Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      20 August 2017, Volume 33 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) water soluble binder: Challenging application for 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode
    Zhong Haoxiang, Lu Jidian, He Aiqin, Sun Minghao, He Jiarong, Zhang Lingzhi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 763-767.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.019
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    Carboxymethyl chitosan/poly (ethylene oxide) (CCTS/PEO) composite is firstly reported as a water soluble binder for the application of 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in Li-ion batteries. Both CCTS and PEO show a high electrochemical oxidation potential of above 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li+). The electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathodes with CCTS/PEO composite binders of different mass rates are investigated, it is found that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with an optimized CCTS/PEO (85/15, w/w) composite exhibits a slightly better cycling performance than that of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), retaining 81.4% capacity as compared with 79.8% for PVDF at 0.5C rate after 200 cycles. LNMO with PEO/CCTS (85/15, w/w) exhibited the better rate capability than that of PVDF. These results demonstrate that CCTS/PEO composite can be potentially used as a water-soluble binder for 5 V LNMO cathode.

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    Fe-Based Metal-Organic Framework and Its Derivatives for Reversible Lithium Storage
    Jin Yan, Zhao Chongchong, Lin Yichao, Wang Deyu, Chen Liang, Shen Cai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 768-774.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.021
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    The use of a Fe-based metal organic framework (MOF), namely MIL-88B(Fe), as active material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reported for the first time in the present work. Fe-based MOF demonstrated high capacity, excellent cycling stability and rate performance when used as anode. A highly reversible capacity of ~680 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1 was obtained. In addition, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4/C composites were obtained from Fe-based MOFs through thermal treatment. Both Fe2O3 and Fe3O4/C composites demonstrated high capacity and excellent cycling stability.

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    Wrinkled Graphene-Reinforced Nickel Sulfide Thin Film as High-Performance Binder-Free Anode for Sodium-Ion Battery
    Xia Xueke, Xie Jian, Zhang Shichao, Pan Bin, Cao Gaoshao, Zhao Xinbing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 775-780.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.09.017
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    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) recently have received a worldwide attention due to the resource abundance of sodium and similar battery chemistry with lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, search for suitable anodes for SIBs still remains a challenge since graphitized carbon, the anode for commercial LIBs, usually exhibits low electrochemical Na-storage activity. In this work, a unique graphene-reinforced Ni3S2 thin film (Ni3S2/G) has been constructed and investigated as a promising anode for SIBs. The Ni3S2 thin film has a thickness of 200-300 nm and is composed of small sized crystals of around 100 nm. The graphene has a wrinkled surface profile which offers three-dimensional networks for electron conductivity and structural reinforcement. The Ni3S2/G thin film exhibits high capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability due to the introduction of wrinkled graphene. Ni3S2/G can deliver a high initial capacity of 791 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1. The capacity can be maintained at 563 mAh g-1 after 110 cycles. This work provides a unique design for high-performance SIBs anodes.

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    Copolymerization-Assisted Preparation of Porous LiMn2O4 Hollow Microspheres as High Power Cathode of Lithium-ion Batteries
    Zou Zhimin, Li Zhaojin, Zhang Hui, Wang Xiaohui, Jiang Chunhai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 781-787.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.024
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    Porous LiMn2O4 hollow microspheres were facilely prepared by incorporation of Li and Mn elements into a spherical polymeric precursor through copolymerization of lithium and manganese acetates with resorcinol and hexamethylenetetramine and then burning off the organic matrix at appropriate temperatures in air. The LiMn2O4 inherited the spherical morphology of the polymeric precursor but showed hollow porous structure assembled by nanocrystals of about 50-100 nm in size. When tested as cathode of Li-ion batteries, the LiMn2O4 hollow spheres exhibited excellent rate capability and cycle stability. A discharge capacity of above 90 mAh g-1 was maintained at 10 C (1 C = 120 mA g-1), and the cells can still deliver a discharge capacity over 100 mAh g-1 after another 115 cycles at 0.5 C. With such excellent electrochemical properties, the prepared LiMn2O4 hollow microspheres could be promising cathode of Li-ion batteries for long term and high power applications.

