Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      30 July 2013, Volume 29 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials Applied in Asphalt Modification: A Review
    Changqing Fang, Ruien Yu, Shaolong Liu, Yan Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 589-684. 
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    Nanotechnology has been gradually penetrated into the field of asphalt modification. Seemingly magic effects of nanomaterials have now been brought to improve the performance of asphalt. To demonstrate many of the prospective applications, researchers have conducted a series of positive and effective efforts dealing with the preparation of modified asphalt to demonstrate the mechanism of modification and the resultant improvement in performance. In this review, various nanomaterials used in asphalt modification are initially presented, followed by the methods employed to modify the asphalt with these materials and finally the effects of nanomaterials on the performance of base asphalt are presented and the modification mechanisms are discussed. Based on the current research results, the influence of preparation process parameters on the compatibility of every phase in the modified asphalt and the stability of the modified asphalt system are described. Finally, the development trend of the topic field is projected.

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    Formation and Characterization of Ceramic Nanocomposite Crystalline Coatings on Aluminium by Anodization
    M. Mubarak Ali,V.Raj
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 595-602.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.012
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    Ceramic nanocomposite coatings have been synthesized on aluminium by using lithium sulphate electrolyte with zirconium silicate additive by anodization. The effects of current density (CD) on microhardness, structure, composition and surface topography of the oxide layer formed at various CDs (0.1–0.25 A/cm2) have been studied. Crystalline coatings formed at 0.25 A/cm2 have been (width 95 nm) observed with a relatively uniform distribution confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the average microhardness value of ceramic nanocomposite coatings fabricated from lithium sulphate–zirconium silicate bath is approximately 8.5 times higher than that of the as-received aluminium. The surface statistics of the coatings is discussed in detail to explain the roughness and related parameters for better understanding. These observations demonstrate the importance of surface statistics in controlling the morphology of the coatings and its properties. From the X-ray diffraction investigations, it can be concluded that the formed nanocomposite coatings are crystalline in nature and that the crystallinity of the coatings decreases with increasing applied current density.

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    Corrosion and Wear Resistance Characterization of Environmentally Friendly Sol­—gel Hybrid Nanocomposite Coating on AA5083
    Hamed Rahimi, Reza Mozaffarinia, Akbar Hojjati Najafabadi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 603-608.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.013
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    Environmentally friendly organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite films have been developed by sol–gel method for corrosion protection of AA5083 alloy. The hybrid nanocomposite coatings have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) precursors. The multilayer coatings were prepared by dip-coating technique. Attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to show the formation of the Si–O–Si structural backbone of the hybrid coatings. Structure and surface morphology of the coatings were studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Characterization of the coatings with respect to pencil scratch hardness, adhesive and abrasion resistance was performed. The corrosion protection performance of these coatings was examined by using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique in Persian Gulf water. The results revealed that crack-free films with smooth surface were obtained. With increasing the number of sol–gel coated layers, corrosion resistance increased from 81 to 419 kΩ cm2, while the abrasion wear resistance did not change significantly. However, the triple sol–gel coated layer offered excellent protection against corrosion.

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    A Novel Ion-exchange Method for the Synthesis of Nano-SnO/micro-C Hybrid Structure as High Capacity Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries
    Zhi Tan, Zhenhua Sun, Qi Guo, Haihua Wang, Dangsheng Su
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 609-612.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.001
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    A novel and simple ion-exchange method was developed for the synthesis of nano-SnO/micro-C hybrid structure. The structure of the as prepared nano-SnO/micro-C was directly revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SnO particles with the size about 25 nm were well confined in amorphous carbon microparticles. Carbon matrix in micrometer scale not only acts as a protective buffer for the SnO nanoparticles during the battery cycling processes, but also avoids the shortcomings of nanostructures, such as low tap density and potential safety threats. Electrochemical behaviors of the nano-SnO/micro-C were tested as anode material in lithium ion batteries. The initial reversible capacity is 508 mA h g−1, and the reversible capacity after 60 cycles is 511 mA h g−1, indicating good capacity retention ability.

