Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      20 January 2017, Volume 33 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Recent Progress on Visible Light Responsive Heterojunctions for Photocatalytic Applications
    Wang Songcan,Yun Jung-Ho,Luo Bin,Butburee Teera,Peerakiatkhajohn Piangjai,Thaweesak Supphasin,Xiao Mu,Wang Lianzhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 1-22.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Photocatalysis has attracted much attention in recent years due to its potential in solving energy and environmental issues. Even though numerous achievements have been made, the photocatalytic systems developed to date are still far from practical applications due to the low efficiency and poor durability. Efficient light absorption and charge separation are two of the key factors for the exploration of high performance photocatalytic systems, which is generally difficult to be obtained in a single photocatalyst. The combination of various materials to form heterojunctions provides an effective way to better harvest solar energy and to facilitate charge separation and transfer, thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability. This review concisely summarizes the recent development of visible light responsive heterojunctions, including the preparation and performances of semiconductor/semiconductor junctions, semiconductor/cocatalyst junctions, semiconductor/metal junctions, semiconductor/non-metal junctions, and surface heterojunctions, and their mechanism for enhanced light harvesting and charge separation/transfer.

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    Photocatalytic and Luminescent Properties of SrMoO4 Phosphors Prepared via Hydrothermal Method with Different Stirring Speeds
    Zhu Yanan,Zheng Ganhong,Dai Zhenxiang,Zhang Lingyun,Ma Yongqing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 23-29.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    To probe the potential utilities in the photocatalyst and luminescent materials, a series of SrMoO4 samples have been prepared via the hydrothermal preparation with different stirring speeds. These SrMoO4 samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, UV-diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis). It has been found that the lattice parameters and [MoO4] tetrahedron distortion of SrMoO4 samples are increased with the increased stirring speed in the process of hydrothermal preparation. By changing the stirring speeds, spindle and succulent-like morphologies have been obtained. UV-vis results show that the band gaps of SrMoO4 samples are sensitive to the stirring speed. As for the luminescent and photocatalytic properties, our experimental results clearly suggest that, compared with those samples without stirring, the luminescent and photocatalytic activities are enhanced with stirring in the hydrothermal preparation. The photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) over SrMoO4 system increases from 30% to 50% with stirring, which may be related to small band gaps and porous surfaces. Our results indicate that stirring may be one important technique to improve the photocatalytic properties, especially in the process of hydrothermal method.

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    Combination Mechanism and Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity and Stability of CdS/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions
    Xu Huanyan,Wu Licheng,Jin Liguo,Wu Kejia
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 30-38.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.008
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    In this study, CdS/g-C3N4 (CSCN) heterojunctions were in situ fabricated with a large amount of CdS nanoparticles anchored on g-C3N4 nanosheets. A wet chemical method was developed for the first time to determine the actual content of CdS in CSCN composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were employed to characterize the composition, structure and optical property of CSCN composites. Based on the isoelectric point (IEP) analysis of g-C3N4, a conclusion was obtained on the combination mechanism between CdS nanoparticles and g-C3N4 nanosheets. The photocatalytic activity of CSCN composites was much better than those of individual CdS and g-C3N4 for the degradation of azo dye Methyl Orange (MO) by 40min adsorption in the dark followed by 15min photocatalysis under visible light irradiation. After 5 cycles, CSCN composites still maintained high reactive activity with the MO degradation efficiency of 93.8%, exhibiting good photocatalytic stability. The Cd2+ concentration dissolved in the supernatant detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) of CSCN composites was lower than that of pure CdS, implying that the photocorrosion of CdS could be suppressed via the combination with g-C3N4. Photoluminescence emission spectra (PL) results clearly revealed that the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in CSCN composites was effectively inhibited due to the formation of heterojunctions. Based on the band alignments of g-C3N4 and CdS, the possible photocatalytic mechnism was discussed.

