Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      20 August 2015, Volume 31 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Instrumented and Vickers Indentation for the Characterization of Stiffness, Hardness and Toughness of Zirconia Toughened Al2O3 and SiC Armor
    Aleksandra Nastica, Ali Merati, Mariusz Bielawski, Manon Bolduc, Olaniyi Fakolujo, Michel Nganbe
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 773-783.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.06.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Instrumented and Vickers indentation testing and microstructure analysis were used to investigate zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) and silicon carbide (SiC). Several equations were studied to relate the Vickers indentation hardness, Young's modulus and crack behavior to the fracture toughness. The fracture in SiC is unstable and occurs primarily by cleavage leading to a relatively low toughness of 3 MPa m1/2, which may be inappropriate for multi-hit capability. ZTA absorbs energy by plastic deformation, pore collapse, crack deviation and crack bridging and exhibits time dependent creep. With a relatively high toughness around 6.6 MPa m1/2, ZTA is promising for multi-hit capability. The higher accuracy of median equations in calculating the indentation fracture toughness and the relatively high c/a ratios above 2.5 suggest median type cracking for both SiC and ZTA. The Young's modulus of both ceramics was most accurately measured at lower indentation loads of about 0.5 kgf, while more accurate hardness and fracture toughness values were obtained at intermediate and at higher indentation loads beyond 5 kgf, respectively. A strong indentation size effect (ISE) was observed in both materials. The load independent hardness of SiC is 2563 HV, putting it far above the standard armor hardness requirement of 1500 HV that is barely met by ZTA.
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    Growth of Niobium Thin Films on Si Substrates by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Deposition
    Francisco Gontad, Antonella Lorusso, Luigi Solombrino, Ioannis Koutselas, Nikos Vainos, Alessio Perrone
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 784-789.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.06.007
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The growth of Nb thin films on Si(100) substrates by pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition (PLD) under different laser fluences (4-15 J/cm2) was reported. The influence of laser fluence on ablation rate and deposition rate was discussed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations of the deposited films showed an amorphous structure. The droplet density on the film surface observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses was extremely low. It was experimentally proved that the droplets on the film surface originated from liquid phase on the target surface. Profilometric measurements of the deposited Nb films revealed a substantial asymmetry in the film thickness related to the plume deflection effect. The measured electrical resistivity of the Nb film was higher than that of high purity Nb bulk. The present investigations of ablation and deposition process of Nb thin films are related to its potential application in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities.
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    Incubation of PbSe Thin Films in a Tin(II) Salt Aqueous Solution: Modification and Ion-Exchange Reactions
    Zinaida I. Smirnova, Larisa N. Maskaeva, Vyacheslav F. Markov, Vladimir I. Voronin, Mikhail V. Kuznetsov
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 790-797.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.06.003
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    Topochemical ion-exchange reactions between solid micro- and nanostructured metal chalcogenides and aqueous salt solutions are generally used for formation of composite structures based on initial metal chalcogenides and products of their ion-exchange transformation. However, ion exchange has promises as a route to obtaining both composites and solid solutions based on the initial and the end chalcogenide phases. With the help of the ion-exchange technique, single-phase films of Pb1-xSnxSe substitutional solid solutions with a tin content up to ~2 at.%, which are promising for mid- and long-wavelength infrared radiation (IR) optoelectronics, have been obtained at the interface between PbSe polycrystalline thin films and SnCl2 aqueous solutions containing sodium citrate. It has been shown that the pH value and temperature of the reaction system play an important role in the ion-exchange process. Incubation of lead selenide (PbSe) films in a tin(II) salt aqueous solution also leads to their modification with oxygen-containing tin compounds to a depth of ~3 nm. Differences in the film structure, such as changes in the coherent scattering region sizes and orientation of crystallites along the [220] direction, which arise during the contact with citrate-containing SnCl2 solutions, have also been revealed. For the first time, an idea of the existence of a relatively wide reaction zone of an intragranular topochemical ion-exchange reaction in an aqueous solution, within which substitutional solid solutions can form in micro- and nanostructured systems, has been set forth.
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    Destructive Interactions between Pore Forming Agents and Matrix Phase during the Fabrication Process of Porous BiFeO3 Ceramics
    E. Mostafavi, A. Ataie ,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 798-805.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.05.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Porous bismuth ferrite ceramics were synthesized by sacrificial pore former method. A mixture of BiFeO3 and 20 wt% of various pore formers including high density polyethylene, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, urea and graphite was intensively milled for 10 h in a planetary ball mill, uniaxially cold pressed and then subjected to the multi-stage heat treatment. The results revealed that urea and polyvinyl alcohol are appropriate candidates for maintaining the strength of the final porous structure. Density and porosity measurements showed that by employing 20 wt% of high density polyethylene and graphite, a porous sample with a maximum porosity of nearly 40% could be obtained. Mercury porosimetry results showed that using urea as a pore former gives porous bismuth ferrite with a mean pore diameter of 7 μm, uniform pore distribution as well as interconnected pores. Moreover, reactions between BiFeO3 matrix phase and thermal decomposition products of pore formers can lead to degradation of the BiFeO3 phase in the final porous samples. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns illustrated that in the samples processed with graphite, high density polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol as pore former, BiFeO3 matrix phase partially or completely decomposed to intermediate phases of Bi2Fe4O9 and Bi25FeO40. Using of urea did not damage the matrix phase and porous BiFeO3 within the original perovskite structure could be prepared. Furthermore, thermodynamic investigation was carried out for prediction of possible interactions between matrix phase and pore former at elevated temperatures.
