Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      20 March 2017, Volume 33 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    A high-strength, ductile Al-0.35Sc-0.2Zr alloy with good electrical conductivity strengthened by coherent nanosized-precipitates
    Guan Renguo,Shen Yongfeng,Zhao Zhanyong,Wang Xiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 215-223. 
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    Ductility and electrical conductivity of metallic materials are inversely correlated with their strength, resulting in a difficulty of optimizing all three simultaneously. We design an Al-Sc-Zr-based alloy using semisolid extrusion to yield a good trade-off between strength and ductility along with excellent electrical conductivity. The Al-0.35Sc-0.2Zr wire with a diameter of 3?mm exhibited the best combined properties: a tensile strength of 210?±?2?MPa, elongation of 7.6%?±?0.5%, and an electrical conductivity of 34.9?±?0.05?MS/m. The average particle size of nanosized Al3(Sc, Zr) precipitates increased from 6.5?±?0.5?nm to 25.0?±?0.5?nm as the aging time increased from 1?h to 96?h at 380?°C, accompanied by the corresponding volume fraction variation from (6.2?±?0.1)?×?10-4 to (3.7?±?0.1)?×?10-3. As proved by transmission electron microscopy observation, the high strength originates from the effective blockage of dislocation motion by numerous nanosized Al3(Sc, Zr) precipitates whilst both electrical conductivity and ductility remain at a high level due to the coherent precipitates possessing an extremely low electrical resistivity.

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    Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of a SMATed Mg Alloy under In Situ SEM Tensile Testing
    Liu Xiaowei,Liu Yong,Jin Bin,Lu Yang,Lu Jian
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 224-230.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.11.012.
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    Surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) has been recently applied to bulk polycrystalline magnesium (Mg) alloys with gradient grain size distribution from the impact surface to inside matrix, hence effectively improving the alloys' mechanical performances. However, in-depth understanding of their mechanical property enhancement and grain size-dependent fracture mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the use of in situ micro-tensile testing inside a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) to characterize the microstructure evolution, in real time, of SMATed Mg alloy AZ31 samples with different grain sizes of ~10?µm (‘coarse-grain sample’) and ~5?µm (‘fine-grain sample’), respectively, and compared the results with those of a raw Mg alloy AZ31. The quantitative tensile tests with in situ SEM imaging clearly showed that fracture of ‘fine-grain sample’ was dominated by intergranular cracks, while both trans-granular and intergranular cracks led to the final failure of the ‘coarse-grain samples’. It is expected that this in situ SEM characterization technique, coupled with quantitative tensile testing method, could be applicable for studying other grain-refined metals/alloys, allowing to optimize their mechanical performances by controlling the grain sizes and their gradient distribution.

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    In Situ Synthesis of Core-Shell Li4Ti5O12 @Polyaniline Composites with Enhanced Rate Performance for Lithium-ion Battery Anodes
    Hui Yani,Cao Liyun,*,Xu Zhanwei,Huang** Jianfeng,Ouyang Haibo,Li Jiayin,Hu Hailing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 231-238. 
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    The core-shell Li4Ti5O12 @polyaniline composites (LP) have been synthesized via an in situ synthesis with different mole ratios (25:1, 50:1 and 100:1, aniline:LTO). As an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, the LP-2 electrodes (50:1) exhibit a high initial reversible capacity of 205 mAh g-1 with an initial coulombic efficiency of 97.6% at 0.1 C. Even at a high current density of 10 C, the reversible capacity of the LP-2 electrodes still remains at 102 mAh g-1. Moreover, the LP-2 electrodes retain an impressive high capacity of 161 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1 C, with 0.11% capacity fading per cycle. The promising electrochemical performance may be attributed to the significantly decreasing charge-transfer impedance of the LP composite and reductive polarity difference between the cathode and the electrolyte.

