Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      10 September 2015, Volume 31 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Corrosion Behavior of Reactive Sputtered Al2O3 and ZrO2 Thin Films on Mg Disk Immersed in Saline Solution
    Ruben Kotoka, Sergey Yarmolenko, Devdas Pai, Jag Sankar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 873-880.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Magnesium has attracted a lot of attention over the last few decades due to its light weight and potential use as biomaterial. However, the poor corrosion resistance of magnesium restricts its practical use for application where exposure to aggressive aqueous media is unavoidable. This paper describes the growth, characterization and corrosion analyses of Al2O3 and ZrO2 thin film coatings aimed at slowing down the fast degradation of Mg in saline solution. In this study, different thicknesses of Al2O3 and ZrO2 were deposited on pure magnesium (99.95%) disk using pulsed-DC reactive sputtering process. The microstructure and phase analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The corrosion protection behavior of the Al2O3 and ZrO2 coated magnesium samples immersed in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution were evaluated using electrochemical measurement techniques, such as open-circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization (PD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The microstructural analyses showed that the Al2O3 thin film coatings have circular grains between 5 and 25?nm, while the ZrO2 coatings have bigger ellipsoidal grains. The results from the electrochemical corrosion analyses showed that the Al2O3 coated Mg disk had corrosion resistance of approximately 3 times that of ZrO2 coated Mg disk. It was also observed that increasing the thickness of the Al2O3 coating improved the corrosion resistance of the Mg disk. These results suggest that Al2O3 and ZrO2 coating can be used to effectively control the fast degradation of magnesium for medical implant applications.
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    Carbon-Iron Microfibrous Material Produced by Thermal Treatment of Self-rolled Poly(4-vinyl pyridine) Films Loaded by Fe2O3 Particles
    Camelia Matei Ghimbeu, Aleksandr I. Egunov, Andrey S. Ryzhikov, Valeriy A. Luchnikov
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 881-887.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.003
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Ensembles of freeze-dried self-rolled polymer micro-scrolls are explored as template media for producing carbon-iron based composites with fibrous morphology. Polymer fibres impregnated with furfuryl alcohol and loaded with Fe2O3 particles, were thermally treated under inert atmosphere at 700?°C and subsequently analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and nitrogen adsorption. The resulting material has a micro-fibrous morphology and is basically composed of metallic Fe0 and FeO particles, i.e., more than 98 wt% of the carbon/iron-based composite mass. These particles are held together by amorphous porous carbon foam obtained by in-situ carbonization of the polymer/Fe2O3 composite with evacuation of carbon from the system via COx gases released by carbo-reduction of Fe2O3. The material has significant activity in the reaction of catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in water solutions.
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    Synthesis and Characterization of Sphere-like Pt Nanoparticles Supported on DWCNT/WO3 Nanorods with Electrocatalytic Activity
    Yanhong Yin, Chun&#x, an Ma, Ziping Wu, Man Zhao, Litao Chen, Youqun Chu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 888-894.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.023
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanorods, which were used to load platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, were investigated. H2WO4 nanorods with diameters from 10 to 50 nm were obtained when tungsten precursor was added into homogenous double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and ethylene glycol (EG) solution. Nanosized rod-like WO3 were achieved after calcination of the DWCNT/H2WO4 composite. Sphere-like Pt nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of the nanorods by EG in-situ reduction. Pt particles were isolated by DWCNT/WO3 nanorods and secondary accumulation could be prevented when Pt particles appeared in the DWCNT/WO3 nanorod/EG dispersion solution. Therefore, Pt nanoparticles with mean diameters of 2-6 nm could be obtained. Pt-deposited on DWCNT/WO3 nanorods exhibited high electrochemical activity, which could facilitate the low-cost mass production of Pt catalyst.
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    HMTA-assisted One-pot Synthesis of Greigite Nano-platelet and Its Magnetic Properties
    Tuoquan Liao, Wei Wang, Yongli Song, Xianjie Wang, Yanqiang Yang, Xiaoyang Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 895-900.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A facile one-pot hydrothermal procedure for the synthesis of magnetic greigite was investigated in this work, by using FeSO4, thioacetamide, and a tiny amount of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as starting materials. The HMTA molecule, which acted as a chelating agent and an oxidant, could not only tune the valence fluctuation of iron ions, but also direct the hydrothermal reaction towards the exclusive formation of greigite platelets with hundreds of nanometers in lateral size. In the presence of a static magnetic field during this synthesis, the greigite nano-platelets were apt to congregate to form 3D flower-like microspheres. A set of experiments suggested that the ferrous ions were at first partly oxidized by HMTA to form ferric intermediates, i.e., Fe(OH)3 and Fe2O3. Then excessive ferrous ions, along with the solid intermediates, reacted with sulfide ions, and finally evolved into greigite. Taken into consideration that a similar process occurred in magnetotactic bacteria, our results may give a hint at the design of biomimetic synthesis strategies to produce nanomaterials, especially the magnetosome-like greigite.
