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J. Mater. Sci. Technol.  2020, Vol. 49 Issue (0): 106-116    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2020.02.022
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Superior anti-icing strategy by combined sustainable liquid repellence and electro/photo-responsive thermogenesis of oil/MWNT composite
Aeree Kima,*,1(), Seonghyeon Kima,1, Myoung Huha, Hyungmo Kimb, Chan Leeb
a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 37673, Republic of Korea
b Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, 34057, Republic of Korea
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This paper introduces an effective anti-icing strategy that uses passive anti-icing property and active de-icing functions concurrently. These dual capabilities can alleviate the icing problem more effectively than either a passive or active function alone. The developed material is a slippery liquid-repellent elastic conductor (SLEC); it is an organogel that is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, oil, and polydimethylsiloxane. The SLEC maintains passive water-droplet sliding ability even on wet surfaces that frequently occur in cold conditions (e.g., during condensation and defrosting), suppresses ice nucleation, and shows ice adhesion strength as low as ~ 20 kPa. The SLEC releases heat when it is subject to electrical or photonic stimulation, and can therefore it can prevent ice formation and melt ice that has already formed on a surface. This material has sustainable liquid repellence by syneresis and replenishment; this ability ensures long-lasting anti-icing property, and results in exceptional durability. This durability is stable against mechanical damage. The superior dual anti-icing capabilities together with the sustainable and stable liquid repellence should generate synergistic effects, and yield a powerful anti-icing tool that can broaden the range of icing applications.

Key words:  Anti-icing      De-icing      Icephobic      Soft conductor      Self-healing      Nanocomposite      Liquid repellence     
Received:  21 October 2019     
Corresponding Authors:  Aeree Kim     E-mail:
About author:  1 These authors contributed equally as co-first authors to this work.

Cite this article: 

Aeree Kim, Seonghyeon Kim, Myoung Huh, Hyungmo Kim, Chan Lee. Superior anti-icing strategy by combined sustainable liquid repellence and electro/photo-responsive thermogenesis of oil/MWNT composite. J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2020, 49(0): 106-116.

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Fig. 1.  Comprehensive anti-icing strategy of SLEC. (a) Passive anti-icing property with (a-1) liquid repellence, and (b) active deicing function of the SLEC. FLIR and optical images when the SLEC is heated by (b-1) Joule heating, and by (b-2) laser illumination.
Fig. 2.  Results for sustainable liquid repellence. (a) Test to show maintenance of liquid-repellence after condensation with SLEC (M11L90), SHPo, and SLUG (M0L90). (b) Melting frost slides down M14L90, and (c) subsequent impinging droplets slide off of it. (d) Melting frost remained on SHPo, and (e) subsequent droplets stuck to it. (f) Time lapse images for icing delay time and (g) frost coverage ratio over time on SHPo, M14L90, and M11L90. (h) Frost propagation on M11L90.
Fig. 3.  Ice adhesion strength (a) of SLECs with different oil and MWNTs contents, (b) in cycling ice adhesion tests of M14L60.
Fig. 4.  Active anti-icing using electro-thermogenesis. Capability of (a,b) SLUG (M0L90) and SLEC (M14L90) on ice prevention by application of voltage (25 V) on low-temperature Peltier plate (-7 ℃). (c) Water-droplet dripping after test of (a, b). Sample is still on the low-temperature plate. Defrosting capability of (d) SLUG (M0L90) and SLEC (M14L90) on a Peltier plate at 11 ℃, by application of voltage (25 V).
Fig. 5.  Active anti-icing function using photo-thermogenesis. (a) Capability of ice prevention of SLUG (M0L60) and SLEC (M14L60) by laser illumination (532 nm, 500 mW/cm2). (b) FLIR images that correspond to (a).
Fig. 6.  (a) Syneresis behavior induced by Joule heating for 500 min (b) Temperature increase induced by laser irradiation (532 nm, 500 mW/cm2) for 1 h, and syneresis behavior induced by photothermogenesis. (c) Demonstration of lubricant replenishment. Optical images of SLECs: (left) SLEC in its initial condition after complete removal of remained oil. SLECs after syneresis for 24 h at 70 °C: (middle) sample without replenishment and (right) sample with replenishment. (d) Comparison of weight loss of the two samples.
Fig. 7.  (a) Scalable SLEC fabrication (b) self-cleaning property of SLEC. The dirt is removed by the rolling droplet. Stability of liquid repellence after (c) abrasion test, and (d) blade-cutting test. (e) mechanical stability of SLEC under multi-cycles of stretching and bending loading. Here, resistance change ΔR (i.e. the difference resistance after strain to initial resistance R0) was normalized to R0: ΔR?R0. (left. ΔR/R0 of M15L90 as a function of multiple (> 100 times) bending cycles with displacement of 1.2 cm. (right) ΔR/R0 of M15L90 with different off-times TOFF as a function of multiple (> 100 times) stretching and releasing cycles with 35 % strain.
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