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    SiO2@C hollow sphere anodes for lithium-ion batteries
    Liu Xuelian,Chen Yuxi,Liu Hongbo,Liu Zhi-Quan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 239-245. 
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    As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, SiO2 is of great interest because of its high capacity, low cost and environmental affinity. A facile approach has been developed to fabricate SiO2@C hollow spheres by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form SiO2 shells on organic sphere templates followed by calcinations in air to remove the templates, and then the SiO2 shells are covered by carbon layers. Electron microscopy investigations confirm hollow structure of the SiO2@C. The SiO2@C hollow spheres with different SiO2 contents display gradual increase in specific capacity with discharge/charge cycling, among which the SiO2@C with SiO2 content of 67?wt% exhibits discharge/charge capacities of 653.4/649.6?mA?h?g-1 over 160 cycles at current density of 0.11?mA?cm-2. The impedance fitting of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SiO2@C with SiO2 content of 67?wt% has the lowest charge transfer resistance, which indicates that the SiO2@C hollow spheres is promising anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

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    Au nanoparticles decorated graphene/nickel foam nanocomposite for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide
    Wang Xiaojuan,Guo Xinli,Chen Jian,Ge Chuang,Zhang Hongyi,Liu Yuanyuan,Zhao Li,Zhang Yao,Wang Zengmei,Sun Litao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 246-250. 
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    The Au nanoparticles decorated graphene (AuNPs@Gr)/nickel foam (Gr/NiF) nanocomposite (AuNPs@Gr/NiF) was prepared by chemical vapor deposition followed by electrophoretic deposition of AuNPs on Gr/NiF. The morphology, microstructure and sensing performance of the as-prepared AuNPs@Gr/NiF nanocomposite were characterized and measured, respectively by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and chemical workstation. The as-prepared AuNPs@Gr/NiF nanocomposite was used as the electrode to construct a chemical sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results showed that the AuNPs distributed homogenously and stably on the surface of Gr/NiF. The chemical sensor exhibits a sensitive and selective performance to the detection of H2O2.

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    Effects of concurrent grain boundary and surface segregation on the final stage of sintering: the case of Lanthanum doped yttria-stabilized zirconia
    Gong M.M.,Dey S.,Wu L.J.,Chang C.H.,Li H.,Castro R.H.R.,Liu F.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 251-260. 
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    Dopants play a critical role in tailoring the microstructure during sintering of compacts. These dopants may form solid solution within the bulk, and/or segregate to the grain boundaries (GBs) and the solid-vapor interfaces (free surfaces), each causing a distinct energetic scenario governing mass transports during densification and grain growth. In this work, the forces controlling the dopant distribution, in particular the possibility of concurrent segregation at both surfaces and GBs, are discussed based on the respective enthalpy of segregation. An equation is derived based on the minimum Gibbs energy of the system to determine enthalpy of segregation from experimental interface energy data, and the results applied to depict the role of La as a dopant on the interface energetics of yttria stabilized zirconia during its final stage of sintering. It is shown that La substantially decreases both GB and surface energies (differently) as sintering progresses, dynamically affecting its driving forces, and consequent grain growth and densification in this stage.

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    Giant Rheological Effect of Shear Thickening Suspension Comprising Silica Nanoparticles with No Aggregation
    Li Shuangbing,Wang Jixiao,Zhao Song,Cai Wei,Wang Zhi,Wang Shichang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 261-265. 
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    The spherical silica particles in narrow size distribution with different diameters of 90?nm, 200?nm, 320?nm and 400?nm were prepared by the modified Stöber method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The phase composition of particles was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that each of the silica particle samples was in amorphous state. The shear thickening fluids (STFs) comprising 53 vol.% of silica particles and 47 vol.% of polyethylene glycol with molecular weight of 200?g mol-1 (PEG200) were prepared and evaluated. The influence of size and size distribution on the critical shear rate and the intensity of shear thickening were analyzed. The STFs prepared by silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 90?nm showed the giant rheological effect with the critical shear rate of 2.51?s-1, the largest viscosity of 45,500?Pa∙s and the yield stress of 181?kPa. The experiments and the analysis results demonstrated that the suspensions prepared by nanoparticles have high intensity of shear thickening.

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    In-Situ Chemosynthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles to Endow Wood with Antibacterial and UV-Resistance Properties
    Dong Youming,Yan Yutao,Ma Huandi,Zhang Shifeng,Li Jianzhang,Xia Changlei,Q. Shi Sheldon,Cai Liping
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 266-270. 
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    Hybrid wood materials have attracted considerable attention because they have combined advantages of both wood and inorganic compounds. This work investigated the microstructural morphology, thermal stability, ultraviolet (UV) stability, and antibacterial property of composites made from wood/ZnO hybrid materials through a facile in-situ chemosynthesis methods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicated that the synthesized ZnO particles had an average grain size of about 10.8?nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that ZnO nanoflowers self-assembled with nanosheets were presented in wood cell lumens and increased with increasing Zn2+ concentrations. ZnO nanoparticles were also generated in the wood cell wall, which was confirmed by the results of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The TGA tests also indicated that the thermal stability of wood/ZnO hybrid materials was improved after the formation of ZnO inorganic particles. Finally, the results of antibacterial efficacy tests and UV resistance tests revealed that ZnO nanoparticles showed a promising future as antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and UV resistance agents for wood protection.