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    A Facile Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous TiO2 Microspheres with Carbonaceous Species for Visible-light Photocatalysis
    Liu Weigang,Xu Yingming,Zhou Wei,Zhang Xianfa,Cheng Xiaoli,Zhao Hui,Gao Shan,Huo Lihua
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 39-46.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.04.007
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    Hierarchically porous anatase TiO2 microspheres composited with carbonaceous species (TCS) have been successfully fabricated by a one-step template-free solvothermal method, combined with subsequent low temperature dried process. In this configuration, the TCS microspheres are constructed by the interconnected porous nanosheets, which are further assembled with abundant nanoparticles and carbonaceous species. Such composite microspheres possess a large specific surface area of 337m2 g-1, uniform mesopores of 3.37nm and high total pore volumes of 0.275cm3 g-1. The materials exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic properties and stability for degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance may be ascribed to their abundant porous structure, large specific surface area and the unique assist-function of the carbonaceous species.

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    Facile Preparation of Ag2ZnGeO4 Flower-like Hierarchical Nanostructure and Its Photocatalytic Activity
    Zhou Wei,Li Xiangqing,Qin Lixia,Kang Shi-Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 47-51.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.013
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    In this study, Ag2ZnGeO4 flower-like hierarchical nanostructure was prepared using a simple and mild method. The as-prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was explored using Rhodamine B as a model pollutant. The results indicated that the Ag2ZnGeO4 hierarchical nanostructures obtained consisted of nanoplates and nanorods, and adopted spherical flower-like morphology. Moreover, the as-prepared Ag2ZnGeO4 hierarchical nanostructure was an efficient and stable visible-light photocatalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in water. After visible light irradiation for 105 min, the degradation of Rhodamine B was up to 92%. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of Ag2ZnGeO4 remained unchanged after three successive cycles.

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    Determination of Interfacial Heat Transfer Behavior at the Metal/Shot Sleeve of High Pressure Die Casting Process of AZ91D Alloy
    Yu Wenbo,Cao Yongyou,Li Xiaobo,Guo Zhipeng,Xiong Shoumei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 52-58.  DOI: .10.1016/j.jmst.2016.02.003
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The interfacial heat transfer behavior at the metal/shot sleeve interface in the high pressure die casting (HPDC) process of AZ91D alloy is carefully investigated. Based on the temperature measurements along the shot sleeve, inverse method has been developed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the shot sleeve. Under static condition, Interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) peak values are 11.9, 7.3, 8.33kWm-2K-1 at pouring zone (S2), middle zone (S5), and end zone (S10), respectively. During the casting process, the IHTC curve displays a second peak of 6.1kWm-2K-1 at middle zone during the casting process at a slow speed of 0.3ms-1. Subsequently, when the high speed started, the IHTC curve reached a second peak of 12.9kWm-2K-1 at end zone. Furthermore, under different slow casting speeds, both the calculated initial temperature (TIDS) and the maximum temperature (Tsimax) of shot sleeve surface first decrease from 0.1ms-1 to 0.3ms-1, but increase again from 0.3ms-1 to 0.6ms-1. This result agrees with the experimental results obtained in a series of “plate-shape” casting experiments under different slow speeds, which reveals that the amount of ESCs decreases to the minimum values at 0.3ms-1 and increase again with the increasing casting slow speed.

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    Formation, Stability, Geometry and Band Structure of Organically Surface-Modified Germanane
    Jia Hui,Wang Rong,Ni Zhenyi,Liu Yong,Pi Xiaodong,Yang Deren
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 59-64.  DOI: .10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Surface modification may be an effective means for controlling the properties of germanane, i.e., hydrogenated germanene. In this work, we investigate the formation, stability, structure and electronic properties of surface-modified germanane that results from the hydrogermylation, alkoxylation, aminization or phenylation of germanane. By assuming the typical organic surface coverage of ~33%, we have compared organically surface-modified germanane with germanene and germanane in the framework of density functional theory. It is found that organically surface-modified germanane may all stably exist despite the endothermic nature of organic surface modification. Organic surface modification leads to the decrease of the Ge59/img_1.tif0.00.0Ge bond length and the Ge59/img_2.tif0.00.0Ge59/img_3.tif0.00.0Ge bond angle of germanane, while causing the buckling distance of germanane to increase. Hydrogenation makes germanene change from a semimetal to a direct-bandgap semiconductor. Organic surface modification further impacts the band structure of the resulting germanane. Hydrogermylated/alkoxylated germanane is a direct-bandgap semiconductor, while aminated/phenylated germanane is an indirect-bandgap semiconductor. All the organic surface modification gives rise to the increase of the bandgap of germanane.

