O3, the coordination number around B atom changes from 3 to 4 and [TeO4] units are converted to [TeO3] units. Bi5+ ions may exist in Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 (BBT) system and their amount grows with increasing Bi2O3 content.

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    Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Nano-Co3O4 Anode Materials from Spent Li-Ion Batteries for Lithium-Ion Batteries
    Chuanyue Hu, Jun Guo, Jin Wen, Yangxi Peng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 215-220.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.009
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    A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of cobalt oxalate from spent lithium-ion batteries was used to recycle cobalt compound by using alkali leaching, reductive acid leaching and chemical deposition of cobalt oxalate. The recycled cobalt oxalate was used to synthesize nano-Co3O4 anode material by sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by thermal gravity analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and charge/discharge measurements. The influence of molar ratio of Co2+ to citric acid and calcination temperature on the structure and electrochemical performance of nano-Co3O4 was evaluated. As the molar ratio of Co2+ to citric acid is 1:1, the face-centered cubic (fcc) Co3O4 powder shows the discharge capacity of 760.9 mA h g-1, the high coulombic efficiency of 99.7% in the first cycle at the current density of 125 mA g-1, and the excellent cycling performance with the reversible capacity of 442.3 mA h g-1 after 20 cycles at the current density of 250 mA g-1.

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    Photoluminescence from Silicon Nanocrystals in Encapsulating Materials
    Z. Deng, X.D. Pi, J.J. Zhao, D. Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 221-224.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.006
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    Naturally oxidized freestanding silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are incorporated in commonly used encapsulating materials to explore the photoluminescent application of Si NCs in device structures such as solid-state lighting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. The quantum yield of Si NCs before the incorporation has reached about 45% at the excitation wavelength of 370 nm without any special surface modification. It is found that medium loadings, e.g., 5 wt% of Si NCs in encapsulating materials help to obtain high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the mixtures of Si NCs and encapsulating materials. The curing of encapsulating materials significantly reduces EQE. Among all the encapsulating materials investigated in this work, silicon-­OE6551 enables the highest EQE (21% at excitation wavelength λex =370 nm) after curing. Based on current findings, we have discussed the continuous efforts to advance the photoluminescent application of Si NCs.

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    Relationship between Microstructure Evolution and the Luminescent Properties of Eu3+-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and Y2O3 Nano-powders
    Jie Zhang, Yongyi Gao, Junjie Xiao, Changfu Xu, Yunxin Liu, Qibin Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 225-230.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.004
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    Eu3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and Y2O3 composite phase nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method. Sintering was performed at 800 oC, which is considerably lower than the sintering temperature used in the conventional method. Y3+ in YAG and Y2O3 was partially substituted with Na+ by adding NaNO3 into the solution during sample synthesis. The microstructures and phase transformation process were characterized through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained results verified that the addition of Na+ promoted crystallinity and grain growth of the three phases, namely, Y2O3,Y4Al2O9, and Y3Al5O12. Highly efficient luminescence properties excited by 254 and 365 nm ultraviolet were achieved. In conclusion, the remarkable enhancement of the luminescence intensity with the addition of Na+ should be attributed to grain growth and improvement of crystallinity.

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    Preparation and Characterization of Flower-like Cu2SnS3 Nanostructures by Solvothermal Route
    Xiaojuan Liang, Qian Cai, Weidong Xiang, Zhaopin Chen, Jiasong Zhong, Yun Wang, Mingguo Shao, Zhenrong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 231-236.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.011
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    Flower-like Cu2SnS3 nanostructures composed of nano-flakes were successfully synthesized by solvothermal technique at 180 oC for 16 h. In the preparation process, CuCl2·2H2O, SnCl2·2H2O and thiourea were used as raw materials, and ethylene glycol were used as solvent. The results showed that the obtained product was pure phase Cu2SnS3. The average diameter of Cu2SnS3 flowers and the thickness of the nano-flakes were about 1e1.5 mm and 10 nm, respectively. The influence of reaction time and solvents on the morphology, size and structure of the products was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and field-emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM). The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum measurement indicated that the band gap of the sample was about 1.26 eV and could be applied to the absorbing layer of thin solar cell. The possible formation mechanism of flower-like Cu2SnS3 was also proposed and discussed.

