Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      30 April 2013, Volume 29 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Metallic Functionally Graded Materials: A Specific Class of Advanced Composites
    Jerzy J. Sobczak, Ludmil Drenchev
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 297-316.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.006
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    Functionally graded materials, including their characterization, properties and production methods are a new rapidly developing field of materials science. The aims of this review are to systematize the basic production techniques for manufacturing functionally graded materials. Attention is paid to the principles for obtaining graded structure mainly in the metal based functionally graded materials. Several unpublished results obtained by the authors have been discussed briefly. Experimental methods and theoretical analysis for qualitative and quantitative estimation of graded properties have also been presented. The article can be useful for people who work in the field of functionally graded structures and materials, and who need a compact informative review of recent experimental and theoretical activity in this area.

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    A Novel Synthesis of Malic Acid Capped Silver Nanoparticles using Solanum lycopersicums Fruit Extract
    M. Umadevi, M.R. Bindhu, V. Sathe
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 317-322.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.002
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    Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. The development of the concept of green nanoparticle preparation has been growingly needed for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Keep this in mind, in the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Solanum lycopersicums fruit extract. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The surface plasmon resonance peak was found at 445 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with the average size of 10 nm. The citric acid present in S. lycopersicums fruit extract acted as reducing agent and malic acid was responsible for capping of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles.

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    Structural, Dielectric and Complex Impedance Spectroscopy Studies of Lead Free Ca0.5+xNd0.5−x(Ti0.5Fe0.5)O3
    M.R. Shah, A.K.M. Akther Hossain
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 323-329.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2012.11.008
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    Structural and various electrical properties of polycrystalline Ca0.5+xNd0.5x(Ti0.5Fe0.5)O3, prepared by standard solid state reaction technique, were studied. Formation of single phase orthorhombic structure of the compositions was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The composition dependence of lattice parameters, density and microstructural study show that they vary significantly with Ca content. The dielectric measurements were carried out at room temperature as function of frequency and composition. The experimental results reveal that the dielectric constant (ε) increases with increasing Ca content. Similar behavior is observed for the dielectric loss (tanδ) and ac conductivity (σac). In complex impedance analysis it is observed that the real part (Z) vs imaginary part (Z) graph exhibits a tendency of formation of a single semicircular arc for each composition of samples. Different parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data in Cole–Cole empirical formula. A dominance of grain boundary resistance (Rgb) is observed. The Rgb decreases with increasing Ca content. The high ε observed in present samples are suitable for fabrication of devices.

     
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    Fabrication and Characterization of Porous Sintered Ti–Ag Compacts for Biomedical Application Purpose
    Legan Hou1),LiLi, Yufeng Zheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 330-338.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.013
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    Porous sintered Ti–Ag compacts with different Ag content were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The associated hydrothermal treatment and the effect on the apatite formation were studied. The results suggested that TiO was generated under the condition of low vacuum (1 × 102 Pa) during the process of burning out the spacer-holding particles. After hydrothermal treatment, a sub-microscale porous layer was formed at the pore wall surface of the samples. The apatite-inducing ability of hydrothermal treated porous sintered Ti–Ag compacts with different Ag content was evaluated in modified simulated body fluid (SBF). And the results proved that there is a clear correlation between the apatite-inducing ability and Ag content. The higher Ag content in porous leads to the decrease of Na+ ions and basic hydroxyl (OH)b amount, resulting in the decline of apatite-inducing ability in the first stage. However, their apatite-inducing ability was not significantly different from that of Ti after two weeks SBF immersing. Hence, the ionic activity should restore with the processing of SBF soaking, as the saturation of Ag effect.

     
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    Novel TiC/Ti Open Cellular Foams Prepared by a Modified Sponge-coating Method Using High Frequency Induction Heating Process
    Yong Gao, Xingxiang Xu, Zhenming Yang, Junqi Zhang, Chunhai Jiang, Jinsong Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 339-343.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.008
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    A new kind of open cellular foam material with three dimensionally interconnected TiC/Ti struts was prepared by a two-step sponge-coating and high frequency induction heating process. The microstructure, composition and compression strength of the prepared TiC/Ti foam materials were characterized. It was confirmed that the incorporation of Ti into TiC resulted in an inter-bonded Ti–TiC–Ti layered structure in the struts, which enhanced the plasticity of the composite foam materials.

