Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 July 2015, Volume 31 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Spontaneous Growth of Metal Whiskers on Surfaces of Solids: A Review
    Peigen Zhang, Yamei Zhang, Zhengming Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 675-698.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.04.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Spontaneous metal whisker growth phenomenon has been studied for ~70 years, but still resists interpretations, which has haunted the electronics-rich systems from the birth of the industry since whiskers may lead to short circuits and hence other disasters. In addition to reliability problems, threat of Pb whiskers to human health is also significant due to the toxicity of the element and its geometry as well as its nanometer size. This issue becomes more attention drawing and urgent due to the restrictions on Pb use in EU, Japan etc., which phases out the Pb-addition practice to mitigate Sn whiskers. This paper reviews the origin of the whiskering phenomenon and whisker-induced problems, ranging from early in the World War II to the present; details the development of this issue in the electronics-rich systems including the phenomenon, problems and remedies; pictures the long history of the developments of the growth mechanisms and models which are full of hardship and contradictions. New aspects on the spontaneous whisker growth in some different substrates, such as in brasses and MAX phase materials are reviewed in more details. The latter was found to be a promising system to understand the whisker growth phenomenon, with new growth models proposed that may shed new light to the intricate battle field of the metal whisker research in general.
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    Specific Capacitance and Cyclic Stability of Graphene Based Metal/Metal Oxide Nanocomposites: A Review
    Abdul Waheed Anwar, Abdul Majeed, Nadeem Iqbal, Wasi Ullah, Ahmad Shuaib, Usman Ilyas, Fozia Bibi, Hafiz Muhammad Rafique
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 699-707.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.012
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Graphene has become a worldwide admired material among researchers and scientists equally due to its unique richness in mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, optical and thermal properties. Researchers have explored that the composite materials based on graphene and metal/metal oxide nanostructures possess excellent potential for energy storage technologies. In particular, supercapacitors based on such composite materials have engrossed the extreme interest of researchers for its rapid charging/discharging time, safe operation and longer cyclic constancy. Till now, several fabrication techniques for composite materials and their energy storage applications have been explored. Here, specially, we have concentrated on the hottest research progress for the fabrication of graphene oxide and metal/metal oxide nanocomposites. We also emphasized on the characteristics and properties of supercapacitors fabricated using these composite materials. Moreover, our study is focused on the specific capacitance and cyclic stability of various composites to haul out the most efficient material for supercapacitor applications.
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    Recent Advances in Synthesis of Waterborne Polyurethane and Their Application in Water-based Ink: A Review
    Xing Zhou, Yan Li, Changqing Fang, Shujuan Li, Youliang Cheng, Wanqing Lei, Xiangjie Meng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 708-722.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.03.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Over the last few years, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) was applied to various fibers, adhesives, primers for metals, caulking materials, emulsion polymerization media, paint additives, defoamers, associate thickeners, pigment pastes, textile dyes and biomaterials, resulting in the increasing enthusiasm of researchers to design and synthesize novel WPU with unique properties. Thus, various processes and raw materials have been developed to prepare WPU. This review gives an overview on the developments of WPU mainly derived from novel polyols, analyzes the potential application in water-based inks and presents the probable future research area about water-based inks. Notably, the poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(lactic acid) are the versatile materials used in WPU synthesis and supply the potential special performance for preparing WPU. Meanwhile, addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) processes provide an opportunity to control the chain sequence of WPU and obtain products with the desired performance.
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    Effect of Heat Treatment on Cu Distribution, Antibacterial Performance and Cytotoxicity of Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu Alloy
    Zheng Ma, Ling Ren, Rui Liu, Ke Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhenhua Liao, Weiqiang Liu, Min Qi, R.D.K. Misra
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 723-732.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.04.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A copper-bearing Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloy was processed and subjected to different heat treatments to explore the relationship among microstructure, antibacterial performance, and cytocompatibility. Characterization of microstructure revealed that the solution treated alloy consisted of α phase, α′ phase and β phase, while besides these phases, the aged alloy also contained the precipitations of intermetallic Ti2Cu compound. The solution treated alloy showed better antibacterial performance with increasing the solution temperature. The Cu ions released from Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloy could effectively inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilm on the surface of alloy, and do not induce any cytotoxicity. The optimal heat treatment for Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloy was solution treated at 930 °C, at which it could exhibit both promising antibacterial performance and no cytotoxicity.
