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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      30 September 2013, Volume 29 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    A Comparison of Corrosion Behavior in Saline Environment: Rare Earth Metals (Y, Nd, Gd, Dy) for Alloying of Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys
    Xu Zhao, Ling-ling Shi, Jian Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 781-787.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.017
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    Rare earth (RE) metals are widely used as the alloying elements in biodegradable magnesium alloys as medical implants. However, corrosion behavior of pure RE metals not only in physiological media but also in chlorinated saline environment is not well understood. In the present work, the RE metals Y, Nd, Gd and Dy are selected to investigate their corrosion behavior in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution with immersion and electrochemistry techniques. As indicated, corrosion of the currently investigated RE metals is promoted in the order of Dy, Y, Gd and Nd. In terms of electrochemical response, such a sequence correlates with the increased impedance and the decreased corrosion rate (CR). These RE metals manifest weak ability for passivation in the native surface. Then, reaction with aqueous solution easily happens through the anodic dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution. The corrosion products, RE(OH)3, adhered on the surface of RE metals, do not have an appreciable power to resist the reaction proceeding with corrosive chloride ions. In contrast to pure Mg, the RE metals, including Y, Nd, Gd and Dy, exhibit significantly fragile corrosion resistance in saline media. Therefore, with the current findings, it is impossible to reveal a well-defined correlation of corrosion resistance between RE-containing Mg alloy and RE metal itself.

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    Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Magnesium-Hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA) Composite Thin Films
    K. Mensah-Darkwa, R.K. Gupta, D. Kumar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 788-794.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.019
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    Magnesium (Mg)–hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, abbreviated as HA) composite films have been grown on Mg plates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Mechanical property measurements and analysis have indicated that hardness and Young's modulus of nMg–(100–n)HA composite coatings increase with Mg content in the coatings and reach a maximum at a 70Mg–30HA composition. n and 100–n in the nMg–(100–n)HA represent the relative number of laser pulses impinging on Mg and HA targets, respectively. Direct current potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that the corrosion of Mg plate (control) decreases with an increase in the HA ratio in the composite films. For example, the corrosion current density of Mg plate reduces by ∼350 times after coating the Mg plate with 10Mg–90HA composite film. The reduction in corrosion current density of Mg plates was also accompanied by a positive shift in the corrosion potential (∼6%) due to this coating. The mechanism behind the reduction in corrosion behavior of Mg plates due to nMg–(100–n)HA composite coatings has been understood by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

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    Electrical, Thermal, Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Studies of Metallic Oxide Nanocomposite Doped Polyaniline
    Saima Sultana, Rafiuddin, Mohammad Zain Khan, Khalid Umar, M. Muneer
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 795-800.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.001
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    ZnO–ZrO2 nanocomposite was prepared by sol–gel method and in-situ polymerization was used to synthesize ZnO–ZrO2 nanocomposite doped polyaniline (PANI). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to ensure the crystallite size, functional groups, morphology and chemical composition of the polymer nanocomposite complex. The average particle size of the ZnO–ZrO2 nanoparticles was found to be 20.5 nm. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the thermal stability of the complex, shows improved thermal stability of polymer nanocomposite as compared to the pure organic polymer. The material also possesses good electrical conductivity. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the materials was investigated by monitoring the decolorization of Acid Blue 29 dye in a UV photocatalytic reactor and PANI–ZnO–ZrO2 was found to possess higher photocatalytic activity than pure PANI. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the materials was examined and it was observed that PANI–ZnO–ZrO2 could be used as an excellent antibacterial agent. Hence, desired properties could be integrated by mixing appropriate phases of the materials for specific applications such as heterogeneous catalyst, antibacterial agents, antibiotics delivery and high temperature conducting polymers.

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    Preparation and Characteristics of Core-Shell Structure Eu(DBM)3Phen@SiO2 Micro-Sphere
    Mingguang Yu, Guangxue Chen, Jiangwen Liu, Baoling Tang, Wentao Huang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 801-805.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.023
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    Sphere-shape Eu(DBM)3Phen@SiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by employing a modified alkaline catalyzed hydrolysis and precipitation method. The silica coated on the particles surface was obtained by means of hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). In this study, the particles morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the surface composition of samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It is confirmed that the SiO2 shell has been coated on the rare earth complexes successfully. Moreover, the near-infrared photoluminescence emission analysis on the nanoparticles showed that the SiO2 shell would increase the luminescence intensity of Eu(DBM)3Phen. This is primarily due to the reason that SiO2 shell with chemical inertness can effectively reduce the ion Eu3+ non-radiation transition probabilities, as well as the probability of rare earth luminescence quenching caused by the external medium.