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    Controlled Synthesis of NaV6O15 Nanorods with High Reversible Capacity and Excellent Cycling Stability
    Ding Taotao,Xu Juan,Chen Cheng,Luo Zhongwei,Dai Jiangnan,Tian Yu,Chen Changqing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 271-275. 
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    In this work, we demonstrate an effective method to improve capacitive performance of NaV6O15 intrinsically by annealing. NaV6O15 nanorods (NRs) prepared by a simple annealing treatment exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performance compared with the untreated NaV6O15 electrode, and yield a high specific capacitance (402.8?F/g at 300?mA/g). Furthermore, the annealing treated nanorods show excellent rate capability and cycling stability (ca. 80% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles at a scan rate of 100?m V/s). Our results have confirmed that the annealing treatment has great influence on the capacitive performance of NaV6O15, which may be attributed to the intrinsic three dimensional (3D) tunneled structures of NaV6O15, and NR morphology. These findings may further broaden the application of NaV6O15-based materials for high performance supercapacitors (SCs), aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries and Li-ion capacitors.

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    Stress-Induced Martensitic Transformation of Zr50Cu25Ni10Co15Nanocrystals Embedded in an Amorphous Matrix
    Gao W.H.,Yi X.Y.,Meng X.L.,Song G.,Cai W.,Zhao L.C.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 276-280. 
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    The stress induced martensitic phase transformation of spherical ZrCu nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix was studied in this paper. Microstructural observations revealed that the martensitic transformation of the nanocrystal was hindered by the surrounding amorphous coating. The existence of two-step transformation from the austenite phase (B2) to the base structure martensite (B19') and finally to the most stable superstructure martensite (Cm) was also demonstrated. The Cm martensite with (021) type I twinning symmetrically accommodation was surrounded by the B19' martensite with dislocation morphologies.

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    Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Bi24O31Br10: Constructing Heterojunction with BiOI
    Lou Xi,Shang Jun,Wang Liang,Feng Haifeng,Hao Weichang,Wang Tianmin,Du Yi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 281-284. 
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    Bismuth-based compounds have been regarded as an important class of visible-light photocatalysts due to their special electronic structures. In this paper, iodide ions are introduced to modify bismuth-based compound, Bi24O31Br10, forming a Bi24O31Br10/BiOI heterojunction structure. A significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity compared to the parent compounds is observed in de-coloration of rhodamine B (Rh.B) solution. The improved photocatalytic property of Bi24O31Br10/BiOI heterojunction is ascribed to the unique electronic structure consisting of complementary band structures of BiOI and Bi24O31Br10. Iodide ions are regarded as an effective reagent to construct bismuth-based photocatalytic heterojunctions with improved photocatalytic activity.

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    Safe growth of graphene from non-flammable gas mixtures via chemical vapor deposition
    Feng Ying,J. Trainer Daniel,Peng Hongshang,Liu Ye,Chen Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 285-290. 
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    Chemical vapor deposition has emerged as the most promising technique for the growth of graphene. However, most reports of this technique use either flammable or explosive gases, which bring safety concerns and extra costs to manage risk factors. In this article, we demonstrate that continuous monolayer graphene can be synthesized via chemical vapor deposition technique on Cu foils using industrially safe gas mixtures. Important factors, including the appropriate ratio of hydrogen flow and carbon precursor, pressure, and growth time are considered to obtain graphene films. Optical measurements and electrical transport measurements indicate graphene films are with comparable quality to other reports. Such continuous large area graphene can be synthesized under non-flammable and non-explosive conditions, which opens a safe and economical method for mass production of graphene. It is thereby beneficial for integration of graphene into semiconductor electronics.