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    In situ Surface Functionalization of Hydrophilic Silica Nanoparticles via Flame Spray Process
    Yun Wang, Ling Zhang, Yanjie Hu, Chunzhong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 901-906.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Hydrophobic silica nanoparticles grafted with a high amount of organic molecules were successfully prepared by an in situ functionalization method in flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process. Hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles were converted into hydrophobic ones by silylation between 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxyl silane (MPS) and silica's surface hydroxyl groups. The freshly formed silica nanoparticles in flame were continuously functionalized by a fine spray of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxyl silane (MPS) solution at a preferred temperature. The functionalization extent, morphology structure and size of silica nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of concentration, pH value and pre-activation of organic silane solution on the surface grafting density was investigated in detail. The obtained silica nanoparticles had a higher MPS functional content of 15.0?wt% (an average density of 2.7 MPS molecule/nm2) than that of the silica modified by wet chemistry route, showing an excellent, stable hydrophobic property. The results have demonstrated that the in situ FSP functionalization process is a simple, effective and promising route for the scalable preparation of advanced, hydrophobic nanomaterials.
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    Comparison of Few-layer Graphene Prepared from Natural Graphite through Fast Synthesis Approach
    Iresha R.M. Kottegoda, Xuanwen Gao, Liyanage D.C. Nayanajith, Chinthan H. Manorathne, Jun Wang, Jia-Zhao Wang, Hua-Kun Liu, Yossef Gofer
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 907-912.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.014
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    We report the synthesis of high quality few-layer graphene on a large scale using high purity natural graphite from Sri Lanka. A novel thermal method was adapted to prepare graphene from intermediate graphite oxide, which was obtained by heating the intermediate at low temperature (above 150?°C) in air for 5?min and subsequent heating at 500?°C in Argon for 15?min. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy etc. The properties and the performance of graphene were observed to depend on the graphite source. The reduced graphite oxide from Kahatagaha graphite source exhibits higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area ~500?m2?g-1 and stable specific capacity as an anode in Li-ion batteries, whereas Bogala graphite showed higher initial irreversibility and higher capacity as anode, exceeding the theoretical specific capacity of graphite. Both graphenes showed high electrical conductivity. The graphene, which exists in stacks of only a few layers, supposed to be 2-6 layers, would be promising for a vast variety of applications.
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    Formaldehyde Sensing Properties of SnO-Graphene Composites Prepared via Hydrothermal Method
    Xiangfeng Chu, Xiaohua Zhu, Yongping Dong, Wangbing Zhang, Linshan Bai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 913-917.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.05.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Graphene (G) was prepared by reducing graphene oxide (GO) with hydrazine hydrate. SnO-graphene composites with different amounts of graphene were prepared via hydrothermal method. SnO-G composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the graphene content in the composites and the hydrothermal temperature on the gas-sensing responses of the materials to formaldehyde vapor were investigated. The gas-sensing selectivity of the sensor based on SnO-1% G (100 °C, 10 h) composite to five kinds of gases (1000 × 10-6) was also studied. The results revealed that the sensor based on SnO-1% G (100 °C, 10 h) exhibited high response to formaldehyde vapor when the operating temperature of the sensor was 133 °C and the response to 0.001 × 10-6 formaldehyde attained 3.9. The response time and recovery time for 0.001 × 10-6 formaldehyde were 24 and 12 s, respectively.
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    Creating Local Reinforcement of a Channel in a Composite Casting Using Electromagnetic Separation
    Slawomir Golak, Maciej Dyzia
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 918-922.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    This article presents a new method to obtain local reinforcement in near-surface layers of channels in castings made of a particle-reinforced metal matrix composite in the alternating electromagnetic field generated by an inductor placed inside the channel. In centrifugal casting, the centrifugal force on the particles leads to the formation of composite structures, while in the proposed method, the electromagnetic force field on the particles results in the designed structure of the composite casting. The article reports the experimental verification of this method using an aluminium sleeve reinforced locally with SiC particles at the inner wall.
