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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 October 2014, Volume 30 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Ionic Potential: A General Material Criterion for the Selection of Highly Efficient Arsenic Adsorbents
    Ronghui Li, Weiyi Yang, Yu Su, Qi Li, Shian Gao, Jian Ku Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 949-953.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.08.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its contamination in water bodies is a worldwide problem.Arsenic adsorption with metal oxides/hydroxides-based adsorbents is an effective approach to remove arsenic species from water for the health of both human beings and the environment.However, no material criterion had been proposed for the selection of potential candidates.Equally puzzling is the fact that no clear explanation was available on the poor arsenic adsorption performance of some commonly used adsorbents, such as active carbon or silica.Furthermore, in-depth examination was also not available for the dramatically different competing adsorption effects of various anions on the arsenic adsorption.Through the arsenic adsorption mechanism study on these highly efficient arsenic adsorbents, we found that ionic potential could be used as a general material criterion for the selection of highly efficient arsenic adsorbents and such a criterion could help us to understand the above questions on arsenic adsorbents.This material criterion could be further applied to the selection of highly efficient adsorbents based on ligand exchange between their surface hydroxyl groups and adsorbates in general, which may be used for the prediction of novel adsorbents for the removal of various contaminations in water.
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    Evaluation of La0.7Ca0.3Cr0.95Zn0.05O3-δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ Dual-phase Material and its Potential Application in Oxygen Transport Membrane
    Tenglong Zhu, Zhibin Yang, Minfang Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 954-958.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.08.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this work, a dual-phase material consisting of La0.7Ca0.3Cr0.95Zn0.05O3-δ (LCCZ, 40 wt%) and Gd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (GDC, 60 wt%) was synthesized. Properties including phase structure, sintering behavior, electrical conductivity and oxygen permeability for LCCZ-GDC were evaluated. The results show that dense LCCZ-GDC dual-phase disks were obtained at the sintering temperature of 1250, 1300, 1350 and 1400 °C by tape casting and high temperature sintering method. The grain sizes of both GDC and LCCZ grew up with the increasing of sintering temperature. The average grain size of GDC was about 0.5, 0.8, 1.4, 1.8 μm while the average grain size of LCCZ was about 0.8, 1.5, 1.8 and 2 μm after sintering at 1250, 1300, 1350 and 1400 °C, respectively. Oxygen flux of LCCZ-GDC decreased with the increase of sintering temperature from 1250 to 1400 °C. The oxygen flux of LCCZ-GDC sintered at 1250 °C reached 0.079 mL/min/cm2 at 975 °C with a membrane thickness of 800 μm. Dual-phase material of LCCZ-GDC will be a promising oxygen transport membrane material for its low sintering temperature and good microstructure.
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    Proportional Limit Stress and Residual Thermal Stress of 3D SiC/SiC Composite
    Shanhua Liu, Litong Zhang, Xiaowei Yin, Yongsheng Liu, Laifei Cheng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 959-964.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.08.004
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Proportional limit stress (PLS) and residual thermal stresses (RTS) of 3D SiC/SiC composite were investigated. PLS was obtained by four different methods from the monotonic stress-strain response curve to get a convincing value. RTS in the SiC matrix was quantified by solving the geometric intersection point of the regression lines of hysteresis loops from the periodical loading-unloading-reloading cycle test curve. Classical ACK model and analytical formulas were used to analytically calculate the PLS and RTS of 3D SiC/SiC composite. Good agreement between the experimental results and the analytical calculation was observed. And relationship between the PLS and the RTS of 3D SiC/SiC was discussed.
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    Nanotexturing and Wettability Ageing of Polypropylene Surfaces Modified by Oxygen Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Plasma
    Y.P. Li, M.K. Lei
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 965-972.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Polypropylene (PP) was treated by an oxygen capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma (CCP) under a radio frequency (RF) power of 200 W for exposure time of 1, 5, and 10 min. The ageing process of the plasma-treated PP was studied at an ageing temperature of 90 °C during an ageing time up to 25 h. The formation of the nanotextures with different geometry and aspect ratio and the grafting of large number of oxygen-containing groups were achieved on as-treated PP surfaces under the oxygen CCP treatment for the increased exposure time. The hydrophilicity on the as-treated PP surfaces with the stable nanotextures was rapidly depressed during the ageing process at 90 °C due to the restructuring of chemical composition. The surface restructuring rate was dependent on the aspect ratio and the oxygen-containing groups on the nanotextured PP with increasing exposure time. The hydrophobic over-recovery to high hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity were observed on the post-aged surfaces with the stable nanofibrils from as-treated hydrophilic surfaces. The superhydrophobicity with the low water adhesion was achieved on the post-aged surfaces preserving the nanofibrils with high aspect ratio and large distance due to the decrease of the oxygen-containing groups after the surface restructuring.