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    Magnetic Properties and Coercivity of MnGa Films Deposited on Different Substrates
    Feng J.N.,Liu W.,Gong W.J.,Zhao X.G.,Kim D.,Choi C.J.,Zhang Z.D.
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 291-294. 
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    MnGa films were grown by magnetron sputtering on thermally oxidized Si (Si/SiO2) and glass substrates. Films grown on single-crystal Si (100) substrate with different underlayers were prepared for comparison. It is found that the Si/SiO2 substrate is more suitable for growing high-coercivity MnGa films than the glass substrate, which is the result of the isolated-island-like growth. A coercivity of 9.7?kOe can be achieved for the 10?nm MnGa films grown on Si/SiO2 substrate at substrate temperature TS of 450?°C. Optimized experimental conditions are specified by changing the thickness of the MnGa films and the temperature of the substrates.

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    Electrical and Corrosion Properties of Titanium Aluminum Nitride Thin Films Prepared by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition
    Yun Eun-Young,Lee Woo-Jae,Min Wang Qi,Kwon Se-Hun
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 295-299. 
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    Titanium-aluminum-nitride (TiAlN) films were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on 316L stainless steel at a deposition temperature of 200?°C. A supercycle, consisting of one AlN and ten TiN subcycles, was used to prepare TiAlN films with a chemical composition of Ti0.25Al0.25N0.50. The addition of AlN to TiN resulted in an increased electrical resistivity of TiAlN films of 2800 µΩ cm, compared with 475 µΩ cm of TiN films, mainly due to the high electrical resistivity of AlN and the amorphous structure of TiAlN. However, potentiostatic polarization measurements showed that amorphous TiAlN films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance with a corrosion current density of 0.12 µA/cm2, about three times higher than that of TiN films, and about 12.5 times higher than that of 316L stainless steel.

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    Synthesis of Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 Sphere with High Surface Area and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity
    Lu Tianliang,Wang Youqiang,Wang Yingli,Zhou Lipeng,Yang Xiaomei,Su Yunlai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 300-304.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2016.03.019.
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    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 spheres with high surface area (119?m2?g-1) were successfully synthesized via a facile and green template-free method. The prepared TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis absorbance spectra. It was found that the prepared TiO2 is characterized by pure anatase phase, which shows uniform spheres and has a typical mesostructure with a high specific surface area and a large pore volume. The effects of complexant (acetylacetone) amount, crystallization temperature and calcination temperature were also investigated. Based on the results, a sketch for the preparation of mesoporous TiO2 was proposed. First, complex formed between tetrabutyl titanate and acetylacetone in ethanol. After introduction of aqueous of ammonia sulfate and urea, hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate would occur slowly, and sol of TiO2 was formed. Then, crystallization proceeded under hydrothermal conditions. Calcination process favored the formation of bigger TiO2 crystal through combining of the small crystals in TiO2. This led to the formation of bigger mesopores between TiO2 crystals. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO2 was evaluated by decomposition of methyl orange.

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    Comparative Study about Degradation of High-purity Magnesium Screw in Intact Femoral Intracondyle and in Fixation of Femoral Intracondylar Fracture
    Han Pei,Cheng Pengfei,Zhao Changli,Zhang Shaoxiang,Zhou Runhua,Zhang Xiaonong,Chai Yimin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2017, 33 (3): 305-310. 
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    Bone screws encounter complex mechanical environment in fracture fixation of weight-bearing bone. In the present study, high-purity magnesium (HP Mg) screws were applied in fixation of rabbit femoral intracondylar fracture with 3?mm gap. In the control group, HP Mg screws of the same design were implanted at corresponding position of contralateral leg. At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after surgery, retrieved femurs went through micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and hard tissue processing. Under mechanical stress involved in fracture fixation, bending of screw bolt was observed at the portion exposed to facture gap at 4 weeks. Then local corrosion at the same portion was detected 16 weeks after surgery, which indicated the accumulation effect of mechanical stress on Mg corrosion. HP Mg screws in the fracture group had no significant difference with the control group in screw volume, surface area, surface-to-volume ratio (S/V). And peri-implant bone volume/tissues volume (BV/TV) and bone volume density (BMD) in the fracture group was comparable to that in the control group. Furthermore, histological analysis showed new formed bone tissues in fracture gap and fracture healing 16 weeks after surgery. Under mechanical stress, HP Mg screw suffered bolt bending and local corrosion at the portion exposed to fracture gap. But it had no influence on the integral corrosion behaviors, osseointegration of HP Mg screw and the fracture healing. Therefore, HP Mg screws possessed good potential in fracture fixation of weight-bearing bones.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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