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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 February 2017, Volume 33 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Design, Preparation and Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites for Aerospace Applications: A Review
    Tang Sufang,Hu *Chenglong,*
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 117-130. 
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    Carbon fiber reinforced ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) composites, consisting of carbon fibers embedded in a UHTC-matrix or a C-SiC-UHTC-matrix, are deemed as the most viable class of materials that can overcome the poor fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance of monolithic UHTC materials, and also improve the oxidation resistance and ablation resistance of C/C and C/SiC composites at ultra-high temperatures. In this review, we summarize the different processing routes of the composites based on the UHTC introducing methods, including chemical vapor infiltration/deposition (CVI/D), precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP), reactive melt infiltration (RMI), slurry infiltration (SI), in-situ reaction, hot pressing (HP), etc; and the advantages and drawbacks of each method are briefly discussed. The carbon fiber reinforced UHTC composites can be highly tailorable materials in terms of fiber, interface, and matrix. From the perspective of service environmental applications for engine propulsions and hypersonic vehicles, the material designs (mainly focusing on the composition, quantity, structure of matrix, as well as the architecture of carbon fibers, UHTCs and pores), their relevant processing routes and properties (emphasizing on the mechanical and ablation properties) are discussed in this paper. In addition, we propose a material architecture to realize the multi-function through changing the distribution of carbon fibers, UHTCs and pores, which will be an important issue for future development of carbon fiber reinforced UHTC composites.

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    Composition, Microstructure, Phase Constitution and Fundamental Physicochemical Properties of Low-Melting-Point Multi-Component Eutectic Alloys
    Zhou Kaiyao,Tang Zhongyi,Lu Yiping,Wang Tongmin,Wang Haipeng,Li Tingju
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 131-154. 
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    Low-melting-point alloys have an extensive applications in the fields of materials processing, phase change energy storage, electronic and electrical automatic control, continuous casting simulation, welding, etc. Specifically, the eutectic compositions make up a large number of low-melting-point alloys that are exploited because of their desirable features like single melting peaks, excellent operational reliability, and casting fluidity. However, the fundamental physicochemical properties from the current available literature on low-melting-point multi-component eutectic alloys (LMP-MCEAs) are rather rare and lowly accurate, including the exact melting temperatures and compositions, constituent phases, microstructures and morphologies, melting enthalpies, specific heats, densities, and so on. This lack of information seriously limits the development and application of low-melting-point multi-component eutectic alloys. In this paper, the low-melting-point multi-component eutectic alloys composed of Bi, Cd, Sn, Pb, and In elements synthesized by high vacuum induction melting and fundamental data were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and density analysis instrument. Most of the LMP-MCEAs with complex eutectic morphology structures and XRD diffraction patterns could be explained with the fact that they were three-phase eutectic alloys with mixed growth way. Generally, LMP-MCEAs present an extremely low melting point between 48.3 and 124 °C and high density between 8 and 10 g/cm3.

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    Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Pitting Corrosion and Intergranular Attack of 7075 Aluminum Alloy
    Navaser M,Atapour* M
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 155-165. 
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    The effect of friction stir processing (FSP) on the pitting corrosion and the intergranular attack of 7075 aluminum alloy was investigated. Three friction stir processed samples were produced by employing a constant tool travel speed of 100?mm/min at the rotating speeds of 630, 1000 and 1600?rpm. It was demonstrated that the processed samples suffered from both pitting and intergranular corrosion. Also, the sample processed at 1600?rpm exhibited the best pitting corrosion resistance. For all FS processed samples, the corrosion attack in the heat affected zone was pitting corrosion, whereas no intergranular corrosion was detected in this area.

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    Fabrication of barium-strontium aluminosilicate coatings on C/SiC composites via laser cladding
    Jiang Fengrui,Cheng Laifei,Zhang Jiaxin,Wang* Yiguang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 166-171. 
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    Barium-strontium aluminosilicate (BSAS) and Si/BSAS coatings were fabricated on the surface of C/SiC composites via a two-step laser cladding process. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and the water vapor corrosion behavior of the samples were investigated. The BSAS coating was found to be tightly bonded to the substrate and only a few pores and microcracks were observed. The introduction of a silicon middle layer was revealed to reduce thermal stress and promote the healing of defects formed during the laser cladding process. To evaluate the corrosion resistance, the BSAS and Si/BSAS-coated C/SiC composites were exposed to an atmosphere of 50% H2O and 50% O2 at 1250?°C. The resulting weight change and flexural strength were measured as a function of the corrosion time. The addition of the silicon middle layer below the BSAS top layer resulted in a better resistance to water vapor corrosion. Furthermore, the Si/BSAS-coated samples showed a lower weight loss and a smaller reduction in flexural strength than the BSAS-coated and the uncoated samples during water vapor corrosion. Thus, laser cladding is demonstrated to be an effective and feasible method to fabricate high-quality ceramic coatings on C/SiC composites. The introduction of a silicon middle layer can inhibit defect formation during the laser cladding process and protect the composite from water vapor corrosion.