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    One-step Synthesis of Shape-controllable Gold Nanoparticles and Their Application in Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering
    Lanlan Sun, Dongxu Zhao, Meng Ding, Haifeng Zhao, Zhenzhong Zhang, Binghui Li, Dezhen Shen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 613-618.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.026
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    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) of various shapes were synthesized by a one-step method at ambient temperature in the presence of NaCl. 2-mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The shapes of gold NPs were controllable by simply tuning S/Au ratio (S is from MSA molecule, and S/Au ratio is controlled by tuning the volume of added MSA solution), and triangle, polygonal and spherical nanoparticles were obtained. This result suggested a new way to consider the effects of MSA on the growth of nanoparticles, which showed that MSA is a strong capping agent and facilitates more uniform growth of nanoparticles in every dimension. And other important factors on nanoparticles growth including NaCl and temperature were discussed. Furthermore, a typical probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) was used to test the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of these gold NPs and the results indicated good Raman activity on these substrates. And the enhancement factor (EF) at 1078 cm1 (a1) was estimated to be as large as 6.3 × 104 and 5.5 × 104 for triangular plates and truncated particles, respectively.

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    Comparative in vitro Study on Pure Metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Zn and W) as Biodegradable Metals
    J. Cheng, B. Liu, Y.H. Wu, Y.F. Zheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 619-627. 
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    Five pure metals including Fe, Mn, Mg, Zn and W have been investigated on their corrosion behavior and in vitro biocompatibility by electrochemical measurement, static immersion test, contact angle measurement, cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility tests. It is found that the sequence of corrosion rate of five metals in Hank's solution from high to low is: Mg > Fe > Zn > Mn > W. Fe, Mg and W show no cytotoxicity to L929 and ECV304 cells, Mn induces significant cytotoxicity to both L929 and ECV304 cells, and Zn has almost no inhibition effect on the metabolic activities of ECV304 while largely reduces the cell viability of L929 cells. The hemolysis percentage of five pure metals is lower than 5% except for Mg and platelets adhered on Zn has been activated and pseudopodia-like structures can be observed while platelets on the other four metals keep normal.

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    Forsterite Nanopowder: Structural Characterization and Biocompatibility Evaluation
    M.A. Naghiu, M. Gorea, E. Mutch, F. Kristaly, M. Tomoaia-Cotisel
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 628-632.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.007
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    Forsterite, a new biocompatible material was synthesized from Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and TEOS by using the sol–gel method. The material was then heated at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The forsterite was noticed as the main crystalline phase in the material fired at 900 and 1000 °C, while periclase (MgO) was present in all the samples. The tests confirm that in the first two samples forsterite is present as crystallites <60 nm, while in the sample synthesized at 1000 °C it forms aggregates of micrometre-sized grains. In vitro test was performed by immersing the forsterite powder in the simulating body fluids (SBF) and hydroxyapatite formation on the surface was investigated. We could evidence the formation of hydroxyapatite on the forsterite surface after 7 days of immersion. The MTT test confirmed that forsterite powders dissolution promote osteoblast proliferation of the human-type osteoblasts with no significant cytotoxicity effects.

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    CaMoO4:Dy3+,K+near White Light Emitting Phosphor: Structural, Optical and Dielectric Properties
    S.K. Sharma, S. Dutta, S. Som, P.S. Mandal
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 633-638.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.014
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    Undoped, Dy3+ doped and Dy3+, K+ codoped calcium molybdate phosphors have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the tetragonal structure of the prepared phosphors having crystallite size 15–50 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal the morphology and crystallite size of the prepared phosphors. Photoluminescence studies indicate that there are blue and yellow emissions at 489 and 576 nm, respectively corresponding to Dy3+ ion. The introduction of K+ ion significantly influences the blue and yellow emissions which causes the near white light emission from this codoped phosphor. The intense absorption peak of the codoped phosphor at 210 nm is attributed to the band gap and a shoulder at 240 nm appears due to charge transfer from oxygen ions to neighbouring molybdenum ions. The band gap of the codoped phosphor is calculated as 5.5 eV from the absorption studies. The dielectric properties such as permittivity and dielectric loss are studied as a function of frequency.

