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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 May 2015, Volume 31 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    In vitro Response of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Titanium Coated Peek Films and Their Suitability for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Cindy Elschner, Carolin Noack, Carolin Preiß, ler, Andreas Krause, Ulrich Scheler, Ute Hempel
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 427-436.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.10.012
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    Medical imaging is an important tool for the post-operative checkup of an accurate position of an implant as well as for monitoring the integration in the adjacent tissue that may influence the success of a medical device. Unfortunately, the possibility to use imaging methods is associated with the implant material and all the established metallic materials for surgery do not show a proper “imaging compatibility”. The present study is a combined investigation of the in vitro response to human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility of the potential material combination polyetheretherketone/titanium (PEEK/Ti) for medical devices. Because of the advantageous imaging properties and the mechanical and chemical stability, PEEK becomes more and more an alternative to common metallic implant materials like titanium or cobalt?chrome. However, PEEK is a bioinert material having a limited ability for direct bone incorporation. Due to its excellent biocompatibility, Ti was chosen as coating material to enhance the cellular response. The result is a combination with advantageous properties: the magnetic susceptibility and elastic modulus close to bone, corrosion resistance and mechanical flexibility of PEEK and the excellent biocompatibility of titanium. The appearance of metal-related artifact was discussed in electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Therefore, two titanium coatings have been investigated: a complete coating and a structured surface avoiding surface conductivity. To determine the in vitro biocompatibility, the cell responses were assessed in terms of the overall morphology of the hMSC and their cell area distribution, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineral deposition. The cellular stress was evaluated by the prostaglandin E2 level. The bonded materials both produced no disturbing artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to the pure PEEK material, the titanium coated specimens showed an enhanced biocompatibility, which is indicated by a higher cell number, larger activity of the enzyme tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase and therefore a greater amount of deposited calcium and phosphate. The results on bare PEEK are accompanied with a higher cellular stress level, which is indicated by prostaglandin E2.
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    Systematic Assessment of Synthesized Tri-magnesium Phosphate Powders (Amorphous, Semi-crystalline and Crystalline) and Cements for Ceramic Bone Cement Applications
    Nicole Ostrowski, Vidisha Sharma, Abhijit Roy, Prashant N. Kumta
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 437-444.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Magnesium phosphate cements have come under investigation in recent years for use as an alternative to calcium phosphate cements for bone void repair applications. Evidence indicates that magnesium phosphate cements obtain higher initial strengths after cement reaction and resorption in more clinically appropriate time frames than commercially available calcium phosphate cements. In this study, amorphous, partially amorphous and crystalline tri-magnesium phosphate powders were synthesized via an aqueous precipitation reaction with subsequent thermal treatment, and characterized using techniques such as X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These materials were assessed for their functionality in cementing reaction with a 3.0 mol/L, pH 7.0 ammonium phosphate solution, including setting time and pH evolution in phosphate buffered saline solution. Results indicated that the amorphous and semi-crystalline tri-magnesium phosphate powders were highly reactive with the setting solution but resulted in mechanically weak cements, while the crystalline tri-magnesium phosphate powder reacted efficiently with the cement solution and were mechanically strong following the cement reaction. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicated significant changes in the phase composition and morphology of the cements following incubation in phosphate buffered saline. These were perceived to be detrimental to the integrity of the amorphous and semi-crystalline tri-magnesium phosphate derived cements but not to those created with fully crystalline tri-magnesium phosphate. The crystalline tri-magnesium phosphate material resulted in the most functional cement as this embodiment displayed the most clinically relevant setting time as well as the highest mechanical resilience and neutral pH during incubation in saline solution rendering them potentially viable as bone void fillers.