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    Effect of Hot Isostatic Pressing Loading Route on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Ti2AlNb Alloys
    Wu Jie,Guo Ruipeng,Xu Lei,Lu Zhengguan,Cui Yuyou,Yang Rui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 172-178. 
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    In this work, hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) technique was used to densify the Ti2AlNb pre-alloyed powder. The influence of HIPing loading route parameters (temperature and rates of heating and pressurizing) on microstructure and properties of PM Ti2AlNb alloys was studied. The results showed that HIPing loading route parameters affected the densification process and mechanical properties (especially high temperature rupture lifetime) of PM Ti2AlNb alloys in the present work. A finite element method (FEM) model for predicting the final densification was developed and was used to optimize the HIPing procedure.

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    Hierarchical Micropore/Nanorod Apatite Hybrids In-Situ Grown from 3-D Printed Macroporous Ti6Al4V Implants with Improved Bioactivity and Osseointegration
    Xiu Peng,Jia Zhaojun,Lv Jia,Yin Chuan,Cai Hong,Song Chunli,Leng Huijie,Zheng Yufeng,Liu1 Zhongjun,Cheng Yan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 179-186.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.05.013.
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The advent of three-dimensional (3-D) printed technique provides great possibility in the fabrication of customized porous titanium (Ti) implant. However, the bioinert property of the printed Ti poses an outstanding problem. Hybrid micro-arc oxidation and hydrothermal (MAO-HT) treatment on porous metals is able to produce multi-scaled hierarchical orthopedic implant, showing great potential for surface modification of 3-D printed implant. In this study, cylindrical porous Ti6Al4V (Ti64) scaffolds with pore size of 640?µm, porosity of 73% were 3-D printed by electron beam melting process, and their surfaces were left untreated or treated by a combined MAO-HT procedure. In vitro bioactivity was tested by immersion in simulated body fluid for different time points. Then, 12 scaffolds in each group were implanted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand rabbit for 8 weeks. Osseointegration was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis, and the bone ingrowth features were probed by sequential fluorescent labeling at 3 and 6 weeks post-surgery. Following the MAO-HT treatment, the porous Ti64 scaffold was endowed with multi-scaled micro/nano-topographies and high amounts of CaP on its surface. The treated scaffold exhibited drastically enhanced apatite forming ability compared with the untreated one. In vivo test revealed significantly that a higher amount of bone ingrowth and bone implant contact at the treated scaffold. The 2 types of scaffolds had different patterns of bone ingrowth: the treated scaffold exhibited a pattern of contact osteogenesis, by which bone formed directly on the treated implant surface, whereas bone formed distal to the implant surface of the untreated scaffold. MAO-HT treatment can significantly enhance the in vitro apatite-inducing ability and in vivo osseointegration capacity of 3-D porous Ti64 scaffold and may provide as a viable approach for the fabrication of bioactive 3-D printed porous implant for orthopedic applications.

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    Segregation of Phosphorus and Precipitation of MNP-Type Phosphide at the Grain Boundary of IN706 Superalloy
    Zhang Sha,Huang Linjie,Zhang Anwen,Yu Lianxu,Xin Xin,Sun Wenru,Sun Xiaofeng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 187-191. 
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    The effect of phosphorus content and heat treatment on the segregation of phosphorus and precipitation of phosphide at the grain boundary of IN706 alloy has been investigated. The phosphide had a stoichiometry of MNP (M?=?Nb, Ti and N? =?Ni, Fe, Cr) and an orthorhombic crystal structure. The solubility of phosphorus in the grain matrix of IN706 alloy was determined to be between 0.008% and 0.013%. When soaked at 980?°C for 5?min, the phosphide was noticeably precipitated at grain boundaries with the grain size unchanged. When soaked at 980?°C for 3?h, the grains grew significantly, but the phosphide stayed at original grain boundaries which outlined the grain shape before soaking. Soaking at 1060?°C for 2?h fully dissolved the pre-existing phosphide but phosphorus atoms were not distributed uniformly in the grain matrix. When the holding time at 1060?°C was extended to 10?h, the phosphorus atoms were distributed uniformly in the grain matrix by sufficient diffusion, and the phosphide could only be formed at grain boundaries during the 980?°C soaking. The precipitation of phosphide mainly relied on the phosphorus segregation which was built up by diffusion.