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    Bismuth Modified Porous Silica Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity Evaluation for Degradation of Isoproturon
    Anil Kumar Reddy Police, Srinivas Basavaraju, Durga Kumari Valluri, Subrahmanyam Machiraju
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 639-646. 
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    Porous silica prepared by using an acrylic emulsion has been impregnated with bismuth ion resulting in Bi2SiO5 species containing surface. The as-prepared materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques. EDAX analysis confirms the penetration of bismuth ions into the framework of silica to form Bi2SiO5, which is substantiated by XRD. The UV–Vis DRS shows that the catalysts are optically active and XPS confirms the inclusion of bismuth into the framework of silica. FTIR spectra illustrate the formation of Bi–O–Si linkages in the porous silica framework. SEM and TEM show the spherical morphology, whereas N2 adsorption/desorption study confirms the porosity of the prepared materials. The photocatalytic activity of the material is evaluated for the degradation of isoproturon herbicide and it is found that the material is active as compared to the commercial P-25 Degussa TiO2.

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    Substrate Temperature Dependent Properties of Cu Doped NiO Films Deposited by DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering
    Yarraguntla Ashok Kumar Reddy, Akepati Sivasankar Reddy, Pamanji Sreedhara Reddy
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 647-651.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.005
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    The NiO–Cu composite films were deposited on a glass substrate at various substrate temperatures by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of the films was mainly investigated. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that when the substrate temperature increased to above 200 °C, the preferred orientation tended to move to another preferred site from (220) to (111) and had a stable cubic structure. The optical transmittance and band gap values increased with increasing substrate temperature. From the morphological studies, it was observed that the grain size and root mean square roughness were increased with increasing substrate temperature. The electrical resistivity of the film decreased to 0.017 Ω cm at high substrate temperature of 400 °C.

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    Doping Silicon Wafers with Boron by Use of Silicon Paste
    Yu Gao, Shu Zhou, Yunfan Zhang, Chen Dong, Xiaodong Pi, Deren Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 652-654. 
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    In this work we introduce recently developed silicon-paste-enabled p-type doping for silicon. Boron-doped silicon nanoparticles are synthesized by a plasma approach. They are then dispersed in solvents to form silicon paste. Silicon paste is screen-printed at the surface of silicon wafers. By annealing, boron atoms in silicon paste diffuse into silicon wafers. Chemical analysis is employed to obtain the concentrations of boron in silicon nanoparticles. The successful doping of silicon wafers with boron is evidenced by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and sheet resistance measurements.

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    Hierarchical Porous Patterns of n-type 6H-SiC Crystalsvia Photo-electrochemical Etching
    Lihuan Wang, Huihui Shao, Xiaobo Hu, Xiangang Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 655-661.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.017
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    Hierarchical porous patterns have been fabricated on the C face, Si face, and cross section of n-type 6H–SiC crystal via photo-electrochemical etching using HF/C2H5OH and HF/H2O2 as electrolytes. The porous layer displayed multiple and multiscale microstructures on different faces, including stalactite-like, sponge-like and dendritic porous structures on C face, echinoid micro-patterns on Si face, and columnar and keel-shaped micro-patterns on the cross section. The formation of hierarchical porous pattern is ascribed to the dynamic competition balance between the electrochemical oxidation rate and the oxide removal rate. It was found that increasing the ionic strength of the electrolyte can obviously disturb the surface morphology of the porous SiC during the photo-electrochemical etching. Possible mechanisms for selective etching were further discussed.