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    Enhanced Cryogenic Magnetocaloric Effect Induced by Small Size GdNi5 Nanoparticles
    Jun Li, Song Ma, Han Wang, Wenjie Gong, Jingjing Jiang, Shaojie Li, Yong Wang, Dianyu Geng, Zhidong Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 973-978.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    GdNi5 nanoparticles and GdNi5/Gd2O3 nanocapsules (with GdNi5 core and Gd2O3 shell) were prepared by arc-discharge technique under different hydrogen partial pressure. The GdNi5 nanoparticles show irregular spherical shape and have a size distribution of 10-50 nm with an average diameter of 15 nm. In comparison, the GdNi5/Gd2O3 nanocapsules present spherical morphology and show a size distribution of 10-100 nm with an average diameter of 60 nm. Under a magnetic field change of 50 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy change of GdNi5 nanoparticles is 13.5 J/(kg K) at 5 K, while the corresponding value of the GdNi5/Gd2O3 nanocapsuels is only 5.7 J/(kg K) at 31 K. The origin of the large magnetic entropy change of GdNi5 nanoparticles is ascribed to its high atomic moments and small anisotropy energy barrier induced by its small particle size.
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    In Vitro Comparative Effect of Three Novel Borate Bioglasses on the Behaviors of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells
    Xiaojuan Wei, Tingfei Xi, Yufeng Zheng, Changqing Zhang, Wenhai Huan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 979-983.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.07.007
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Most related investigations focused on the effects of borate glass on cell proliferation/biocompatibility in vitro or bone repair in vivo; however, very few researches were carried out on other cell behaviors. Three novel borate bioglasses were designed as scaffolds for bone regeneration in this wok. Comparative effects of three bioglasses on the behaviors of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were evaluated. Excellent cytocompatibility of these novel borate bioglasses were approved in this work. Meanwhile, the promotion on cell proliferation, protein secretion and migration with minor cell apoptosis were also discussed in details, which contributed to the potential clinical application as a new biomaterial for orthopedics.
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    Effects of Al2O3 Nano-additive on Performance of Micro-arc Oxidation Coatings Formed on AZ91D Mg Alloy
    Yan Wang, Dongbo Wei, Jie Yu, Shichun Di
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 984-990.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Ceramic coatings were prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in aluminate electrolytes, with Al2O3 nano-additive suspending at different concentrations. Effects of nano-additive concentration on the structure, phase composition, hardness and anti-corrosion property of the MAO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-hardness test and electrochemical method, respectively. The results revealed that Al2O3 nano-particles were mostly incorporated into ceramic coating chemically, transferred into MgAl2O4, rather than being trapped mechanically during MAO process. With the increase of Al2O3 concentration, the voltage-time response, content of MgAl2O4, hardness and anti-corrosion property increased. However, when the concentration varied from 10 g/L to 15 g/L, these behaviors and properties changed only a little. This result indicated that, after the concentration of Al2O3 nano-additive reaching 10 g/L, the incorporation of Al2O3 nano-particles turned into a saturation state, due to the complex process during MAO treatment. Therefore, 10 g/L might be a proper concentration for MAO coating to incorporate Al2O3 nano-particles.
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    Characterization and Prediction of Microporosity Defect in Sand Cast WE54 Alloy Castings
    Jilin Li, Rongshi Chen, Yuequn Ma, Wei Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 991-997.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.011
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In order to study the effect of Zr modification and riser size on microporosity defect distributions in WE54 alloy sand castings, the microporosity volume percentage in Zr-free and Zr-containing WE54 alloy plate castings was determined by density measurement based on Archimedes' principle, and the microstructure of the microporosity defects was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Then by using Procast software, the Niyama criterion was calculated in order to investigate the validity of Niyama criterion on prediction of microporosity defects in WE54 alloy sand castings. It is found from the density measurement results that Zr addition does not affect the microporosity distributions in WE54 alloy castings. While the distribution area of microporosity defect in the plate castings decreases significantly as the riser size increases. Based on the experimental results, a riser selection principle for production of compact WE54 alloy castings is proposed that the solidification modulus of the riser should be greater than that of the casting by 30%, simply mr ≥ 1.3mc. By comparing the experimental and simulating results, it is found that the predicted microporosity regions by Niyama criterion agrees well with experimental results, and a critical Niyama value of 0.4 °C0.5 s0.5 mm-1 is suggested for prediction of microporosity formation in WE54 alloy sand castings.