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    Multifunctional MgF2/Polydopamine Coating on Mg Alloy for Vascular Stent Application
    Xiaoli Liu, Zhen Zhen, Jing Liu, Tingfei Xi, Yudong Zheng, Shaokang Guan, Yufeng Zheng, Yan Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 733-743.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.02.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Mg alloy is of great potential in the application of vascular stent due to its degradation in physical environment and proper mechanical property. However its mechanical integrity does not meet the clinical requirement due to relatively fast degradation. Besides, in order to accelerate the re-endothelialization of Mg-based stents, it needs surface modification to improve the attachment, growth and adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs). To solve the main obstacles, an anti-corrosion and quick endothelialization coating was prepared on novel Mg-Zn-Y?Nd alloy via a simple two-step immersion method in the present study, first in hydrofluoric acid (HF) then in dopamine tris-Hydrochloric acid (tris-HCl) solution. The coating was uniform and thin, which consisted of two layers—the upper was polydopamine (PDA) layer and the lower was MgF2 layer. The alloy with the coating demonstrated dramatic corrosion resistance enhancement in vitro by immersion test and electrochemical test. Moreover the HF-PDA-treated Mg alloy exhibited great performance of cell adhesion and proliferation. The coating created a favorable environment for ECs to have a competitive advantage over vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which was preferable for re-endothelialization. The results suggest that HF-PDA-treated Mg-Zn-Y?Nd alloy has great potential in the application of vascular stent and the surface coating method is of great application value in biodegradable Mg alloy stent due to its simplicity and effectiveness.
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    Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and In Vitro Degradation Behavior of a Novel Biodegradable Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr-0.2Sc Alloy
    Tao Li, Hailong Zhang, Yong He, Ning Wen, Xitao Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 744-750.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.02.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A novel Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr-0.2Sc (denoted as ZK21-0.2Sc) alloy was developed as potential biodegradable implant materials. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro degradation behavior of the as-cast ZK21-0.2Sc alloy were investigated and compared with ZK21 alloy and pure Mg. The ZK21-0.2Sc alloy showed a single-phase structure with fine equiaxed grains. The alloy exhibited a good balance between strength and ductility. Both immersion tests and electrochemical tests showed that the ZK21-0.2Sc alloy had the lowest degradation rate in Hank's solution. The excellent degradation behavior of ZK21-0.2Sc alloy could be explained by the single-phase and fine grain structure, the more effective protection corrosion film, and the beneficial alloying effects of Zn, Zr and Sc.
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    Effects of Microstructure of Aluminum Substrate on Ordered Nanopore Arrays in Anodic Alumina
    Choong-Soo Chi, Jong-Ho Lee, Insoo Kim, Han-Jun Oh
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 751-758.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effects of microstructure of aluminum substrate on regular nanopore arrangement in anodic alumina layer were investigated. The dissimilar microstructure and texture on aluminum sheets were prepared by various cold rollings and heat treatments, and anodic alumina nanoporous layers were fabricated by two step anodizing method at 40 V in oxalic acid solution. For the aluminum sheets with similar surface texture and annealing condition except purity, the regularity of the nanopore arrangement on the anodic alumina layer increased with purity of aluminum substrate. The difference of surface texture on Al sheets is not critical parameter for formation of ordered nanopore array compared with purity and heat treatment of substrate aluminum. The investigation suggested that the purity and reasonable annealing temperature of aluminum substrate are very important process to obtain the highly-ordered nanopore array on anodic alumina layer.
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    Simultaneous Enhancement of Transparent and Antibacterial Properties of ZnO Films by Suitable F Doping
    S. Snega, K. Ravichandran, M. Baneto, S. Vijayakumar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 759-765.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.03.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Undoped and fluorine doped ZnO (ZnO:F) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The fluorine doping level in the starting solution was varied from 0 to 20 at.% in steps of 5 at.% and the effects of fluorine doping level on the structural, optical, surface morphological properties along with their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) bacteria were studied and reported. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that despite the orientation of crystallites was strongly influenced by fluorine doping, the preferential orientation was retained in favor of (002) plane even at the highest doping level. The crystallite size decreased as the F doping level was increased and the reason for this variation has been explained on the basis of Zener pinning effect. The average optical transparency in the visible range was about 80%-90% for doped films and the optical band gap was found to be slightly increased with the F doping level. The antibacterial efficiency of the F doped ZnO films was found to be enhanced as the F doping level was increased. The antibacterial efficiency was more pronounced in the case of B. subtilis (Gram-positive) when compared with E. coli (Gram-negative).
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    Growth Characteristics and Reinforcing Behavior of In-situ NbCp in Laser Cladded Fe-based Composite Coating
    Qingtang Li, Yongping Lei, Hanguang Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (7): 766-772.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.06.012
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Over the past decade, researchers demonstrated much interest in laser cladded metal matrix composite coatings for its good wear resistance. In this paper, in-situ NbCp reinforced Fe-based wear-resistance coatings with different designed NbC contents were produced by laser cladding. The formation mechanism of NbC particle was analyzed. The effects of NbC content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of coatings were investigated. It was revealed that α-(Fe, Cr), (Fe, Cr)7C3, NbC existed in all coatings. NbC particles formed by the chemical reaction of Nb and C dissolved in the molten pool. The increase of designed NbC content led to the growth of the porosity amount, and the increase of the size and the area ratio of the particle, as well as the transformation of the NbCp morphology from quadrangle to petaloid shape. Moreover, the micro-hardness and the wear resistance of the coating were improved with the increase of NbC. When NbCp content was 30 wt%, the mechanical properties decreased slightly.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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