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    Molten Salt Electrolytic Fabrication of TiC-CDC and Its Applications for Supercapacitor
    Wan Chaopin, Zhang Rongxia, Wang Shulan, Liu Xuan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 788-792.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.006
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    Titanium carbide derived carbon (TiC-CDC) was prepared by the molten salt electrolytic method in molten salt NaCl-KCl at the potential of 1.3 V using TiC pellets as the anode. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectrum were used to characterize the composition, morphology and microstructure of TiC-CDC. The electrochemical performance of TiC-CDC for supercapacitor was investigated in 0.5 mol L-1 Na2SO4 by cycle voltammograms, ac impedance spectrum and galvanostatic charge/discharge. TiC-CDC showed excellent electrochemical and capacitive performances and maintained a capacity value of 126.1 F g-1 after 1000 cycles with a capacity retention rate of 97% at the current density of 3 A g-1. The current work demonstrated the feasibility of molten salt electrolytic method for preparation of TiC-CDC and provided a non-polluting and environmentally friendly strategy for high performance supercapacitor fabrication.

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    Porous graphene paper for supercapacitor applications
    Li Qi, Guo Xinli, Zhang Yao, Zhang Weijie, Ge Chuang, Zhao Li, Wang Xiaojuan, Zhang Hongyi, Chen Jian, Wang Zengmei, Sun Litao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 793-799.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.018
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Graphene paper shows a great promise for the electrical energy storage. However, the high stability, purity and specific surface area have become stringent requirements for supercapacitor applications. Finding methods to tackle these problems is rather challenging. Here, we develop a facile method to prepare porous graphene papers with a thickness 0.5 mm by a thermal shock to the layer-structure graphene paper self-assembled on Cu foil under nitrogen flowing. The as-prepared porous graphene paper exhibits a large specific capacitance of 100 F g-1 at the scan rate of 100 mV s-1 with high stability and purity without any residual chemical reagents, showing a promising potential for supercapacitor applications. The high electrochemical properties are mainly attributed to the high-specific area and the improved conductivity of the porous graphene paper performed by the multieffect of reducing, cleaving and expanding to the layer-structure graphene paper by high-energy thermal heating during the thermal shock process. This work paves a pathway to the facile preparation of porous graphene paper for supercapacitor applications.

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    Direct growth of special-shape graphene on different templates by remote catalyzation of Cu nanoparticles
    Han Shuangshuang, Yang Fan, Liu Liyue, Zhou Mi, Shan Yongkui, Li Dezeng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 800-806.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.06.029
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    A novel method avoiding the complex transfer process is proposed to directly grow low-defect and few-layer graphene on different insulating substrates (SiO2, Al2O3, etc.) by remote catalyzation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). The insulating substrates with special structure are used as templates to grow wrapped graphene sheets with special shapes. Hollow graphene species are obtained by removing the substrates. The prime feature of the proposed method is using Cu NPs as catalyst rather than metal foils. The Cu NPs play an important role in the remote catalyzation during the nucleation of graphene. This method can improve the quality and relatively decrease the growth temperature of the graphene on the insulating substrates, which displays the great potential of APCVD direct growth of graphene on dielectric substrates for electronic and photovoltaic applications.

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    Characterization of synergistic anti-tumor effects of doxorubicin and p53 via graphene oxide-polyethyleneimine nanocarriers
    Xie Bei, Yi Jipeng, Peng Jian, Zhang Xing, Lei Lei, Zhao Dapeng, Lei Zhixin, Nie Hemin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 807-814.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.05.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Co-delivery of chemical drugs and therapeutic genes for synergistic therapy provides a promising strategy to treat devastating diseases. However, the real-time coordination patterns between chemical drugs and therapeutic genes remain poorly understood. Herein, the complexes of doxorubicin/graphene oxide-polyethyleneimine/p53 plasmid (Dox/GO-PEI/p53) were fabricated and employed to investigate the synergistic manner between Dox and p53 in the inhibition of HeLa cell growth. GO was conjugated with PEI to form the GO-PEI backbone as the delivery vector. The GO backbone provided surfaces with a high specific area to load Dox via the π-π stacking interaction, and was able to release Dox significantly faster at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0, while the positively charged PEI section of GO-PEI could condense plasmids into GO-PEI/DNA nanoparticles via the electrostatic interaction. The nanoparticles efficiently mediated the transfection of DNA in HeLa cells, with lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI/DNA nanoparticles. Furthermore, the complexes of Dox/GO-PEI/p53 released Dox and expressed p53 gene in a sequential manner, and showed successive inhibition of the in vitro growth of HeLa cells. This type of drug/GO-PEI/DNA complex can be employed as a platform to investigate the coordination pattern between chemical drugs and therapeutic genes for tumor therapy.