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    Solid-State Interfacial Reaction between Eutectic Au-Ge Solder and Cu/Ni(P)/Au Metalized Ceramic Substrate and Its Suppression
    F.Q. Lang, H. Yamaguchi, H. Nakagawa, H. Sato
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 445-452.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.10.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Eutectic Au-12Ge solder was employed to bond the SiC power devices to a Si3N4/Cu/Ni(P)/Au multi-layered substrate. The high-temperature reliability of the bond was investigated in detail at 200, 250, 300 and 330 °C, respectively. NiGe and Ni5Ge3 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were identified at the Au-12Ge/Ni(P) interface by micro X-ray diffraction (μXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The growth of the Ni-Ge IMCs was dominated by Ni5Ge3 layer, which formed at the Ni5Ge3/NiGe interface by outward diffusion of Ni from the Ni(P) layer. The activation energy of the total Ni-Ge IMCs growth was 66 kJ/mol. The shear strength of the bond was tested at both 25 °C and the aging temperatures, respectively. The shear strength decreased slightly after aging at 200 and 250 °C. The shear strength tested at 250 °C was 46 MPa after aging at 250 °C for 3000 h. The shear strength aged at 300 and 330 °C rapidly decreased with aging time due to the rapid growth of the Ni5Ge3 IMC. To slow down the interfacial reaction between the high temperature solder and the Ni(P) layer, an approximately 200 nm-thick Ta/TaN/Ta new diffusion barrier (DB) was deposited on the substrate. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with EDX, reveals that the Ta/TaN/Ta DB was bonded well to the Ni(P) layer and the solder. High temperature storage test at 330 °C for 1500 h reveals that the bond of the SiC devices maintained its high shear strength of approximately 56 MPa without decrease. The new DB effectively suppressed the interfacial reaction between the Au-12Ge solder and the Ni(P) layer of the substrate.
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    Synthesis and Room Temperature d0 Ferromagnetic Properties of α-MoO3 Nanofibers
    Sandeep K.S. Patel, Khemchand Dewangan, N.S. Gajbhiye
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 453-457.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.08.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Herein, we report the magnetic properties of α-MoO3 nanofibers synthesized via a hydrothermal method. X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopic studies have been employed to evidence the presence of oxygen vacancy defects in the α-MoO3 nanofibers. To elucidate the oxygen vacancy related ferromagnetism, post-thermal annealing in oxygen and vacuum was performed. The UV emission band of α-MoO3 nanofibers reveals a red shift from oxygen annealed to vacuum annealed, indicating a band-edge reduction. The saturation magnetization of oxygen annealed nanofibers decreases while that of vacuum annealed nanofibers increases. These results strongly confirm that the oxygen vacancies play a significant role in inducing ferromagnetism. The origin of ferromagnetism may be due to the exchange interactions among localized electron spin moments resulting from oxygen vacancies of α-MoO3 nanofibers. The presence of such defects was further supported by the photoluminescence measurements.
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    Structure and Properties of Chemically-reduced Functionalized Graphene Oxide Platelets
    A. Pruna, D. Pullini, D. Busquets
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 458-462.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.10.011
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    Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide was performed by using ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite. The obtained materials were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV?Vis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated a strong dependence of the materials properties such as deoxygenation degree, absorption peak shift, crystallite size and functionalization degree on the functionalization approach and reducing agent.
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    Influence of Surface-functionalized Graphene Oxide on the Cell Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite
    Yuwei Wang, Xia Liao, Yong Luo, Qi Yang, Guangxian Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 463-466.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.01.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The surface chemistry of filler is closely related to the structure and morphology of nanocomposite foams. Changing the property of filler is widely used to control the cell structures and functionalize the composite foams. Surface-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-ODA) was prepared by grafting octadecylamine (ODA) on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) to make the filler disperse better in the nanocomposites and have a strong interfacial interaction with polymer matrix. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/GO-ODA nanocomposite foams were obtained by solution blending and foamed using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Compared to neat PMMA and PMMA/GO samples, the PMMA/GO-ODA nanocomposite foams showed improved cell structures with smaller size, higher cell density and more homogeneous distribution, which should be attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation caused by well-dispersed GO-ODA nanosheets. This work not only improved the compatibility and interfacial interaction of GO with polymer matrix but also indicated that the modified GO sheets can act as ideal filler to control the cell density, size and size distribution efficiently.
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    A Multi-interlayer LMAS Joint of C/C-SiC Composites and LAS Glass Ceramics
    Qiangang Fu, Fengling Zhao, Hejun Li, Han Peng, Xiaoying Nan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 467-472.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.11.024
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Porous C/C-SiC composites were prepared through a two-step chemical vapor infiltration process, and a multi-interlayer joint of Li2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (LMAS) was applied to join C/C-SiC composites and lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass ceramics by means of a vacuum hot-pressing technique. Plenty of SiC whiskers were generated in the pores of low-density C/C composites during chemical vapor deposition process, which is essential to form a zigzag interface structure between C/C-SiC substrate and the LMAS interlayer. The average shear strength of the LMAS joint was improved from 12.17 to 19.91 MPa after changing the composites from high-density C/C composites (1.75 g/cm3) with a CVD-SiC coating to the C/C-SiC composites with a low density (1.48 g/cm3). The improvement of the joint strength is mainly attributed to the formation of the inlay structure at the SiC-C/C and SiC-LMAS interfaces.