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    Wear Behaviour of Plasma Paste Boronized of AISI 8620 Steel with Borax and B2O3 Paste Mixtures
    Ibrahim Gunes
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 662-668.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.005
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    In the present study, AISI 8620 steel was plasma paste boronized (PPB) by using paste mixtures with different borax and B2O3 percentages. The PPB process was carried out in a DC plasma system at 973, 1023 and 1073 K for 5 h in a gas mixture with 70% H2–30% Ar under a constant pressure of 103 Pa (10 mbar). The thickness of boride layers ranged from 15.9 to 53.6 μm depending on the temperature and process time. The hardness of the borides formed on the surface of the steel substrate and unborided steel substrate were 1648–1924 HV0.05 and 226 HV0.05, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of the boride layers on the surface of the samples were obtained for FeB and Fe2B phases. The wear tests on the steel were performed by using a ball-on-disc test device at room temperature with applied load of 10 N and with a shear velocity of 0.2 m/s. Wear test results showed that the highest value of wear rate was observed in the unborided sample while the lowest wear rate was observed in the PPB samples with 30% borax + 70% B4C paste at 1073 K for 5 h.

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    An Electron Microscopy Study of Vein-like Grain Boundary Microstructure in Nitrocarburized Low Carbon Steels
    Wanglin Chen, Cuilan Wu, Jianghua Chen, Aigui He
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 669-672.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.027
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    The coarsened grain boundaries (GBs) with vein-like morphology frequently appear in the nitrogen diffusion layer of nitrocarburized carbon steels. The electron probe X-ray microanalysis shows that such vein-like GBs are rich in nitrogen and carbon atoms. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy further reveal that the coarsened GBs consist of γ′-nitrocarbide (Fe4(C,N)) and ε-nitrocarbide lamellas that are formed during nitrocarburizing due to high nitrogen concentration at GBs. It is shown that many of {111}<112> micro twins exist in the γ′-phase lamellas and thin ε-phase slices prefer to nucleate at their twin boundaries with the orientation relationship of {0001}ε//{111}γ′. Upon growing large γ′-lamellas may become faceted and thin ε-lamellas may grow thicker and become the main portions in the vein-like GBs. The microstructure evolution occurring in the vein-like GBs can be depicted as: α + [N]/[C] → γ′ + [C,N] → ε-nitrocarbides.

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    Effect of Ball Scribing on Magnetic Barkhausen Noise of Grain-oriented Electrical Steel
    Hao Wang, Changsheng Li, Tao Zhu, Ban Cai, Gang Huo, Nasir Mohamed
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 673-677.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.018
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Effect of ball scribing on magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) of conventional grain-oriented (CGO) and high-permeability grain-oriented (HGO) electrical steel was investigated. The results showed that after ball scribing, root mean square of MBN (MBNrms) of CGO electrical steel increased 9.8% with 4 mm scribing spacing at 1.2 T, and that of HGO electrical steel apparently decreased 17.3% with 16 mm scribing spacing at 1.2 T. Through the formation and development of free magnetic poles and secondary magnetic domains due to compressive stress, primary magnetic domain space of grain-oriented electrical steel becomes smaller, which reflects as a variation of MBN in the macroscopic magnetic properties. Through correlation formula derivation of MBNrms and equilibrium distance between domain walls, effect of domain refinement on grain-oriented electrical steel was also interpreted, and optimum equilibrium distance between domain walls was determined.

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    Anticorrosion Performance of Epoxy Coatings Containing Small Amount of Inherently Conducting PEDOT/PSS on Hull Steel in Seawater
    Jian Hou, Guang Zhu, Jingkun Xu, Huajian Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (7): 678-684.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.03.023
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    Corrosion protection of the hull steel by the conventional epoxy paint containing a small amount of commercial poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS), which is one of the most popular and successful inherently conducting polymers as the corrosion inhibitor was studied. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated in seawater by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the samples after corrosion. It was found that adding a small amount of PEDOT/PSS to the epoxy resin can significantly improve its corrosion protection.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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