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    Histogram method for reliable thickness measurements of graphene films using atomic force microscopy (AFM)
    Yao Yaxuan, Ren Lingling, Gao Sitian, Li Shi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 815-820.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a commonly used technique for graphene thickness measurement. However, due to surface roughness caused by graphene itself and variation introduced in AFM measurement, graphene thickness is difficult to be accurately determined by AFM. In this paper, a histogram method was used for reliable measurements of graphene thickness using AFM. The influences of various measurement parameters in AFM analysis were investigated. The experimental results indicate that significant deviation can be introduced using various order of flatten and improperly selected measurement parameters including amplitude setpoint and drive amplitude. At amplitude setpoint of 100 mV and drive amplitude of 100 mV, thickness of 1 layer (1L), 2 layers (2L) and 4 layers (4L) graphene were measured. The height differences for 1L, 2L and 4L were 1.51 ± 0.16 nm, 1.92 ± 0.13 nm and 2.73 ± 0.10 nm, respectively. By comparing these values, thickness of single layer graphene can be accurately determined to be 0.41 ± 0.09 nm.

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    Sodium Alginate/Carboxyl-Functionalized Graphene Composite Hydrogel Via Neodymium Ions Coordination
    Huang Qianqian, Liu Shunli, Li Kewen, Hussain Imtiaz, Yao Fang, Fu Guodong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 821-826.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.003
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    A facile method for the preparation of sodium alginate (SA)/carboxyl-functionalized graphene (G-COOH) composite hydrogel was developed. Based on the coordination ability of lanthanide ions to the carboxyl groups, a series of hydrogel derived from different ratios of SA and G-COOH was fabricated by neodymium (Nd3+) ions coordination. A relatively uniform layered structure was recorded by SEM at the interior of SA/G-COOH hydrogel. Several parameters such as water content, swelling ratio (SR), tensile test and solvent resistance were also investigated. The SA/G-COOH composite hydrogel showed excellent mechanical strength, and the tensile strength of SA/G-COOH composite hydrogel reaches 53.72 MPa at high water content. Due to the coordination ability of Nd3+ ions, the hydrogel also exhibited an excellent solvent resistance and stability.

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    Analytical modeling of effect of interlayer on effective moduli of layered graphene-polymer nanocomposites
    Roach C.C., Lu Y.C.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 827-833.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.007
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    Nanocomposites enhanced with two-dimensional, layered graphene fillers are a new class of engineering materials that exhibit superior properties and characteristics to composites with conventional fillers. However, the roles of “interlayers” in layered graphene fillers have yet to be fully explored. This paper examines the effect of interlayers on mechanical properties of layered graphene polymer composites. As an effective filler, the fundamental properties (in-plane Young’s modulus EL1, out-of-plane Young’s modulus EL2; shear modulus GL12, major Poisson’s ratio νL12) of the layered graphene were computed by using the Arridge’s lamellar model. The effects of interlayers on effective moduli of layered graphene epoxy composites were examined through the Tandon-Weng model. The properties of the interlayer show noticeable impact on elastic properties of the composites, particular the out-of-plane properties (Young’s modulus E2 and shear modulus G12). The interlayer spacing is seen to have much great influence on properties of the composites. As the interlayer spacing increases from 0.34 nm to 2 nm, all elastic properties of the composites have been greatly decreased.

