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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      30 August 2013, Volume 29 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites: A Review
    Junwei Qiao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 685-701.  DOI: j.jmst.2013.05.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The advanced fabrication of in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix (MGM) composites is reviewed. Herein, the semi-solid processing and Bridgman solidification are two methods, which can make the dendrites homogeneously dispersed within the metallic glass matrix. Upon quasi-static compressive loading at room temperature, almost all the in-situ composites exhibit improved plasticity, due to the effective block to the fast propagation of shear bands. Upon quasi-static tensile loading at room temperature, although the composites possess tensile ductility, the inhomogeneous deformation and associated softening dominates. High volume-fractioned dendrites and network structures make in-situ composites distinguishingly plastic upon dynamic compression. In-situ composite exhibits high tensile strength and softening (necking) in the supercooled liquid region, since the presence of high volume-fractioned dendrites lowers the rheology of the viscous glass matrix at high temperatures. At cryogenic temperatures, a distinguishingly-increased maximum strength is available; however, a ductile-to-brittle transition seems to be present by lowering the temperature. Besides, improved tension–tension fatigue limit of 473 MPa and four-point-bending fatigue limit of 567 MPa are gained for Zr58.5Ti14.3Nb5.2Cu6.1Ni4.9Be11.0 MGM composites. High volume-fraction dendrites within the glass matrix induce increased effectiveness on the blunting and propagating resistance of the fatigue-crack tip. The fracture toughness of in-situ composites is comparable to those of the toughest steels and crystalline Ti alloys. During steady-state crack-growth, the confinement of damage by in-situ dendrites results in enhancement of the toughness.

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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of C/CeZrCeSiC Composites Fabricated by Reactive Melt Infiltration with Zr, Si Mixed Powders
    Xin Yang, Zhean Su, Qizhong Huang, Xiao Fang, Liyuan Chai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 702-710.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.005
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    To meet the increasing demand for advanced materials capable of operation over 2000 °C for future thermal protection systems application, C/C–ZrC–SiC composites were fabricated by reactive melt infiltration (RMI) with Zr, Si mixed powders as raw materials. The structural evolution and formation mechanism of the C/C–ZrC–SiC composites were discussed, and the mechanical property of the as-prepared material was investigated by compression test. The results showed that after the RMI process, a special structure with ZrC–SiC multi-coating as outer layer and ZrC–SiC–PyC ceramics as inner matrix was formed. ZrC and SiC rich areas were formed in the composites and on the coating surface due to the formation of Zr–Si intermetallic compounds in the RMI process. Mechanical tests showed that the average compression strength of the C/C–ZrC–SiC composites was 133.86 MPa, and the carbon fibers in the composites were not seriously damaged after the RMI process.

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    Increasing the Tensile Property of Unidirectional Carbon/Carbon Composites by Grafting Carbon Nanotubes onto Carbon Fibers by Electrophoretic Deposition
    Qiang Song, Kezhi Li, Hejun Li, Qiangang Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 711-714.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.015
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    Although in-situ growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon fibers could greatly increase the matrix-dominated mechanical properties of carbon/carbon composites (C/Cs), it always decreased the tensile strength of carbon fibers. In this work, CNTs were introduced into unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) preforms by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and they were used to reinforce C/Cs. Effects of the content of CNTs introduced by EPD on tensile property of unidirectional C/Cs were investigated. Results demonstrated that EPD could be used as a simple and efficient method to fabricate carbon nanotube reinforced C/Cs (CNT–C/Cs) with excellent tensile strength, which pays a meaningful way to maximize the global performance of CNT–C/Cs.

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    Effect of MWCNTs Additive on Desorption Properties of Zn(BH4)2 Composite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying
    Baogang Yang, Songlin Li, Hang Wang, Jintao Xiang, Qiumin Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 715-719.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.025
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    In this study, the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) additive on the dehydriding properties of the Zn(BH4)2/NaCl composite prepared by high energy ball milling were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results demonstrated that Zn(BH4)2 was produced from mechanochemical reaction between ZnCl2 and NaBH4. Compared with the undoped sample, 10 wt% MWCNTs effectively lowered the decomposition temperature of Zn(BH4)2 by 15 °C. The complex released 3.6 wt% hydrogen within 250 s at 100 °C and totally released 4.5 wt% hydrogen within 2500 s, indicating it has a considerable potential as a hydrogen storage material.