     
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    Traces of Defects in the Electronic Structure of Porous Ni–Ti Alloys
    O.M. Ozkendir, E. Cengiz,E.Tlrasoglu, Mehmet Kaya, I.H. Karahan, N. Orhan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 344-348.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.012
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    The electronic structures of Ni–Ti shape-memory alloy samples were investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy both experimentally and theoretically. In the experimental section, the samples were measured at low temperature to determine the persistent traces of both preheating process and atomic concentration effects on the crystal and electronic structure by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. As a second step, the extended-X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) calculations, which are based on different choices of one electron potentials according to Ti coordinations by using the real space multiple scattering method FEFF 8.2 code, were performed. The crystallographic and electronic structures of the porous Ni–Ti alloys were tested at various temperatures ranging from 5 to 1323 K.

     
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    Effect of Precipitation on the Microhardness Distribution of Diode Laser Epitaxially Deposited IN718 Alloy Coating
    Yaocheng Zhang, Zhuguo Li1, Pulin Nie, Yixiong Wu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 349-352.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.002
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    The microhardness distribution of the diode laser epitaxially deposited IN718 alloy coating was investigated. The Laves concentration in different regions of the coating was measured by binarization processing. The strengthening phase of the coating was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the microhardness increased along the depth of the coating. Part of Laves dissolved into austenitic matrix during the successive laser deposition. A little amount of strengthening phase was precipitated in the bottom region of the coating. It was attributed to the heat effect from the thermal cycle of successive deposition on the microstructure in the bottom region of the epitaxially deposited coating.

     
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    Influence of Nano-Al Concentrates on the Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy Coatings
    Yongchun Liang, Fu-Chun Liu, Ming Nie, Shuyan Zhao, Jiedong Lin, En-Hou Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 353-358.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.014
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    A two-stage process was used to produce nano-composite epoxy coatings. The first step involved preparing nano-Al concentrates with high concentration and low viscosity, and the second step produced nano-composite epoxy coatings by mixing the nano-Al concentrates and epoxy resin. Later, the coating was examined with immersion and salt spray tests. The coatings were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the 5% nano-Al significantly improves the corrosion resistance of the coatings. There are two effects of nano-Al on the coating. Nano-Al is corroded initially to protect the substrate from corrosion, and then the aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide were produced after corrosion of nano-Al, which hindered the transmission of corrosion fluid into the coatings.

     
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    Crystallographic Analysis of Isothermally Transformed Bainite in 0.2C–2.0Mn–1.5Si–0.6Cr Steel Using EBSD
    Pasi P. Suikkanen, Cyril Cayron, Anthony J. DeArdo, L. Pentti Karjalainen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 359-366.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.015
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    The crystallography of bainite, transformed isothermally at 450 °C in 0.2C–2.0Mn–1.5Si–0.6Cr steel, was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The orientation relationship (OR) was found to be closer to Nishiyama–Wassermann (N–W) than Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship. Bainite microstructure consisted of parallel laths forming a morphological packet structure. Typically, there were three different lath orientations in a morphological packet. These orientations were dictated by a three specific N–W OR variants sharing the same {111} austenite plane. A packet of bainite laths with common {111} austenite plane was termed as crystallographic packet. Generally, the crystallographic packet size corresponded to the morphological packet size. Locally, crystallographic packets with only two dominant orientations were observed. This indicates strong local variant selection during isothermal bainite transformation. The relative orientation between the variants in crystallographic packets was found to be near 60°/<110>. This appears to explain the strong peak observed in the grain boundary misorientation distribution near 60°. Bainite also contained pronounced fraction of boundaries with their misorientation in the range of 2.5°–8° with quite widely dispersed rotation angles. Spatially these boundaries were found to locate inside the bainite laths, forming lath-like sub-grains.