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    Mono-disperse SrMoO4 nanocrystals: Synthesis, luminescence and photocatalysis
    Zhu Ya-Nan, Zheng Gan-Hong, Dai Zhen-Xiang, Mu Jing-Jing, Yao Zi-Fen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 834-842.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Well-dispersed uniform SrMoO4 nanocrystals were synthesized by thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt in the organic solvent under different temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 °C). The smallest diameter of these SrMoO4 nanocrystals is only about 2 nm, which is regarded as the smallest values to date. The UV-vis absorbance spectra present that the larger absorption of our samples is mainly distributed in the visible light region and UV light region. The lowest energy gap is found to be 2.71 eV. Such a small gap is ascribed to the introduction of intermediate energy levels, which are due to the surface defects with decreasing the size of nanostrcutrues. The photoluminescence measurement suggests that all these samples exhibit a board and strong emission band in the range from 500 to 700 nm. Through the deconvolution of the photoluminescence spectra, the emission profiles are found to be associated with three various components (green, yellow, and red). Moreover, the photodegration of methyl blue over our SrMoO4 samples reaches nearly 100% in 120 min. Such a high photodegration may be related to the following aspects. One is related to the size and morphology. Larger surface area leads to more absorption of methyl blue, and the small size nanoparticles lead to the efficient separation of these photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The other is related to the narrow band gap. The small gap is beneficial to more electrons to be excited from the valence band to the conduction band, and eventually more electron-hole pairs are created. Our investigations clearly suggest that thermal decomposition of one metal-organic salt in organic solvent will be a good choice to synthesize the nanoparticles with small size and uniform distribution. Our results also indicate that these SrMoO4 nanoparticles possibly have great potential utilities in photocatalysts.

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    Syntheses and catalytic applications of the high-N-content, the cup-stacking and the macroscopic nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes
    Wang Qi, Wang Haihua, Zhang Yajie, Wen Guodong, Liu Hongyang, Su Dangsheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 843-849.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.01.011
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    The high-N-content, the cup-stacking and the macroscopic nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) were synthesized via an easily manufactured catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. Nitrogen physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the as-obtained NCNTs. High reaction temperatures were found to be the key point to the formation of inner-cup-stacking NCNTs. However, the synthesis of the outer-cup-stacking NCNT needs special demands not only to the reaction temperature but also to the catalyst and the carrier gas. The possibility of CO oxidation by NCNT was proved to be very small, and the outer-cup-stacking NCNT showed obvious advantage in the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of butene to butadiene compared to a bamboo-like NCNT with an even higher N content.

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    Control of ZnO nanowire growth and optical properties in a vapor deposition process
    , Zhang Lei, Qiang Zheng, ge FeiZhu, Li Jiu peng, Xuan P.A.Gao, Du Juan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 850-855.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.024
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    A vapor deposition method was applied to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and nanorods with diameter from 40 nm to 500 nm, length from 1 μm to 70 μm by adjusting the flow rate of argon, oxygen and the pressure during growth. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnO nanowires or nanorods, which grow along the <0001> direction. The results show that the growth conditions strongly impact the morphology, growth rate and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. The ZnO nanowires with small diameters tend to show stronger ultraviolet (UV) light emission from the electron-hole recombination near band edge in photoluminescence (PL), while those with larger diameters tend to exhibit PL spectra dominated by the broad green light emission due to the defects.

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    Strong enhancement on dye photocatalytic degradation by ball-milled TiO2: A study of cationic and anionic dyes
    Jia Z., La L.B.T., Zhang W.C., Liang S.X., Jiang B., Xie S.K., Habibi D., Zhang L.C.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 856-863.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.02.006
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    TiO2 particles with desirable properties were produced by undergoing specific durations of ball milling. Characterizations of the TiO2 particles before and after ball milling were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), particle size analysis, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Compared to the as-received TiO2 (mean particle size d50 = 0.78 μm, specific surface area = 88.17 m2 g-1, pore volume = 0.41 cm3 g-1), the 60 min ball-milled TiO2 (d50 = 0.55 μm, specific surface area = 99.48 m2 g-1, pore volume = 0.48 cm3 g-1) enhanced the adsorption quantity of congo red and methylene blue from 10.4 mg g-1 to 13.6 mg g-1, and from 17.0 mg g-1 to 22.2 mg g-1, respectively; and also improved the kinetic rates from k = 0.1325 to 0.2193, and k = 0.0944 to 0.1553, respectively. Dye adsorption and degradation efficiency of congo red was enhanced in acidic pH range (2-5.14), and methylene blue was enhanced in alkaline pH range (7.58-12).