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    Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Ultrafine Grained Ni-SiC Composites at Room Temperature
    Hefei Huang, Chao Yang, Massey de los Reyes, Yongfeng Zhou, Long Yan, Xingtai Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 923-929.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Bulk metallic nickel-silicon carbide nano-particle (Ni-SiCNP) composites, with milling time ranged from 8 to 48 h, were prepared in a planetary ball mill and sintered using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) furnace. The microstructure of the Ni-SiCNP composites was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their mechanical properties were investigated by tensile measurements. The TEM results showed well-dispersed SiCNP particles, either within the matrix, between twins or along grain boundaries (GB), as well as the presence of stacking faults and twin structures, characteristics of materials with low stacking fault energy. Dislocation lines were also observed to interact with the SiCNP which were plastically nondeformable. A synergistic relationship existed between Hall-Petch strengthening and dispersion strengthening mechanisms, which was shown to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the Ni-SiCNP composites. Both the maximum yield and tensile strengths were found in the Ni-SiCNP composite with a milling time of 48 h, whereas the increased rate of strengths drastically decreased in material milled above 8 h due to the significant SiCNP agglomeration. The ball milling process resulted in the formation of nano-scale, ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ni-SiCNP composites when the milling time was extended for longer periods, greatly strengthening these materials. The sharp decrease in elongation percentages, however, should be comprehensively considered before irreversible inelastic deformation.
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 45 vol.% SiCp/7075Al Composite
    Ziyang Xiu, Wenshu Yang, Ronghua Dong, Murid Hussain, Longtao Jiang, YongXing Liu, Gaohui Wu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 930-934.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.01.012
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Microstructure and mechanical behavior of high volume content SiCp/7xxxAl composites have not been explored yet. Therefore, in the present work, 45 vol.% SiCp/7075Al composite has been prepared by pressure infiltration method. High density dislocations were found around SiC/Al interface in SiCp/7075Al composite after water-quenching and aging treatment. Fine dispersed nano-η′ phases were observed after the aging treatment. Adverse to other SiCp/Al composites prepared by the pressure infiltration method, an interface layer was observed between SiC particles and Al matrix. Furthermore, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation indicated that this interface layer was coherent/semi-coherent with that of the SiC particles. 45 vol.% SiCp/7075Al composite demonstrated high tensile strength (630 MPa) and micro-ductility. Compared to aged SiCp/2024Al composite, the aged SiCp/7075Al composite showed an increase of about 200% in the tensile strain and 90% in the tensile strength, respectively. It is speculated that nano-η′ phases in the Al matrix significantly contributed to the strengthening effect while the interface layer between SiC and Al matrix might be beneficial to the strength and plasticity of SiCp/7075Al composite.
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    Effects of Different Stretching Routes on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheets
    Jingren Dong, Dingfei Zhang, Jing Sun, Qingwei Dai, Fusheng Pan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 935-940.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.011
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were stretched by 13% along three different routes: the extrusion direction (Route A), 45° to the extrusion direction (Route B) and the transverse direction (Route C), and then were annealed at 350?°C for 60?min. The microstructure and texture, tensile mechanical properties and formability were investigated at room temperature. The results indicated that all the three stretched samples exhibited weakened basal texture, compared with the as-received sheet due to static recrystallization. By comparison, Route B processed sample showed the most dispersive basal texture, while Route A processed specimen exhibited the lowest basal intensity. Improved mechanical properties for the stretched and annealed sheets with different stretching routes were achieved. Furthermore, Route A processed sheet showed the highest Erichsen value compared with the samples processed along Route B and Route C.
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    Deformation Behavior of the Zr53.5Cu26.5Ni5Al12Ag3 Bulk Metallic Glass Over a Wide Range of Strain Rate and Temperatures
    Guangcai Ma, Zhengwang Zhu, Zheng Wang, Haifeng Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 941-945.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.06.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The stress-strain relations for the Zr53.5Cu26.5Ni5Al12Ag3 bulk metallic glass (BMG) over a broad range of temperatures (room temperature to its supercooled liquid region) and strain rates (10-4 to 10-1 s-1) were established in uniaxial compression using a thermal-mechanical simulation system. The superplastic flow was seen above its glass transition temperature (Tg = 694 K) and strain rates of up to 10-1 s-1 from the variation of stress-strain curves. A deformation map of strain rate vs temperature of Zr53.5Cu26.5Ni5Al12Ag3 was obtained, which was mainly composed of homogeneous and inhomogeneous deformation regions, the former featuring either Newtonian or non-Newtonian flow while the latter characterizing linear elastic behavior followed by shear localization, respectively. A phenomenological constitutive equation used to describe a master curve of viscosity with respect to the strain rate was obtained by fitting the experimental results, which determines the viscosity of the present alloy at the temperature near and above Tg. The results show the Zr53.5Cu26.5Ni5Al12Ag3 BMG is the subject suitable for net shape forming process at the supercooled liquid region.