     
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    Co-based Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Composite Coatings Deposited by Arc Ion Plating
    Zhengkai Chang, Jun Gong, Chao Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 806-812.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.026
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    Cobalt-based amorphous/nanocrystalline composite coatings have been grown by arc ion plating together with a specimen cooling system. With decreasing substrate temperature, the coatings undergo significant structure evolution. The degree of crystallization first decreases and subsequently increases as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The cluster size first decreases and then remains constant as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of substrate temperature on the evolution of the structure has been studied as a result of a competition between nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics of crystalline growth. With decreasing the substrate temperature, the microhardness and the critical load of the composite coatings firstly increased, and then remained almost constant. And the saturation magnetization revealed the opposite trend over the same range. The essence of these phenomena was ascribed to the microstructural variations caused by the decrease of the substrate temperature.

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    Development of Al356-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings by High Velocity Oxy-fuel Technique
    Y. Mazaheri, F. Karimzadeh, M.H. Enayati
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 813-820.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.019
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    In this research, development of Al356–Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings has been investigated. Al356–Al2O3 composite powders were prepared by mechanical milling of Al356 powder and 5 vol.% micro and nanoscaled alumina particles. The milled powders were used as feedstock to deposit composite coatings on A356–T6 aluminum alloy substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. X-ray diffractometry, optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness and wear tests were used to characterize the composite powders and coatings. The hardness of composite coatings containing micro and nanosized Al2O3 were 114.1 ± 5.9 HV and 138.4 ± 6.9 HV, respectively which were higher than those for substrate (79.2 ± 1.1 HV). Nano and microcomposite coatings revealed low friction coefficients and wear rates, which were significantly lower than those obtained for Al356–T6 substrate. Addition of 5 vol.% micro and nanoscaled alumina particles improved the wear resistance by an average of 85% and 91%, respectively. This is mainly caused by the presence of Al2O3 in matrix and nanocrystalline structure of matrix. Scanning electron microscopy tests revealed different wear mechanisms on the surface of the wear test specimens.

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    Influence of Process Parameters on the RF Sputtered GaP Thin Films
    D.A. Mota, G. Hema Chandra, J. Ventura, A. Guedes, J. Pérez de la Cruz
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 821-829.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.005
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    In this work, gallium phosphide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique under different depositions conditions. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a diversity of states: from amorphous in the films deposited at 175 °C to a nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline films, exhibiting cubic phase with preferred orientation along (220), in the films deposited at temperatures higher than 250 °C. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that all films were uniform with a smooth surface, while the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that there was a visible dependence on the Ga/P ratio in the deposition conditions and confirmed that a residual Ga metallic phase was presented in the surface of all the films. The Raman analysis showed the structural evolution of the GaP films was strongly dependent on the deposition conditions. The conductivity of the films was slightly dependent on the argon pressure and the rf power, but strongly dependent on the deposition temperature, mainly above 200 °C. The optical transmission and absorption analyses of the GaP films revealed an indirect band gap of ∼1.70 eV in the films deposited at temperatures less than 200 °C, which transited to a band gap of 2.26 eV as the deposition temperature was close to 300 °C.

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    Structure and Electrical Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Grown on Si (111) by Metal-organic Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Yunfeng Wu, Dongping Liu, Naisen Yu, Yuanda Liu, Hongwei Liang, Guotong Du
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 830-834.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.011
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    ZnO thin films were grown on Si (111) substrates by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The crystal structures and electrical properties of as-grown sample were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It can be seen that with increasing growth temperature, the surface morphology of ZnO thin films changed from flake-like to cobblestones-like structure. The current maps were simultaneously recorded with the topography, which was gained by C-AFM contact mode. Conductivity for the off-axis facet planes presented on ZnO grains enhanced. Measurement results indicate that the off-axis facet planes were more electrically active than the c-plane of ZnO flakes or particles probably due to lower Schottky barrier height of the off-axis facet planes.