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    Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Structures of ZnO Nanorods as a Structure Adsorbent for Water Treatment
    Li Zhendong, Huang Yingjie, Wang Xingfu, Wang Dan, Wang Xinfu, Han Fusheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 864-868.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.022
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    Three-dimensional (3D) ZnO nanorods with good adsorption property was successfully fabricated via a facile hydrothermal method, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the ZnO nanorods with a diameter of ~0.5 μm and the length of ~10 μm were firmly grown on the struts of the open-cell aluminum foams, and the 3D hierarchical structured adsorbent ZnO nanorods/Al foam (r-ZnO/AF) exhibits a higher adsorption capacity for Brilliant Blue R (BBR) in aqueous solutions, more stable sorption regenerable behavior and solid-liquid separability in contrast to the corresponding n-ZnO powder sample. The kinetics of the adsorption process was also discussed.

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    Laser Stimulated Shape Memory Polymer with Inclusion of Gold Nanorod—Effect of Aspect Ratio and Critical Role of On-resonance Irradiation
    , T.Hoang Phong,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 869-873.  DOI: https://10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.017
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    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are excellent photothermal agents to enable a variety of laser stimulated functional polymers. One key issue is to maximize the photothermal conversion efficiency of AuNRs. In this study, the light responsive AuNR/shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites with inclusion of AuNRs of varied aspect ratios were prepared, characterized, and their laser irradiation induced bending behavior was investigated. The critical role of the on-resonance irradiation condition—a close match of the longitudinal plasmon resonance of the AuNR with the wavelength of the incident laser—has been established. It allows for maximizing the photothermal conversion efficiency of AuNRs to result in the rapid and large deformation of the AuNR/SMP nanocomposites. For the AuNR/SMP nanocomposite films prepared under similar processing conditions, the close-to-resonance irradiation at a 1.27 W/cm2 was able to induce a bending rate of 27°/s and maximum bending angle of 90.4°. In contrast, the off-resonance irradiation at a 1.89 W/cm2 resulted in negligible response.

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    Facile Synthesis of Nanocrystal Tin Oxide Hollow Microspheres by Microwave-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis Method
    Zhang Lihua, Lan Jianbo, Yang Jianyu, Guo Shenghui, Peng Jinhui, Zhang Libo, Zhou Chaojin, Ju Shaohua
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 874-878.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.10.008
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    Tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres with narrow size distribution were prepared by a facile one-pot microwave-assisted spray pyrolysis method. The effect of temperature on microstructural and optical properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and UV-Vis spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), respectively. The SnO2 particles obtained at and above 700 °C are tetragonal rutile structure with high purity and smooth surface morphology, which consist of well-interconnected SnO2 nanocrystallines and the shell thickness was about 26 nm. UV-Vis absorption values were quite low in visible light region and high in ultraviolet region, indicating the possible utilization for optical purpose of the as-prepared SnO2. The band gaps were 3.88 and 4.07 eV for SnO2 synthesized at 700 and 800 °C, respectively. As compared to traditional electrical heating or flame modes, microwave heating introduced here demonstrates a high-efficiency, environmentally benign, and time- and energy-saving technology to synthesize advanced powders.