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    Microstructure Characteristics of Inconel 625 Superalloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting
    Shuai Li, Qingsong Wei, Yusheng Shi, Zicheng Zhu, Danqing Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 946-952.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Selective laser melting (SLM), an additive manufacturing process, is capable of manufacturing metallic parts with complex shapes directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. SLM parts are created on a layer-by-layer manner, making it more flexible than traditional material processing techniques. In this paper, Inconel 625 alloy, a widely used material in the aerospace industry, were chosen as the build material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis techniques were employed to analyze its microstructure. It was observed that the molten pool was composed of elongated columnar crystal. Due to the rapid cooling speed, the primary dendrite arm space was approximately 0.5 μm and the hardness of SLM state was very high (343 HV). The inverse pole figure (IPF) indicated that the growing orientation of the most grains was <001> due to the epitaxial growth and heat conduction. The XRD results revealed that the austenite structure with large lattice distortion was fully formed. No carbides or precipitated phases were found. After heat treatment the grains grew into two microstructures with distinct morphological characters, namely, rectangular grains and limited in the molten pool, and equiaxed grains along the molten boundaries. Upon experiencing the heat treatment, MC carbides with triangular shapes gradually precipitated. The results also identified that a large number of zigzag grain boundaries were formed. In this study, the grain formation and microstructure, and the laws of the molten pool evolution were also analyzed and discussed.
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    Influence of Test Temperature on the Tensile Properties along the Thickness in a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy
    Weifeng Xu, Jinhe Liu, Daolun Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 953-961.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.07.005
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    The aim of this study was to evaluate microstructures and the influence of test temperature on the tensile properties, strain hardening behavior and fracture characteristics of friction stir welded (FSWed) 2219-T62 aluminum alloy thick plate joints. A fine and equiaxed recrystallized grain structure had no significant change in grains at the top of weld nugget zone (WNZ) at a rotational rate of 500 r/min compared with 300 r/min, but the grains and second-phase particles at the middle of WNZ exhibited obvious coarsening. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and joint efficiency were observed to decrease with increasing test temperatures. However, the elongation presented a contrast trend. Compared with the middle and bottom slices, the top slice (216 and 342?MPa) had a higher strength and a lower elongation (8.5%) at different test temperatures. Hardening capacity and strain hardening exponent of bottom slices were higher than those of the top and middle slices. Both of them at room temperature (RT) were bigger than those at higher temperature (HT) and lower temperature (LT). The FSWed joints basically failed in the border area between the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the top slice, and in the HAZ of the middle or bottom slices, while the fracture surfaces exhibited dimple fracture characteristics at different test temperatures.
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    Effect of Post-weld Heat Treatment on Properties of Friction Welded Joint Between TC4 Titanium Alloy and 40Cr Steel Rods
    Honggang Dong, Lianzhen Yu, Dewei Deng, Wenlong Zhou, Chuang Dong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (9): 962-968.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.021
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Dissimilar metal joining of Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) titanium alloy to as-rolled 40Cr steel rods was conducted with friction welding, and the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant joints was investigated. The average tensile strength of the as-welded joints reached 766 MPa and failure occurred in 40Cr steel base metal. However, after PWHT at 600 °C for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h, the tensile strength of the joints decreased and fracture happened through the interface with quasi-cleavage features. The bending angle of specimens was improved from 9.6° in as-welded state to 32.5° after PWHT for 2 h. The tensile strength of the joint was enhanced by martensitic transformation near the interface in as-welded state. Sorbite formed near the interface in PWHT state and improved the bending ductility of the joint. TiC brittle phase formed at the interface after PWHT for 0.5 h and deteriorated the tensile strength and bending ductility of the joint. After PWHT for 2 h, no TiC phase was detected at the interface. The microhardness on the interface in as-welded state was higher than that after PWHT, indicating that the decrease of microhardness around the interface could be accompanied by degradation of tensile strength but improvement of bending ductility of the joints.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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