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    Preparation and Characterization of Buoyant Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Composites Supported by Fly Ash Cenospheres for Photocatalytic Applications
    Chuang Li, Bing Wang, Hao Cui, Jianping Zhai, Qin Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 835-840.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.027
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    Fly ash cenospheres (FACs) coated with nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) composites were prepared by the sol–gel method for use as photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity and kinetics of the composites produced at different calcination temperatures and with different nitrogen doping contents were studied under visible light irradiation by monitoring the environmental degradation of methylene blue (MB). The MB degradation ratio of N-TiO2/FAC (25%, 450 °C) was 10% higher than that of N-TiO2 and 40% higher than that of TiO2/FAC. These N-TiO2/FAC composites floated in water and could be recovered after the photocatalytic reaction by phase separation.

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    Existing Form of Zinc Oxide and Phase Transformation for Zinc Oxide Encapsulated in Mesoporous Silica
    Qingshan Lu, Guohong Yun, Wenping Zhou, Jiangong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 841-845.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.007
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    Nanocomposites of ZnO encapsulated in mesoporous silica were prepared by wetness impregnation and calcination. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of ZnO content and thermal treatment on the existing form of ZnO as well as phase transformation were investigated. ZnO exists stably in the form of non-crystalline phase or cluster when crystallite size is small. With increasing ZnO content, as the size of ZnO reaches a critical size of crystalline phase, the non-crystalline ZnO or cluster transforms structurally to crystalline ZnO with low energy state. Besides, Zn2SiO4 was obtained by solid-state reaction between ZnO and mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica acts as not only a reactant but also a diffusion barrier which inhibits the phase transformation from β-Zn2SiO4 to α-Zn2SiO4. The formation temperature of Zn2SiO4 is lower than that of conventional solid-state reaction because of the unique structure of mesoporous silica.

     
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    Mechanical Behavior and Failure Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composite Pyramidal Core Sandwich Panel after Thermal Exposure
    Jiayi Liu, Zhengong Zhou, Linzhi Wu, Li Ma
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 846-854.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.013
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    An attempt has been made here to evaluate the effect of thermal exposure on the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of carbon fiber composite sandwich panel with pyramidal truss core under axial compression. Analytical formulae for the collapse strength of composite sandwich panel after thermal exposure were derived. Axial compression tests of composite laminates and sandwich panels after thermal exposure were conducted at room temperature to assess the degradation caused by the thermal exposure. Experimental results showed that the failure of sandwich panel are not only temperature dependent, but are time dependent as well. The decrease in residual compressive strength is mainly attributed to the degradation of the matrix and the degradation of fiber–matrix interface, as well as the formation of cracks and pores when specimens are exposed to high temperature. The measured failure loads obtained in the experiments showed reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions.

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    Fine-Grained Bulk NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Fabricated by Rapid Solidification Process and Its Mechanical Properties and Damping Performance
    Hongjie Jiang, Shanshan Cao, Changbo Ke, Xiao Ma, Xinping Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 855-862.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.007
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    A near-equiatomic NiTi shape memory alloy was fabricated by rapid solidification process through vacuum arc melting followed by vacuum suction casting in water-cooled thick copper mold. The rapidly solidified (or suction cast) NiTi alloy shows much finer grains and homogenous microstructure, in particular a uniform distribution of various fine precipitates, compared to the conventional cast one. The resultant alloy also exhibits the homogenous Ni distribution in the matrix of the alloy, allowing the martensitic transformation to take place throughout the NiTi alloy matrix simultaneously and resulting in sharper transformation peaks compared to the conventional cast alloy. Moreover, the suction cast NiTi alloy shows a significant improvement over the conventional cast one, in terms of possessing higher deformation recovery rates and displaying the increased compressive strength and damping capacity by 4% and 20%, respectively.