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    Preparation and Degradation Phenol Characterization of Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mo Electrode Doped with Different Contents of Molybdenum
    Jiyan Liang, Cong Geng, Dan Li, Li Cui, Xin Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 473-478.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.11.025
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mo electrodes doped with different molar ratios of molybdenum (Mo) were prepared by sol-gel method in order to investigate the effect of Mo on the characterization of Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mo electrodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and linear scanning voltammetry (LSV) were used to scrutinize the coating material and the electrochemical activity. The concentration of phenol, the value of total organic carbon (TOC), the mineralization current efficiency (MCE) and the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) spectrum of phenol solution were measured over the electrochemical degradation process of phenol to confirm the phenol degradation characterization of Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mo electrodes. Results showed that the electrode at the Mo content of 1 at.% provided optimal catalytic activity for phenol degradation and the longest life time. The removal percentage of phenol and TOC were 99.62% and 82.67%, respectively. The Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mo electrode with 1 at.% of Mo reached maximum MCE of phenol oxidation. The kinetic investigation of phenol and TOC degradation displayed the pseudo-first order reaction model. The Ti/SnO2-Sb-Mo electrode coating with 7 at.% Mo presented the highest oxygen evolution overpotential, indicating the diverse effects for different Mo molar ratio doping.
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    A Simple Approach to the Fabrication of Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films on Copper Substrate by Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Nguyen Van Chuc, Cao Thi Thanh, Nguyen Van Tu, Vuong T.Q. Phuong, Pham Viet Thang, Ngo Thi Thanh Tam
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 479-483.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.11.027
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid films were directly synthesized on polycrystalline copper (Cu) substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Graphene films were synthesized on Cu substrate at 1000 °C in mixture of gases: argon (Ar), hydrogen (H2), and methane (CH4). Then, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown uniformly on the surface of graphene/Cu films at 750 °C in mixture of Ar, H2, and acetylene (C2H2) gases. Ferric salt FeCl3 solution deposited onto the surface of graphene/Cu substrate by spin coating method was used as precursor for the growth of the CNTs. The density and quality of the CNTs on the surface of graphene/Cu films can be controlled by varying the concentration of FeCl3 salt catalyst.
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    Structural Characterization of Laser Bonded Sapphire Wafers Using a Titanium Absorber Thin Film
    A. de Pablos-Martí, n, S. Tismer, Th. H, che
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 484-488.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.007
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    Two sapphire substrates were tightly bonded by irradiation with a 1064 nm nanosecond laser and using a sputtered 50 nm-titanium thin film as an absorbing medium. Upon laser irradiation, aluminum from the upper substrate is incorporated into the thin film, forming Ti-Al-O compounds. While the irradiated region becomes transparent, the bond quality was evaluated by scanning acoustic microscopy.
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    Devitrification-induced an Ultrahigh Strength Al-based Composite Maintaining Ductility
    Dong Kan, Xiaopeng Li, Baijun Yang, Hongwang Yang, Jianqiang Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 489-492.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.07.022
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A new Al-based composite consisting of submicron-sized α-Al matrix embedded with precipitated intermetallic phases was developed by controlling the devitrification process of an Al-Ni-Y-Co-La amorphous alloy. Such a homogeneous composite structure presented an ultrahigh strength of about 1.34 GPa and a large compressive plastic strain up to 22%. The unique mechanical properties during compression are mainly attributed to the dislocation slip deformation of ductile α-Al matrix and the shear-induced refinement of strengthening intermetallic phases.
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    Effects of Metalloid B Addition on the Glass Formation, Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of FePCB Bulk Metallic Glasses
    Minjie Shi, Zengqian Liu, Tao Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 493-497.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.10.009
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    Low-cost Fe80P12-xC8Bx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.%) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with good soft magnetic and mechanical properties were prepared, and effects of metalloid B addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) as well as thermal, magnetic, and mechanical properties of the BMGs were investigated. It was found that the proper B substitution for P improves the GFA of the Fe-P-C BMGs. The alloy with 2 at.% B addition manifests the highest GFA with critical diameter for glass formation of 2 mm. Besides, these BMGs exhibit good soft magnetic properties featured by high saturation magnetization of 1.35-1.57 T and low coercivity of 2.2-7.7 A/m as well as unique mechanical properties of high fracture strength of ~3.3 GPa and visible plastic strain of 0.4%-2.5%. The combination of high GFA, good soft magnetic and mechanical properties as well as low cost makes the present Fe-P-C-B BMGs promising as soft magnetic materials for industrial applications.