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    Biocompatibility and biotoxicity of in-situ synthesized carboxylated nanodiamond-cobalt oxide nanocomposite
    Syam Sundar L., A. Anjum Naser, Ferro M.C., Pereira Eduarda, K. Singh Manoj, Sousa A.C.M.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 879-888.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.016
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    A nanocomposite that incorporates cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and nanodiamond (ND) can present both high magnetism (Co3O4) and high hardness (ND). ND particles have potential applications in a variety of fields such as protein immobilization, biosensors, therapeutic molecule delivery and bio-imaging. However, limited information is available in literature on the in-situ synthesis of biocompatible magnetic materials and also on their potential biotoxicity as a result of their entry into environmental compartments and subsequent interaction with biota. In this work, a new kind of bio-compatible magnetic material - carboxylated nanodiamond (cND) and Co3O4 was synthesized to obtain the cND-Co3O4 nanocomposite. The synthesis procedure involved in-situ and chemical reduction of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 6H2O) and sodium borohydrate (NaBH4). The synthesized cND-Co3O4 nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cyto-genotoxicity of the synthesized nanocomposite material was studied by using onion (Allium cepa L.) as a test model with concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml. The study was also extended to cND and Co3O4 materials for comparison purpose. Co3O4 and cND exhibited their contrasting effects on mitosis and other cyto-genotoxic indices studied herein. This work provided fundamental data on the synthesis and the bio-toxicity of the cND-Co3O4 nanocomposite, which, in turn, can help to expand their multidisciplinary applications.

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    Copper oxide nanoparticles-loaded zeolite and its characteristics and antibacterial activities
    A. Alswat Abdullah, Bin Ahmad Mansor, Zobir Hussein Mohd, Azowa Ibrahim Nor, A. Saleh Tawfik
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 889-898.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.015
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    In the present work, a simple and green co-precipitation method was used to prepare copper oxide-zeolite nanocomposites (CuO-zeolite NCs). The weight ratio (1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 wt%) of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) loaded into zeolite was investigated to obtain the optimum CuO distribution for antibacterial activities. The prepared CuO-zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a uniform surface morphology of the CuO-zeolite NCs. The UV-vis spectrum of NCs showed absorption peaks between 230 and 280 nm for nano-CuO in the XRD patterns, and new peaks appeared between (36.56°-38.83°) related to the CuO. At weight ratio less than 10 wt%, the CuO nanoparticles loaded to the zeolite exhibited spherical shapes with average particle diameter of 6.5 nm measured by TEM and XRD. Antibacterial activities were tested against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The obtained results showed that, CuO-zeolite NCs with 8 wt% CuO nanoparticles had the highest antibacterial activities against Bacillus Subtilis B29 and Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 10708, which can be attributed to the good dispersion of CuO NPs on the zeolite surface.

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    Electrical-field induced nonlinear conductive behavior in dense zirconia ceramic
    Gao Yan, Liu Fangzhou, Liu Dianguang, Liu Jinling, Wang Yiguang, An Linan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 897-900.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.03.005
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    The effect of the applied electric field on the conductive behavior of zirconia ceramics is studied by measuring its initial current-voltage curve at various temperatures. The results show that when the field strength is higher than the threshold for flash-sintering, the curves exhibit a nonlinear behavior by having an additional current on top of the linear current according to Ohm’s law. Analyzing its transport behavior reveals that the additional current density is due to the extra oxygen vacancies induced by the electric field. The formation rate of the extra vacancies and associated current was related to the field strength.

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    Passivation of Ge surface treated with trimethylaluminum and investigation of electrical properties of HfTiO/Ge gate stacks
    Gao Juan, He Gang, Xiao Dongqi, Jin Peng, Jiang Shanshan, Li Wendong, Liang Shuang, Zhu Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (8): 901-906.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2017.04.021
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    In the current work, in situ surface passivation Ge substrate by using trimethylaluminum (TMA) prior to HfTiO films deposition and electrical properties of HfTiO/Ge gate stacks have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical measurements systematically. Based on analysis from XPS measurements, it has been confirmed that the interfacial layer of HfTiO/Ge gate stack has been suppressed effectively after 20 half-ALD cycles TMA pretreatment. Electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor based on HfTiO gate dielectrics have shown that the MOS capacitor with 20 cycles TMA cleaning exhibits the lowest interface state density (~7.56 eV-1 cm-2) and the smallest leakage current (~2.67 × 10-5 A/cm2). Correspondingly, the leakage current conduction mechanisms for MOS capacitor device with 20 cycles TMA cleaning also have been discussed in detail.

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