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    Effect of Growth Temperature on Carbon Nanotube Grafting Morphology and Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Fibers and Carbon/Carbon Composites
    Feng Lei,Li Ke-Zhi,Lu Jin-Hua,Qi Le-Hua
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 65-70.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.015
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    High-purity carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different orientation and lengths were grafted on carbon fibers (CFs) in woven fabrics by using double injection chemical vapor deposition and adjusting the growth temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman investigations reveal that the grafted CNTs change from being predominantly aligned and uniform in diameter to absolutely disordered and variable in diameter, whilst they show significantly increased crystallinity, as the growth temperature is increased from 730?°C to 870?°C. In tensile tests of fiber bundles, much more strength degradation of CFs was observed after the growth process at higher temperature than that at lower temperature. These hybrid preforms produced at different growth temperatures were used to reinforce carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. An increment of 34.4% in out-of-plane compressive strength (OCS) was obtained for the composites containing CNTs grown at 730?°C, while the OCS increment exhibits an obvious decrease with increasing the growth temperature. Compared with the higher growth temperature, the lower temperature contributes to the decrease in the strength loss of reinforcing fibers and meanwhile the growth of large extending length of CNTs, which can provide long reinforcement to the pyrocarbon matrix, and thus increase the compressive strength better.

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    Ablation Mechanism of Carbon/Carbon Composites Modified by HfC-SiC in Two Conditions Under Oxyacetylene Torch
    Li Ke-Zhi,Duan Tao,Zhang Jia-Ping,Liu Ning-Kun,Zhang Mao-Yan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 71-78.  DOI: .10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.013
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    C/C-HfC-SiC composites prepared by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis process were ablated by oxyacetylene torch under two different flame conditions. The ablation performance of the composites was investigated in the heat flux of 2.38 MW/m2 (HF-L) and 4.18 MW/m2 (HF-H) for 60 s. The mechanical denudation in 4.18 MW/m2 (HF-H) was higher than that in 2.38 MW/m2 (HF-L), while the results indicated that the composites had a similar and good ablation property under two different flame conditions. C/C-HfC-SiC composites can adapt the heat flux from 2.38 MW/m2 to 4.18 MW/m2. The HfO2 was not melted completely in the heat flux of 2.38 MW/m2 (HF-L). So, both HfO2 and SiO2 layers acted as an effective barrier to the transfer of heat and oxidative gases into the underlying carbon substrate. SiO2 was severely consumed in 4.18 MW/m2 (HF-H), where the HfO2 molten layer played a more important role in protecting the inner composite.

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    Creep Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of Sand-Cast Mg-4Y-2.3Nd-1Gd-0.6Zr Alloy Crept at 523-573 K
    Kang Y.H.,Yan H.,Chen R.S.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 79-89.  DOI: .10.1016/j.jmst.2016.08.016
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    High temperature tensile-creep behavior of Mg-4Y-2.3Nd-1Gd-0.6Zr (wt%, WE43(T6)) alloy at 523-573 K was investigated. The creep stress exponent is equal to 4.6, suggesting the underlying dislocation creep mechanism. The activation energy is (199 ± 23) kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in Mg and is believed to be associated with precipitates coarsening or cross slip. The creep mechanism is further suggested to be dislocation climb at 523 K, while a cross slip at 573 K is possible. The metastable β′ and β1 phases in the WE43(T6) alloy were relatively thermal stable at 523 K and could be effective to hinder the dislocation climb, which contributed to its excellent creep resistance. However, at 573 K it readily transforms into equilibrium βe phase and coarsens within two hours, thereby causing a decrease of creep resistance. In addition, precipitate free zones approximately normal to applied stress direction (directional PFZs) developed during the creep deformation, especially at 573 K. Those zones became preferential sites to nucleate, extend and connect microcracks and cavities, which lead to the intergranular creep fracture. Improving the thermal stability of precipitates or introducing thermally stable fine plate-shaped precipitates on the basal planes of Mg matrix could enhance the high temperature creep resistance.