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    Preparation and Microstructural Characterization of Activated Carbon-Metal Oxide Hybrid Catalysts: New Insights into Reaction PathsA.
    A. Barroso-Bogeat , M. Alexandre-Franco, C. Fern, ndez-Gonz, lez, V. G, mez-Serrano
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 806-814.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.06.004
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In catalysis processes, activated carbon (AC) and metal oxides (MOs) are widely used either as catalysts or as catalyst supports because of their unique properties. A combination of AC and MO nanoparticles in a single hybrid material usually entails both chemical and microstructural changes, which may largely influence the potential catalytic suitability and performance of the resulting product. Here, the preparation of a wide series of AC-MO hybrid catalysts is studied. Three series of such catalysts are prepared by support first of MO (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO) precursors on a granular AC by wet impregnation and oven-drying at 120 °C, and by subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in inert atmosphere. Both the chemical composition and microstructure are mainly investigated by powder X-ray diffraction. Yield and ash content are often strongly dependent on the MO precursor and heat treatment temperature, in particular for the Sn catalysts. With the temperature rise, trends are towards the transformation of metal hydroxides into metal oxides, crystallinity improvement, and occurrence of drastic composition changes, ultimately leading to the formation of metals in elemental state and even metal carbides. Reaction paths during the preparation are explored for various hybrid catalysts and new insights into them are provided.
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    High-performance Sb:SnO2 Compact Thin Film Based on Surfactant-free and Binder-free Sb:Sn3O4 Suspension
    Junhua Zhao, Ruiqin Tan, Ye Yang, Wei Xu, Jia Li, Wenfeng Shen, Guoqiang Wu, Xufeng Yang, Weijie Song
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 815-821.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.011
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    Surfactant-free and binder-free antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) transparent conducting thin films were fabricated through spin coating and rapid annealing processes, in which nanosheets were assembled into a compact structure via self-contracting high pressure. The mechanism of this compact thin film formation was further proposed and analyzed. The compact ATO thin film had a low root mean square (RMS) roughness of 5.03 nm. This surfactant-free and binder-free compact ATO thin film delivered low resistivity of 3.04 × 10?2 Ω cm, stable resistivity which only increased 13% after exposing in 65% RH air for half a month, high transmittance of 92.70% at 550 nm, and high band gap energy of 4.07 eV. This effective strategy will provide new insight into the synthesis of low-cost and high-performance compact thin films.
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    Improving the Thermal Stability of Cu3N Films by Addition of Mn
    Xiaoyan Fan, Zhenjiang Li, Alan Meng, Chun Li, Zhiguo Wu, Pengxun Yan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 822-827.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Mn-doped Cu3N films were deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering equipment on the common glass at room temperature. The incorporation of Mn can change the preferred growth orientation from Cu-rich plane (111) to N-rich plane (100) due to the improvement of nitridation of Cu. The shrinkage of the lattice and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results reveal that Mn should replace Cu atoms in the lattice or be segregated in the grain boundaries. The thickness of Mn-doped film is smaller than that of the pure one due to the less physisorption of N species among the columnar grains. The mean grain size and the energy gap become larger with increasing Mn concentration to 2.2 at.% and then decrease when the concentration of Mn is higher than 2.2 at.%. Notably, weak doping of 1.5 at.% Mn successfully promotes the decomposed temperature by ~50°C. According to the results of XRD and SEM for Mn-doped films annealed in vacuum, a possible decomposed mechanism with increasing the annealing temperature is proposed.
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    Fabrication and Growth Mechanism of Single-crystalline Rutile TiO2 Nanowires by Liquid-phase Deposition Process in a Porous Alumina Template
    Abbas Sadeghzadeh Attar, Zahra Hassani
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 828-833.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    TiO2 nanowire arrays were successfully fabricated by liquid-phase deposition method using porous alumina templates. The obtained TiO2nanowires were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. Results of electron microscopic observations indicated that the nanowires were smooth and uniform with a diameter of about 50-80 nm and several micrometers in length. SAED, Raman, and XRD measurements showed that TiO2 nanowires were single-crystalline with a pure rutile structure after heating at 800 °C for 10 h. In this situation, the nanowire constituents grew preferentially along the <001> direction. Furthermore, the formation process and mechanistic study of the TiO2 nanowire arrays were proposed and discussed in detail. The nanowires are clearly produced by the deposition of TiO2 particles on the inner wall of the template nanochannels.
