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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2018, Vol. 34 Issue (9): 1467-1473    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2018.02.025
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Preparation, structure, properties, and application of copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films: A review
Aihua Jiang, Meng Qi, Jianrong Xiao*()
College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
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Copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films display typical trans-rhenium trioxide structures. They exhibit excellent physical properties, low cost, nontoxicity, and high stability under room temperature. However, they possess low-thermal decomposition temperature, and their lattice constant often changes significantly with prepared technologies or techniques, thereby enabling the transformation from insulators to semiconductors and even conductors. Moreover, Cu3N thin films are becoming the new research hotspot of optical information storage devices, microelectronic semiconductor materials, and new energy materials. In this study, existing major prepared technologies of Cu3N thin films are summarized. Influences of prepared technologies of Cu3N thin films on crystal structure of films, as well as influences of prepared conditions and methods (e.g., nitrogen pressure, deposition power, substrate temperature, and element addition) on crystal structure and optical, electrical, and thermal properties of films were analyzed. The relationship between crystal structure and physical properties of Cu3N thin films was explored. Finally, applications of Cu3N thin films in photoelectricity, energy sources, nanometer devices, and other fields were discussed.

Key words:  Cu3N thin films      Magnetron sputtering      Crystal structure      Properties      Applications     
Received:  28 July 2017     
Corresponding Authors:  Xiao Jianrong     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Aihua Jiang, Meng Qi, Jianrong Xiao. Preparation, structure, properties, and application of copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films: A review. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34(9): 1467-1473.

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Fig. 1.  SEM images of the surface morphology of the Cu3N thin films: (a) Ref. [64], (b) Ref. [35], (c) Ref. [66].
Fig. 2.  XRD spectra of Cu3N films deposited at different r, and the discharge power and substrate temperature were maintained at 100 W and 393 K, respectively. (Ref. [22]).
Fig. 3.  Transmission electron microscopic image of the copper nitride deposit. A Cu particle is highlighted [71].
Fig. 4.  Schematic view of the anti-ReO3 crystal structure of Cu3N structure [23].
Fig. 5.  Lattice constants and optical band gap of the Cu3N thin films as a function of r [22].
Fig. 6.  Lattice constant as a function of substrate temperature (a) and RF power (b) [43].
Fig. 7.  LAPW energy bands and total density of states for (a) Cu3N, (b) Cu3NPd [72].
Fig. 8.  (a) XRD spectra of Cu3N thin films deposited at r = 0.5 before and after annealed; (b) thermal analysis of Cu3N thin films deposited at various r [22].
Fig. 9.  (a) Microscopic image after the electron beam writing of surface area of 3 mm × 3 mm and 1 mm × 1 mm. An array of dots was observed in the exposed area of a 20 kV electron beam [28]; (b) Data written on a Cu3N-layer. Linear velocity 3.5 m/s, pulse power 28 mW, pulse length 250, 300, 350, and 400 ns, and the smallest diameter of a single bit is 0.9 mm [90].
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