     
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Dissimilar Friction Stir Weld between Austenitic Stainless Steel and Low Carbon Steel
    M. Jafarzadegan, A. Abdollah-zadeh, A.H. Feng, T. Saeid, J. Shen, H. Assadi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 367-372.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.008
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    Dissimilar fusion welding of austenitic stainless steels to carbon steels has some metallurgical and technical problems. It was suggested that the solid-state nature of friction stir welding (FSW) can overcome these problems and produce a sound weld with reliable mechanical properties. In this study, plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by FSW at tool rotational speed of 600 r/min and welding speed of 50 mm/min. In the stir zone (SZ) of 304 stainless steel, the results showed a refined grain structure with some features of metadynamic recrystallization. In the SZ of st37 steel, the hot deformation of material in the austenite region produced small austenite grains. These grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite by cooling the material after FSW. The production of fine grains increased the hardness and tensile strength in the SZ of both sides with respect to their base metals (BMs).

     
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    A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Plate Martensite Formation in High-carbon Low Alloy Steels
    Albin Stormvinter, Peter Hedstr?m, Annika Borgenstam
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 373-379.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.01.016
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    The martensitic microstructures in two high-carbon low alloy steels have been investigated by classical and automated crystallographic analysis under a transmission electron microscope. It is found that the martensitic substructure changes from consisting mostly of transformation twins for 1.20 mass% carbon (C) steel to both transformation twins and planar defects on {101}M for 1.67 mass% C steel. In the 1.67 mass% C steel it is further found that small martensite units have a rather homogeneous substructure, while large martensite units are more inhomogeneous. In addition, the martensite units in both steels are frequently found to be of zigzag patterns and have distinct crystallographic relationships with neighboring martensite units, e.g. kink or wedge couplings. Based on the present findings the development of martensite in high-carbon low alloy steels is discussed and a schematic of the martensite formation is presented. Moreover, whether the schematic view can be applied to plate martensite formation in general, is discussed.

     
     
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    Corrosion Behavior of Extruded near Eutectic Al–Si–Mg and 6063 Alloys
    Yuna Wu, Hengcheng Liao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 380-386.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.001
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    In this work, a comparison study on corrosion behavior of extruded near eutectic Al–12.3%Si–0.26%Mg and 6063 alloys has been carried out by mass loss test in 4% H2SO4 aqueous solution in the open air and potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. Results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the near eutectic Al–Si–Mg alloy is less than that of 6063 alloy. Macro/microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results clearly show the difference of the corrosion progress of these two alloys in 4% H2SO4 aqueous solution. The corrosion type of 6063 alloy is pitting corrosion. The Mg2Si and AlFeSi particles and surface defects act as nucleation sites for pitting, and the amount and distribution of them have a significant effect on the pitting behavior. For the near eutectic alloy, there are two types of corrosion cells. One is between the extruded primary α-Al and the eutectic, the other is between the eutectic Al and eutectic Si particles. Combination of these two types of corrosion cells leads to a lower corrosion resistance, a higher mass loss of the near eutectic alloy compared with 6063 alloy, and the formation of the paralleling corroded grooves.

     
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    Preparation of Inoculants Used in Superalloy and Analysis of the Atomic Matching Models
    Fu Wang, Jun Zhang, Taiwen Huang, Lin Liu, Hengzhi Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (4): 387-392.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.02.007
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    The mechanisms of grain refinement were investigated on two kinds of grain refiners used in Ni–Fe based superalloys and complete atomic matching modes were constructed in this study. It is found that there are at least three matching crystal planes having the small lattice disregistry between the refiner and the nucleated phase, which can lead to grain refinement of γ matrix. The results indicate that the (0001), (01–10) planes of CrFeNb have a fine crystallographic matching relationship with the (111), (110) planes of γ matrix. The disregistry of (0001)CrFeNb//(111)γ, (0110)CrFeNb//(111)γ and (0110) CrFeNb//(110)γ is 3.34%, 6.60% and 5.90%, respectively. The (0001), (0110) planes of Co3FeNb2 and (111), (110) planes of γ matrix also have this relationship. The disregistry of (0001)Co3FeNb2//(111)γ, (0001)Co3FeNb2//(110)γ, (0110)Co3FeNb2//(111)γ and (0110)Co3FeNb2//(110)γ is 4.45%, 9.35%, 8.38% and 6.12%, respectively.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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