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    Biological Activity and Antibacterial Property of Nano-structured TiO2 Coating Incorporated with Cu Prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation
    Wei Zhu, Zhenxiang Zhang, Beibei Gu, Junying Sun, Lixian Zhu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 237-244.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.015
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    Micro-arc oxidized Cu-incorporated TiO2 coatings (CueTiO2) were prepared in the Ca, P, Cu-containing electrolyte to obtain an implant material with superior biological activity and antibacterial property. The surface topography, phase, and element composition of the TiO2 and CueTiO2 coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected to evaluate the antibacterial property of the CueTiO2 coatings, whereas osteoblastic MG63 cells were cultured on the coatings to investigate the biological activity. The obtained results demonstrated that Cu element was successfully incorporated into the porous nano-structured TiO2 coatings, which did not alter apparently the surface topography and phase composition of the coatings as compared to the Cu-free TiO2 coatings. Moreover, the antibacterial studies suggested that the Cu-incorporated TiO2 coatings could significantly inhibit the adhesion of S. aureus.In addition, the in vitro biological evaluation displayed that the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells on the Cu-incorporated coatings were enhanced as compared to those on the Cu-free coatings and Ti plates. In conclusion, the innovative Cu-incorporated nano-structured TiO2 coatings on Ti substrate with excellent antibacterial property and biological activity are promising candidates for orthopedic implant.

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    Properties of Co2FeAl Heusler Alloy Nano-particles Synthesized by Coprecipitation and Thermal Deoxidization Method
    J.H. Du, Y.L. Zuo, Z. Wang, J.H. Ma, L. Xi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 245-248.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.001
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    Co2FeAl nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing the coprecipitated precursor of CoCl2·6H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and Al2(SO4)3·18H2O under H2 atmosphere with various annealing temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystal structure and microstructure of Co2FeAl particles, respectively. The investigation indicates that the crystal structure of Co2FeAl particles tends to be B2 structure, in which atoms are partially ordered. The saturation magnetization and hyperfine field of Co2FeAl particles, which were measured under a vibrating sample magnetometer and a 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscope, are consistent with those of the bulk sample and thin films. Furthermore, the higher annealing temperature and the longer annealing time, the better crystallinity of Co2FeAl and more ordered arrangement of atoms will be. It turned out that the coprecipitation thermal deoxidization method could be an easy and high efficient way to obtain the half-metallic Co2FeAl nanoparticles.

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    Dielectric, Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Absorption Properties of Si3N4-PyC Composite Ceramics
    Xuan Hao, Xiaowei Yin, Litong Zhang, Laifei Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 249-254.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.011
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    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) was infiltrated into silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) of phenolic resin, and Ni nanoparticles were added into the phenolic resin to change the electric conductivity of Si3N4-PyC composite ceramics. Dielectric permittivity, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and absorption properties of Si3N4-PyC composite ceramics were studied as a function of Ni content at 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band). When Ni nanoparticles were added into phenolic resin, the electric conductivity of the prepared composite ceramics decreased with increasing Ni content, which was attributed to the decrease of graphitization degree of PyC. The decrease in electric conductivity led to the decrease in both permittivity and EMI shielding effectiveness. Since too high permittivity is harmful to the impendence match and results in the strong reflection, the electromagnetic wave absorption property of Si3N4-PyC composite ceramics increases with increasing Ni content. When the content of Ni nanoparticles added into phenolic resin was 2 wt%, the composite ceramics possessed the lowest electric conductivity and displayed the most excellent absorption property with a minimum reflection loss as low as -28.9 dB.