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    Effect of Ni Addition on Microstructure of Matrix in Casting Tungsten Carbide Particle Reinforced Composite
    Quan Shan, Zulai Li, Yehua Jiang, Rong Zhou, Yudong Sui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 720-724.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.025
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    Microstructure of the matrix directly influences the performance and the application of metal matrix composites. By using vacuum casting-infiltration method to manufacture casting tungsten carbide particle reinforced composite, the addition of Ni can alter the microstructure of the matrix of composite. High carbon chromium steel was chosen as the substrate. The casting process was achieved at 1580 °C with vacuum degree of 0.072–0.078 MPa. Padding of the molten steel in each part of the preform was different, and the solidification of each part of the composite was different, too. Microstructure of the matrix was various in different parts of the composite. The Ni addition had enlarged the austenite zone in matrix, which would improve the corrosion resistance of the composite. The phase identification of the composite was performed by X-ray diffraction technique. The result showed that Fe3W3C was the primary precipitated carbide and its composition had a direct link with the decomposition of the casting tungsten carbide particles. The hardness of the matrix mainly depended on the reinforced carbide, i.e. Fe3W3C.

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    Structural and Mechanical Properties of Al/B4C Composites Fabricated by Wet Attrition Milling and Hot Extrusion
    Morteza Alizadeh, Mostafa Alizadeh, Rasool Amini
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 725-730.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.015
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    In this study, Al matrix composites reinforced by 7.5 and 15 vol.% B4C particles and also monolithic Al (Al without the B4C particles) were produced by wet attrition milling and subsequent hot forward extrusion processes. The microstructure of the composites, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showed that the B4C particles were properly distributed in the Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the Al/B4C composites and monolithic Al were investigated by tensile, wear and hardness tests. The results revealed that with increasing content of B4C particles, the tensile strength and microhardness of composites increased but the elongation decreased. In addition, the tensile strength and microhardness of composite samples were higher than those of monolithic Al. The density measurements revealed that the density of composites decreased with increasing content of the B4C particles.

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    Enhancement of Sinter Densification of SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 Tungsten-Bronze Glass-Ceramics by Doping with P2O5
    J.C. Chen, Y. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 731-736.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.001
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    Densification behaviors of SrO–BaO–Nb2O5–SiO2 based glass–ceramics prepared by conventional sintering were investigated with an emphasis on the influence of P2O5 content. Although P2O5 dopant did not modify the surface crystallization mechanism, it resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature, which facilitates the viscous glass flow necessary for sintering. However, premature crystallization of (Sr,Ba)Nb2O6 induced by addition of excess amount of P2O5 essentially retarded sintering due to the formation of closed pores in the matrix. The SrO–BaO–Nb2O5–SiO2 glass with 1.0 mol% P2O5 (SBN-1P) showed the best sinter densification, which was accomplished at about 850 °C.

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    Observation of an EPIR Effect in Nd1-xSrxMnO3 Ceramics with Secondary Phases
    S.S. Chen, X.J. Luo, D.W. Shi2),H.Li, C.P. Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 737-741.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.010
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    Nd1−xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.3, 0.5) ceramics containing a secondary phase are synthesized by high-energy ball milling and post heat-treatment method. The 4-wire and 2-wire measuring modes are used to investigate the transport character of the grain/phase boundary (inner interface) and electrode-bulk interface (outer interface), respectively, and the results indicate that there is a similar nonlinear IV behaviour for both of the inner and outer interfaces, however, the electric pulse induced resistance change (EPIR) effect can only be observed at the outer interface.

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    Optical Studies of Fluorescent Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
    Surbhi Kumari, P.D. Sahare
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 742-746.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Spherically shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) having honeycomb like porous structure were synthesized by sol–gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), surface area measurement and X-ray diffractometry were used, revealing the hexagonal shaped pores in MSNs. MSNs with surface area of 1104.47 m2/g and large porosity of 2.8 nm in pore diameter and 0.87 cm3/g in pore volume were synthesized. TEM images showed spherical nanoparticles of ∼200–300 nm having honeycomb like pores. Stilbene 420 laser dye was incorporated in MSNs and photoluminescence spectra of stilbene 420 in MSNs and in ethanol had been studied. Stilbene 420 laser dye showed high fluorescence intensity in the fluorescence spectra of MSNs than that of ethanol. The prolonged fluorescence lifetime decay of stilbene in MSNs and the increase in fluorescence intensity for stilbene 420 in MSNs would make these nanomaterials more useful for nanosensors and nanolasers application.

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    Ni/Carbon Hybrid Prepared by Hydrothermal Carbonization and Thermal Treatment as Support for PtRu Nanoparticles for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
    Marcelo Marques Tusi, Michele Brandalise, Nataly Soares de Oliveira Polanco, Olandir Vercino Correa, Antonio Carlos da Silva, Juan Carlo Villalba, Fauze Jaco Anaissi, Almir Oliveira N
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 747-751.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.004
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    Ni/Carbon was prepared in two steps: initially cellulose as carbon source and NiCl2·6H2O as catalyst of the carbonization process were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C and further to thermal treatment at 900 °C under argon atmosphere. The obtained material contains Ni nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure dispersed on amorphous carbon with graphitic domains. PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process using Ni/Carbon as support. The materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and tested as anodes in single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The performances of PtRu/C electrocatalysts using Ni/Carbon as support were superior to those obtained for PtRu/C using commercial carbon black Vulcan XC72 as support.