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    Effect of Phase Structure Evolution on Thermal Expansion and Toughness of (Nd1-xScx)2Zr2O7 (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) Ceramics
    Zhao Xiaoxiang,Guo Lei,Wang Caimei,Zhang Yu,Ye Fuxing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 192-197. 
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    Nd2Zr2O7 is being explored as an alternate thermal barrier coating (TBC) material for operating above 1300?°C, and great effort has been made to enlarge its thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and improve its toughness. In this study, Sc2O3 was doped to Nd2Zr2O7. The phase structure, TECs and toughness of (Nd1-xScx)2Zr2O7 (x?=?0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) compounds were investigated. (Nd1-xScx)2Zr2O7 (x?=?0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075) exhibited pyrochlore structure, while (Nd0.9Sc0.1)2Zr2O7 consisted of pyrochlore and fluorite phases. With the increase of the Sc2O3 content, the ordering degree of the pyrochlore in the compounds decreased. In (Nd1-xScx)2Zr2O7 series, (Nd0.925Sc0.075)2Zr2O7 exhibited the largest TEC, while the toughness of the compounds increased with increasing the Sc2O3 content. The related mechanisms were discussed based on the crystal structure analysis. Considering the TEC and toughness, 10?mol% Sc2O3 was suggested as the optimal doping content for Nd2Zr2O7 ceramic.

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    Preparation and Characterization of KNO3/Diatomite Shape-Stabilized Composite Phase Change Material for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage
    Deng Yong,Li* Jinhong,Qian Tingting,Guan Weimin,Wang Xiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 198-203. 
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    A new potassium nitrate (KNO3)/diatomite shape-stabilized composite phase change material (SS-CPCM) was prepared by the mixing and sintering method. KNO3 served as the phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage, while diatomite acted as the carrier matrix to provide the structural strength and prevent the leakage of PCM. It was found that KNO3 could be retained 65 wt% into pores and on surfaces of diatomite without the leakage of melted KNO3 from the SS-CPCM. The calculated filling rate of molten KNO3 that could enter into the disc-like shape pore of diatomite verified the scanning electronic microscopy images of SS-CPCM. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that no reaction occurred between KNO3 and diatomite, performing good compatibility. According to the differential scanning calorimetry results, after 50 thermal cycles, the phase change temperatures for melting and freezing of SS-CPCM with 65 wt% KNO3 were changed from 330.23?°C and 332.90?°C to 330.11?°C and 332.84?°C and corresponding latent heats varied from 60.52?J/g and 47.30?J/g to 54.64?J/g and 41.25?J/g, respectively. The KNO3/diatomite SS-CPCM may be considered as a potential storage media in solar power plants for thermal energy storage.

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    Effects of Alumina on Cristobalite Crystallization and Properties of Silica-Based Ceramic Cores
    Liang J.J,Lin Q.H,Zhang X,Jin T,Zhou Y.Z,Sun X.F,Choi B.G,Kim I.S,Do J.H,Jo C.Y
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 204-209. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    In this work, the influences of alumina addition on cristobalite crystallization and properties of injection molded silica-based ceramic cores were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize phase transformations in the samples, and the XRD result indicated that the addition of alumina promoted crystallization of fused silica during sintering at 1180-1220?°C and thus increases the amount of cristobalite. The increased amount of cristobalite as well as alumina addition led to much more thermal dilation due to their higher coefficients of thermal expansion than that of fused silica. The flexural strengths at room temperature and 1500?°C were tested, and it was shown that alumina addition could not affect room temperature strength, but decreased the flexural strength at 1500?°C. In addition, deflection resistance during heating to high temperatures was investigated, and the result indicated that alumina addition speeded up high temperature softening of the samples. XRD and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) analysis suggested that this softening behavior was related with viscous flow sintering which could be accelerated by the reaction of alumina and silica with a product of mullite.

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    Comparison of Two Simulation Methods in Electron Crystallography: BW Method and a Modified Direct Product Method of Scattering Matrix
    Yang Yi,Cai* Canying,Yang Qibin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (2): 210-214. 
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    In this paper, a modified direct product method of scattering matrix (DPSM) was presented and the calculation formula was derived as follows:

    ? = n 1 n ! ( M ) n ? ( 0 ) ?and? ? + ε j = n 1 n ! ( M ε j ) n ? ( ) ,

    where M is the scattering matrix of which the dimension can be reduced by ‘Bethe potential method’ drastically and therefore the calculation speed can be increased tremendously without losing accuracy very much. The results calculated with the DPSM method are in almost exact agreement with those calculated with BW method. However, the calculation speed for the modified DPSM method is approximately three times faster than that for the BW method. Furthermore, the DPSM is suitable for computing all types of matrices without requiring symmetry or conjugate symmetry.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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