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    Low-temperature Magnesiothermic Synthesis of Mesoporous Silicon Carbide from an MCM-48/Polyacrylamide Nanocomposite Precursor
    Zahra Saeedifar, Amir Abbas Nourbakhsh, Roozbeh Javad Kalbasi, Ebrahim Karamian
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 255-260.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.007
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    Mesoporous silicon carbide with high specific surface area was successfully synthesized from an MCM-48/ polyacrylamide nanocomposite precursor in the temperature range of 550-600 oC (below the melting point of Mg) by means of a magnesiothermic reduction process. The MCM-48/polyacrylamide precursor nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ polymerization of acrylamide monomer in the presence of mesoporous MCM-48 synthesized by sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties and microstructures of the nanocomposite precursor and the low-temperature SiC product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry-thermo gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorptionedesorption. TEM micrographs and BrunauereEmmetteTeller (BET) gas adsorption studies showed that the SiC powder was nanocrystalline and had a specific surface area of 330 m2/g and a mesoporosity in the range of 2-10 nm. The presence of an exothermic peak in the DSC trace corresponds to the self-combustion process of the SiC magnesiothermic synthesis. The results also show that the carbon in excess to that required to produce SiC plays a role in the reduction of the SiO2. The mechanism of magnesiothermic synthesis of mesoporous SiC is discussed.

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    Effect of Polymer Inclusion in Preparation of Thick LZO Buffer Layers for YBCO Coated Conductors
    Vyshnavi Narayanan, Isabel Van Driessche
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 261-266.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.020
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    In this work, water-based precursor solutions suitable for dip-coating of thick La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers for coated conductors on Ni-5%W substrates with an inclusion of polymeric polyvinyl pyrrolidone were developed. The effect of varying percentage of the polymer addition on the preparation of the deposited films with maximum crack-free thickness was investigated. This novel water-based chemical solution deposition method involving polymers in two different chelate-chemistry compositions revealed the possibility to grow single, crack-free layers with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm, with good crystallinity and epitaxial growth. The effect of increasing polymer concentrations on the morphology and the structure of the films was studied. The appropriate buffer layer action of the films in preventing Ni diffusion was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

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    Role of Al18B4O33 Whisker in MAO Process of Mg Matrix Composite and Protective Properties of the Oxidation Coating
    Yanqiu Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Kun Wu, Fuhui Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 267-272.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.017
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    Selective growth of oxidation coating was observed on Mg matrix composite Al18B4O33w/AZ91 (a composite with Al18B4O33 crystal whisker as reinforced phase) when this composite was treated by microarc oxidation (MAO) technique, and then the role of Al18B4O33 whisker in the process of MAO was analyzed. The protective properties of MAO coating also were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the existing state of Al18B4O33 whisker in MAO process and the microstructure of MAO coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composite was evaluated by immersion corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarizing test. Wear resistance of MAO coating was investigated by a ball-on-disc friction and wear tester. The results showed that sparking discharge did not occur on Al18B4O33 whisker and the whisker existed in the coating as a heterogeneous phase when MAO coating grew on the composite; then the whisker would be covered gradually with growing thick of the coating. Corrosion current density of the coated composite was decreased by 4 orders of magnitude compared with that of the uncoated composite; excellent corrosion resistance was closely related to the compact whisker-coating interface since Al18B4O33 whisker did not induce structural defects. The coating also exhibited high wear resistance and a slight adhesive wear tendency with bearing steel as its counterpart material.

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    On Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Strain Localization Behavior in Ti-6.5Al-3.5Mo-1.5Zr-0.3Si Alloy
    B. Zhang, L.M. Lei, X.L. Jiang, Z.M. Song, X. Huang, G.P. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 273-278.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.004
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    Deformation behaviors of Tie6.5Al-3.5Mo-1.5Zr-0.3Si alloys with α/β lamellar structure were investigated systematically at different temperatures from room temperature to 950 oC and different strain rates. Results reveal that when the deformation temperature is higher than a critical temperature of 600 oC, an evident transition of deformation behavior from localized shear banding to α/β  lamella kinking, flow softening and temperature/strain rate-dependent peak flow stress occurred in the alloy. The critical conditions for the occurrence of internal cracking and strain localization behavior associated with temperature and strain rate were determined.