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    Microstructure and Transformation Behavior of in-situ Shape Memory Alloys by Selective Laser Melting Ti-Ni Mixed Powder
    Baicheng Zhang, Jing Chen, Christian Coddet
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 863-867.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.006
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    The selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti–Ni mixed powder with atomic ratio of 1:1 was performed in the present work in order to elaborate shape memory alloy (SMA). The martensite phase of Ti–Ni alloy can be found by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis under temperature field, moreover, the Ti2Ni phase at a high scanning velocity. The crystalline phase images also show that the synthesized Ti–Ni alloy possessed a refined martensite microstructure. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties, the microhardness and porosity were measured. The microhardness is relatively high about 400HV0.2 with champ temperature. Besides, the porosity is quite low due to the excellent laser energy absorptivity and meltability of Ni element. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis shows that the transformation temperature from austenite phase to martensite phase is relatively high and stable.

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    Thermal Stability and Transformation-mediated Deformability of Cu-Zr-Al-Ni Bulk Metallic Glass Composite
    Meiting Xie, Pengna Zhang, Kaikai Song
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 868-872.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.010
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    The glass-forming ability and the thermal stability of Cu45Zr45Al5Ni5 metallic glass were systematically investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energies for the glass transition and the onset crystallization and the crystallization peak were calculated to be 255.1, 308.7 and 311.5 kJ/mol, respectively, while the corresponding liquid fragility was determined to be 23.4. By controlling the casting process, Cu45Zr45Al5Ni5 bulk metallic glass composite with the presence of ductile B2 CuZr phase was fabricated. The composite shows a pronounced plastic strain of 6.8 ± 0.05% with obvious work hardening, which results from the formation of multiple shear bands and the deformation-induced martensitic transformation.

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    Dynamic Strain Aging in a Newly Developed Ni-Co-Base Superalloy with Low Stacking Fault Energy
    Chenggang Tian, Chuanyong Cui, Ling Xu, Yuefeng Gu, Xiaofeng Sun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 873-878.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.012
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    Characteristics of dynamic strain aging (DSA) in a Ni–Co-base superalloy were studied by tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 550 °C and strain rates ranging from 3 × 105 to 8 × 104 s1. Serrated flow in the tensile stress-strain curves was observed in the temperature range from 300 °C to 500 °C. Normal DSA behavior was found at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 350 °C, while inverse DSA behavior was observed at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 500 °C. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, work hardening index, and fracture features were not affected by temperature and strain rates in DSA regime. Negative strain-rate sensitivity of flow stress was observed in DSA regime. The analysis suggests that the ordering of the substitutional solutes around some defects like mobile dislocations and stacking faults due to the thermal activated process may cause the serrations on the tensile curves.

     
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    Effect of Solidification Rate on Grain Structure Evolution During Directional Solidification of a Ni-based Superalloy
    Xiaoli Zhang, Yizhou Zhou, Tao Jin, Xiaofeng Sun, Lin Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 879-883.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.016
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    The effect of solidification rate on grain structure evolution during directional solidification (DS) of a Ni-based superalloy was explored. It was found that a high solidification rate led to sharper <001> texture and smaller grain size in the DS samples. One of the most important findings in this work was that such result was not in accordance with the general concept, and the sharper <001> texture was accompanied by the larger grain size. To explain the contradiction, the modeling samples with five grains were produced and the effect of solidification rate on the evolution of grain texture was illustrated based on the modeling samples.

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    Thermodynamic and Adsorption Behaviour of Medicinal Nitramine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for AISI Steel Alloy in HCl Solution
    Ali Reza Hosein Zadeh, Iman Danaee, Mohamad Hosein Maddahy
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (9): 884-892.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.006
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    The inhibition ability of 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole (Nitramine) against the corrosion of AISI steel 4130 in 1 mol/L HCl solution was evaluated by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry. Polarization studies indicated that nitramine retards both the cathodic and anodic reactions through chemical adsorption and blocks the active corrosion sites. The adsorption of this compound obeyed the Temkin's adsorption isotherm. The inhibition efficiency was increased with inhibitor concentration as well as temperature. EIS data were analysed by equivalent circuit model shows that as the inhibitor concentration increased the charge transfer resistance of steel increased whilst double layer capacitance decreased. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and free energy of activation and adsorption were calculated. Atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy were used to study the steel surface with and without inhibitor.

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CN: 21-1315/TG
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