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    Effect of Deformation Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Mg Alloy Processed by Differential-Speed Rolling
    Mosab Kaseem, Bong Kwon Chung, Hae Woong Yang, Kotiba Hamad, Young Gun Ko
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 498-503.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.08.016
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    A differential-speed rolling (DSR) was applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy sample at different rolling temperatures of 473, 523, 573, and 623 K with 1-pass and 2-pass operations. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the deformed samples were investigated. The rolling temperature was found to be an important parameter affecting the microstructural development. After DSR at 473 K, the microstructure was more homogeneous than that obtained after deformation by equal-speed rolling (ESR). The fully recrystallized microstructures were generated after DSR at 573 and 623 K. As to mechanical properties, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased monotonously with increasing rolling temperature. In contrast, the elongation of the DSR-deformed samples was improved as the rolling temperature increased. The strain hardening exponent (n) calculated by Hollomon equation increased with increasing the rolling temperature, which would explain an increase in the uniform elongation.
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    Effect of Intermetallic Phases on Corrosion Initiation of AZ91 Alloy With Rare Earth Y Addition
    Li-na Zhang, Ruiling Jia, Dan Li, Wei Zhang, Feng Guo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 504-511.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.018
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    The effect of the rare earth (RE) element Y on the microstructure of AZ91 Mg alloy is investigated. A detailed description of the procedure of identifying the intermetallic phases containing Y in the AZ91 Mg alloy with 0.9 wt% Y addition is presented. The results shows that there are two different kinds of RE phases in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis shows that one is rich in Y element and the other is rich in Mn element. According to the element mapping of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), the element Al can be found not only in the β-Mg17Al12 phase but also in these two RE phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results further confirm one of the two RE phases is Al2Y; the phase of Al10Mn2Y has just been determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) instead of XRD probably because it is scarce. The shapes of these two RE intermetallic phases are pretty similar. The 3D digital microscopy is employed to observe in-situ the effect of the β phase and the above two RE intermetallic phases on the corrosion initiation of the alloys. The results show that the corrosion attack of AZ91 Mg alloy without Y addition starts around the eutectic phase β-Mg17Al12. With the addition of 0.9 wt% Y, the two kinds of Y-rich intermetallic phases act as cathodic effect and α phase in the adjacent of them was activated and cathodic effect of the β-Mg17Al12 phase was inhibited.
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    Surface-engineered Microcapsules by Layer-by-layer Assembling for Entrapment of Corrosion Inhibitor
    Hongwei Shi, Fuchun Liu, En-Hou Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 512-516.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.10.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Microcapsules containing core materials are promising component for developing self-healing coatings. In the present work, urea-formaldehyde capsule containing core material with size of micrometer was prepared by in-situ encapsulation method. The morphology of the microcapsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. A corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole, was successfully loaded on the outside of microcapsules by layer-by-layer assembling using polyelectrolytes. Thus, the modified microcapsules are promising to provide healing ability combined by release of interior core material and exterior corrosion inhibitor.
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    A Decoupling Control Model on Perturbation Method for Twin-Roll Casting Magnesium Alloy Sheet
    Wenyu Zhang, Dongying Ju, Hongyang Zhao, Xiaodong Hu, Yao Yao, Yujun Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (5): 517-522.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.01.005
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    To better understand the twin-roll casting process, based on the analysis of the solidification phenomenon, the geometry shape of the molten metal pool, the continuity of metal and the balance of energy and momentum, five critical partial equations were established separately including the equations of pool level, solidification process, roll separating force, roll gap and casting speed. Meanwhile, to obtain a uniform sheet thickness and keep a constant roll separating force, a decoupling control model was built on the perturbation method to eliminate the interference of process parameters. The simulation results show that the control model is valuable to quickly and accurately determine the control parameters. Moreover, Mg alloy sheets with high quality were cast by applying this model.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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