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    Experimental Determination of Deformation Induced Lattice Rotation by EBSD Technique for Slip System Analysis
    Zheng Xuehao,Zhang Hongwang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 90-98.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.010
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    A method was proposed to experimentally determine the deformation induced lattice rotation by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique, based on which the activated slip systems could be predicted. The method is to create a project file including the EBSD data of the sample before and after deformation, which allows the lattice rotation to be calculated and visualized using the commercial EBSD software. This method was applied to a polycrystalline Ni subjected to quasi-static compression. The lattice rotation of one grain was calculated and visualized and the activated slip systems were predicted. The comparison with the slip systems predicted by full-constraints (FC) Taylor model highlights the advantage of the present method.

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    Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Evolution of Shear Bands in Zr61.7Al8Ni13Cu17Sn0.3 Bulk Metallic Glass
    Ma Wenli,Xu Yuanli,Shi Bo,Li Jiangong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 99-104.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.020
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    Zr61.7Al8Ni13Cu17Sn0.3 bulk metallic glass samples with different aspect ratios in the range of 0.25-2.25 were deformed by compression, and the effect of aspect ratio on the evolution of shear bands was investigated. It is found that for the deformed Zr61.7Al8Ni13Cu17Sn0.3 bulk metallic glass, the average shear band spacing decreases and the shear band density increases monotonically as the aspect ratio increases from 0.25 to 2.25. A minimal average shear band spacing of 0.478 μm is achieved for the sample with an aspect ratio of 2.25. In addition, the fractions of shear bands with spacings below 100 and 50 nm are about 12.84% and 6.76%, respectively, for the sample with an aspect ratio of 2.25. The reason for the formation of a higher density of shear bands can probably be attributed to the increase of the driving force for the sample with a larger aspect ratio.

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    Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Field on Microsegregation of Solute Elements in a Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy
    Li Yingju,Teng Yuefei,Feng Xiaohui,Yang Yuansheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 105-110.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.12.021
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    The effects of a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on the microsegregation of solute elements during directional solidification of a Ni-based single crystal superalloy were experimentally investigated, and the results show that the PMF significantly affects the microsegregation of Al, Ti, Co, Mo and W elements in the alloy. However, the distribution behavior differs for both positive and negative segregation elements. With the PMF, the microsegregation of negative segregation elements, Co and W, was restrained effectively, while that of positive segregation elements, Al, Ti and Mo, was aggravated. A segregation model was established to reveal the distribution mechanism of the elements with PMF. It is considered that, under the action of PMF, the jumping of solute atoms from the liquid phase to solid phase is hindered, but the jumping of solute atoms from the solid phase into liquid phase is promoted during solidification. As a result, the effective distribution coefficient of the solute atoms is reduced, which leads to the reduction of microsegregation of negative segregation elements and aggravation of microsegregation of positive segregation elements.

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    TiAlN/Cu Nanocomposite Coatings Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Arc Ion Plating
    Chen Lei,Pei Zhiliang,Xiao Jinquan,Gong Jun,Sun Chao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (1): 111-116.  DOI: .10.1016/j.jmst.2016.07.018
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    TiAlN/Cu nanocomposite coatings with Cu concentration of 0-1.4at.% were deposited on the high-speed steel (HSS) substrates by filtered cathodic arc ion plating technique. The chemical composition, microstructure, morphology, adhesion strength, mechanical and tribological properties of the TiAlN/Cu coatings were characterized and analyzed. The results reveal that the coating structure and properties depend on not only the Cu concentration, but also the deposition condition. The addition of Cu significantly decreases the grain size and weakens the texture in the TiAlN/Cu coatings. With increasing the Cu concentration, the coating hardness decreases slightly from 30.7GPa of the pure TiAlN coating to 28.5GPa of the TiAlN/Cu coating with 1.4at.% Cu. All the TiAlN/Cu coatings present sufficient adhesion strength. In addition, the existing state of additive Cu in the TiAlN/Cu coatings is also investigated.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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