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    Effect of Annealing on the Optical Properties of GaN Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition
    M. Baseer Haider, M.F. Al-Kuhaili, S.M.A. Durrani, Imran Bakhtiari
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 752-756.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.024
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    In the present study, gallium nitride thin films were grown by using pulsed laser deposition. After the growth samples were annealed at 400 and 600 °C in the nitrogen atmosphere. Surface morphology of the as-grown and annealed samples was observed by atomic force microscopy. Post-growth annealing results in an improved surface roughness of the films. Chemical analysis of the samples was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Stoichiometric gallium nitride thin films were obtained for the samples annealed at 600 °C. Optical measurements of the samples were performed to measure the band gap and optical constants of the films. Effect of annealing on the band gap and optical constants of the films was studied.

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    Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Fe-Ni Alloy Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting Fe/Ni Mixed Powders
    Baicheng Zhang, Nour-Eddine Fenineche, Hanlin Liao, Christian Coddet
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 757-760.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.001
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    Fe–Ni alloy, as a widely applied ferromagnetic material, is synthesized using selective laser melting (SLM). The chemical compositions and microstructure of the SLM Fe–Ni alloy are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the samples exhibited fine grains with homogenous distribution when a low laser scanning velocity was used. Moreover, the magnetic properties of the samples with different laser parameters are also measured. It shows that the SLM Fe–30%Ni alloy possesses a low coercivity and high saturation magnetization. It also can be obtained that SLM is an alternative faster method to prepare soft magnetic material with complex shapes. Moreover, the magnetic properties can be influenced by the laser parameters.

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    Effect of Synthesis Technique and Carbonate Content on the Crystallinity and Morphology of Carbonated Hydroxyapatite
    Chia Ching Kee, Hanafi Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 761-764.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.05.016
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    The syntheses of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) were performed by comparing dropwise and direct pouring of acetone solution of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O into mixture of (NH4)2HPO4 and NH4HCO3 at room temperature controlled at pH 11. Direct pouring method was later applied to study the increment of carbonate content in syntheses. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by various characterization techniques. The crystallographic results of the produced powders were obtained from X-ray diffraction analysis, whilst the carbonate content in the produced powders was determined by the CHNS/O elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed that the CHA powders formed were B-type. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the powders were highly agglomerated in nanosized range and hence energy filtered transmission electron microscopy was employed to show elongated particles which decreased with increasing carbonate content.

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    Microstructural Evolution of Solid-solution-treated Zn-22Al in the Semisolid State
    M.A.M. Arif, M.Z. Omar, N. Muhamad, J. Syarif, P. Kapranos
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 765-774.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.003
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    The effect of solid-solution-treatment on the semisolid microstructure of Zn–22Al with developed dendrites was investigated. Forming Zn–22Al products by semisolid metal processing offers significant advantages, such as reductions in macro-segregation, porosity and forming costs. Thermal and microstructural analyses of the formed Zn–22Al alloy were performed by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The changes in the microstructures and phase transformation in response to various solid-solution-treatments were analysed. In this study, as-cast samples were held isothermally at 330 °C for 0.5–5 h and then partially remelted at a semisolid temperature of 438 °C for 1 h to produce a solid-globular grain structure in a liquid matrix. A non-dendritic semisolid microstructure could not be obtained when the traditionally cast Zn–22Al alloy with developed dendrites was subjected directly to partial remelting. After solid-solution-treatment at 330 °C, the black interdendritic eutectics were dissolved, and the dendritic structures gradually transformed into uniform β structures when the treatment time was increased. The coarsened and merged dendrites were separated as a result of penetration by the liquid phase and melting of the residual eutectic at sites along the former grain boundaries. The microstructure of the solid-solution-treated sample transformed into a small globular structure; the best shape factor of 0.9, corresponding to a particle size of 40 ± 16 μm, is achieved when the sample was treated for 3 h followed by direct partial remelting into its semisolid zone.

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    Low-cycle Fatigue Behaviors of an As-extruded Mg-12%Gd-3%Y-0.5%Zr Alloy
    S.M. Yin, S.X. Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (8): 775-780.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.011
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    Cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of Mg–12%Gd–3%Y–0.5%Zr (wt%, GW123K) alloy were investigated at room temperature under axial cyclic loading in strain controlled condition. It is shown that conventional extruded GW123K alloy maintained cyclic stability at strain amplitudes ranging from 2 × 10−3 to 10−2. The pronounced symmetric hysteresis loops were also observed during cyclic loading. Fracture surface observations indicated that fatigue cracks mainly initiated at large Gd-riched phase or at inclusion clusters at surface or subsurface, and grain boundary (GB) and slip bands (SBs) are also preferential sites for micro-crack incubation.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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