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    Separation of Silver Nanocrystals for Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Using Density Gradient Centrifugation
    Qijin Huang, Wenfeng Shen, Ruiqin Tan, Wei Xu, Weijie Song
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 834-839.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.06.006
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    One-dimensional silver nanocrystals (AgNCs) have been prepared by a polyol process using sodium hydroxide and nitric acid at a constant silver source concentration. Results indicate that the acidity-basicity plays an important role in silver-nanocrystal formation. Different morphologies of AgNCs were synthesized by changing the NaOH or HNO3 amount. We demonstrate that nearly monodisperse silver nanocrystals can be separated from polydisperse samples using density gradient centrifugation separation (DGCS). We also demonstrate that the separated AgNCs can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The separation approach provides a method of improving the nanocrystal quality produced by large-scale synthetic methods.
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    Facile Preparation of TiO2 Nanoclusters on Graphene Templates for Photodegradation of Organic Compounds
    Zaixing Jiang, Mingqiang Wang, Hao Cheng, Jun Li, Aslan Husnu, Haibao Lv, Yongtao Yao, Lu Shao, Yudong Huang, Mingdong Dong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 840-844.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.01.011
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    Graphene is the most attractive carbon-based material at present and attracting increasing attention as promising candidates for applications in numerous areas, because of its extraordinary chemical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, we discussed an innovative and simple method to synthesize titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoclusters, using graphene as a mid-step template not as a component of final product. Using this method, the graphene was firstly fully coated with TiO2 nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of titanium (IV) isopropoxide in a supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at 200 °C; the developed TiO2/graphene composites then were heated in an oxygen atmosphere. Eventually the TiO2 nanoclusters were obtained. The prepared TiO2 nanoclusters showed irregular features with high surface coverage, providing promises in a wide range of applications, especially for photo-degradation of organic compounds in aqueous solution under the radiation of UV-light.
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    Cytocompatibility and Hemolysis of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy with Si-containing Coating
    Qiang Wang, Lili Tan, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 845-851.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In the present study, a Si-containing coating was fabricated on AZ31B Mg alloy. Cytocompatibility of the coated alloy was evaluated by both indirect and direct contact methods, respectively. Effects of a number of incubation variables on the sensitivity and reproducibility of the hemolysis test were also examined by using positively and negatively responding biomaterials. Cytocompatibility testing results indicated that cell condition, cell adherence, cell proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion of the coated alloy were improved compared with those of the uncoated alloy for different extraction and co-culture time. The hemolysis test suggested that hemolysis testing conditions were critical to determine the hemolysis of the alloy. It was also found that 1 day in vitro degradation of the uncoated AZ31B alloy had no destructive effect on erythrocyte. As for the coated AZ31B alloy at any time point, the hemolysis rate was much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials. These in vitro experimental results indicate that the Si-containing coating is effective to improve the cytocompatibility and hemolysis behaviors of AZ31B alloy during its degradation.
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    Controlled Preparation and Formation Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles under Different Hydrothermal Conditions
    Shanyi Guang, Fuyou Ke, Yuhua Shen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 852-856.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.013
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    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles with uniform morphologies and controllable size were synthesized successfully by molecular template hydrothermal approach. The organic alcohols including ethanol, glycol, glycerol and butanol were used as templates to regulate the nucleation and crystal growth. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectrum and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the obtained HAP particles were uniform rod-like crystals, and the template molecular structures had significant effect on the morphology and size of HAP particles. The template molecules with longer hydrophobic groups resulted in longer particle length and larger aspect ratio. Compared with the concentration of template molecules, the template molecular structure showed larger influence on controlling the HAP morphology and size. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of these rod-like HAP particles prepared by alkyl alcohol templates was discussed. Moreover, hydrothermal treatment temperature and time could be also used for controlled preparation of HAP nanoparticles.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Mesophase Pitch via Co-Carbonization of Waste Polyethylene/Petroleum Pitch
    Youliang Cheng, Lu Yang, Tao Luo, Changqing Fang, Jian Su, Jian Hui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (8): 857-863.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The low-cost petroleum pitch and waste polyethylene (WPE) were used as raw materials to prepare the mesophase pitch by co-carbonization method and the forming mechanization of mesophase pitch was also investigated. Polarized microscopy, softening point, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize and analyze the properties and structure of the mesophase pitch. The results showed that the carbonization yield of the modified pitch was high when 1-2wt% WPE was added and the property of mesophase pitch (MP1-450-4 and MP2-450-4) prepared by thermal polymerization was excellent. Moreover, when the treatment temperature was above 420°C, the mesophase development of the modified pitch may be entire and 100% streamline texture mesophase can form. During the co-carbonization of WPE/petroleum pitch, a large number of naphthenic structures and methylene bridges may be generated, which can improve the properties of the obtained mesophase pitch.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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