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    Effect of Multiple Martensitic Transformations on Structure of Fe-Ni Alloys
    V. Danilchenko, Ie. Dzevin, V. Sagaradze
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 279-282.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.12.016
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    Effect of multiple direct and reverse martensitic transformations on fragmentation of austenitic grains in FeeNi alloys have been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. An ultra-fine structure was formed by fragmentation inside austenitic grains due to progressing misorientation of austenitic sub-grains during multiple γ-α-γ-martensitic phase transitions. An increase in the number of  γ-α-γ-transformations increases misorientation angle between austenitic sub-grains and leads to transformation of an austenitic single crystal into a textured polycrystal. It has been shown that multiple  γ-α-γ-martensitic phase transitions change the mechanism of internal stress relaxation from dislocation-based to deformation twinning.

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    Infrared Brazing Zirconium using Two Silver Based Foils
    Cheng-Han Lee, Ren-Kae Shiue
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 283-286.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.010
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    Ag-based brazing foils, BAg-8 (72Age28Cu in wt%) and Ticusil® (68.8Age26.7Cue4.5Ti in wt%) were selected to braze Zr. Interfacial AgCu4Zr, CuZr2 reaction layers and Ag-rich matrix dominate BAg-8 brazed joint, and fractograph after shear test shows ductile dimple fracture with plastic sliding marks. Ticusil® joint brazed at 910 oC for 300 s is comprised of Cu9Zr11 and AgZr intermetallics, and fractograph after shear test displays brittle cleavage fracture.

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    Surface Properties of Fe4N Compounds Layer on AISI 4340 Steel Modified by Pulsed Plasma Nitriding
    J.C. Díaz-Guillén, G. Vargas-Gutiérrez, E.E. Granda-Gutiérrez, J.S. Zamarripa-Pi?a, S.I. Pérez-Aguilar, J. Candelas-Ramírez, L. álvarez-Contreras
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 287-290.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.017
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    In this work, the effect of nitriding current density on hardness, crystalline phase composition, layer thickness and corrosion rate of AISI 4340 steel has been studied. γ-ray diffraction analysis shows that thin layers formed during nitriding process are constituted of γ-Fe4N for samples processed between 1 and 2.5 mA/cm2. Thickness of nitrided layer increases proportionally to current density (0 mm for 0.5 mA/cm2 to 15 mm for 2.5 mA/cm2). Plasma nitriding increased the surface hardness from 300 HV50g for untreated sample, to around 800HV50g for nitrided samples at 1 mA/cm2. While the untreated samples exhibited a corrosion rate of 0.153 mm per year, the corrosion performance was improved up to 0.03 mm per year at current densities above 1 mA/cm2, which is about one fifth of the corrosion rate of the untreated sample.

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    Replacement with Each Other of Ti and Zr in the Intermetallics of Al-(Si-) Ti-Zr Alloys
    Tong Gao, Xiangfa Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (3): 291-296.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.018
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    The structures and compositions of Ti and Zr rich phases in ternary Al-Ti-Zr and quaternary Al-Si-Ti-Zr systems were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The additions of Ti and Zr were changed. It was found that Ti and Zr can replace each other in the Ti and Zr rich phases of Al-(Si-)Ti-Zr alloys. Compositions of the phases have been measured as a function of Ti and Zr additions. The content of Ti (Zr) in the phases increases with its addition in the alloys. Besides, the increase of Ti content can result in a decrease of lattice parameters. Microhardness of the phases in Al-18Si-xTi-yZr alloys changes with composition evolution. Moreover, the microhardness is higher than that of the intermetallics of ternary Al-Si-Ti and Al-Si-Zr alloys, due to the distortion of crystal structure caused by the replacement of Ti and Zr.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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