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    Effect of Post Cryorolling Treatments on Microstructural and Mechanical Behaviour of Ultrafine Grained Al-Mg-Si Alloy
    P. Nageswara rao, Dharmendra Singh, R. Jayaganthan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 998-1005.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.009
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    To investigate the effect of post cryorolling treatments on simultaneous enhancement in strength and ductility of ultrafine grained material (UFG), Al 6061 alloy was subjected to cryorolling followed by warm rolling (CR + WR) and compared with cryorolling followed by short annealing (CR + SA) at the same temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the microstructural features of the processed material. The mechanical properties were investigated through Vickers hardness testing and tensile testing at room temperature. TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to investigate the precipitation evolution in UFG material. Results indicated that the alloy subjected to CR + WR has shown improved mechanical properties (114 HV, ultimate tensile strength (UTS): 350 MPa) as compared to that in the case of CR + SA (105 HV, UTS: 285 MPa). The size of the precipitates observed in CR + WR sample after peak ageing treatment is finer than that of peak aged CR + SA sample. The UTS of peak aged CR + WR sample (UTS: 390 MPa) was found to be higher than that of peak aged CR + SA sample (UTS: 355 MPa), without decrease in ductility.
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    Structural Morphological and Optical Properties of SnSb2S4 Thin Films Grown by Vacuum Evaporation Method
    N. Khedmi, M. Ben Rabeh, M. Kanzari
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1006-1011.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    SnSb2S4 thin films were prepared from powder by thermal evaporation under vacuum of 1.33 × 10-4 Pa (10-6 Torr) on unheated glass substrates. The effect of thickness on the structural, morphological and optical properties of SnSb2S4 thin films was investigated. Films thickness measured by interference fringes method varied from 50 to 700 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the SnSb2S4 films were polycrystalline in spite without heating the substrates and the crystallinity was improved with increasing film thickness. The microstructure parameters: crystallite size, strain and dislocation density were calculated. It was observed that the crystallite size increased and the crystal defects decreased with increasing film thickness. In addition, by increasing the film thickness, an enhancement in the surface roughness root-mean-square (RMS) increased from 2.0 to 6.6 nm. The fundamental optical parameters like band gap, absorption and extinction coefficient were calculated in the strong absorption region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical absorption measurements indicated that the band (Eg) gap of the thin films decreased from 2.10 to 1.65 eV with increasing film thickness. The refractive indexes were evaluated in transparent region in terms of envelope method, which was suggested by Swanepoul. It was observed that the refractive index increased with increasing film thickness.
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    Structure and Growth Mechanism of V/Ag Multilayers with Different Periodic Thickness Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering Deposition
    Hongxiu Zhang, Feng Ren, Mengqing Hong, Xiangheng Xiao, Guangxu Cai, Changzhong Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1012-1019.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.006
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    V/Ag multilayers with different periodic thicknesses were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition. The columnar structure and the orientation relationship of the multilayers were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the multilayered structure became flatter as increasing individual layer thickness from 2 to 6 nm, and then became waved as the individual layer thickness increases to 8 nm. At the beginning of the growth, the morphology of the multilayers with small periodic thickness was influenced mainly by thermodynamic instabilities, and the morphology of the multilayers with larger periodic thickness was mainly influenced mainly by the columnar growth of V. When the waved interfaces were formed, the continuum growth of the multilayers was also influenced by the shadowing effect and the finite atomic size effect. All of these factors resulted in the columnar structure of the multilayers. Multilayers with small periodic thickness presented strong orientation relationship. Nano-hardness tests indicated that multilayers with flat sublayer morphology and clear interfaces exhibited larger hardness.
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    Highly Improved Gaseous Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of the Nanocrystalline and Amorphous Nd-Cu-added Mg2Ni-type Alloys by Melt Spinning
    Yanghuan Zhang, Tingting Zhai, Baowei Li, Huiping Ren, Wengang Bu, Dongliang Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1020-1026.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.022
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg-Nd-Ni-Cu quaternary alloys with a composition of (Mg24Ni10Cu2)100-xNdx (x = 0-20) were prepared by melt spinning. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy inspections reveal that, by varying the spinning rate and the Nd content, different microstructures could be obtained by melt spinning. Particularly, the as-spun Nd-free alloy holds an entire nanocrystalline structure but the as-spun Nd-added alloy has a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, which implies that the addition of Nd facilitates the glass forming in the Mg2Ni-type alloy. Also, the degree of the amorphization in the as-spun Nd-added alloys clearly increases with increasing the spinning rate and the Nd content. The H-storage capacity and the hydrogenation kinetics of amorphous, partially and completely nanocrystalline alloys were investigated and it was found that they are dependent on the microstructure and the phase composition of the alloys. Specially, enhancing the spinning rate from 0 (the as-cast was defined as the spinning rate of 0 m/s) to 40 m/s makes the hydrogen absorption saturation ratio ( ) (a ratio of the hydrogen absorption quantity in 5 min to the saturated hydrogen absorption capacity) increase from 35.2% to 90.3% and the hydrogen desorption ratio ( ) (a ratio of the hydrogen desorption quantity in 10 min to the saturated hydrogen absorption capacity) rise from 12.7% to 44.9% for the (x = 5) alloy. And the growing of the Nd content from 0 to 20 gives rise to the and values rising from 85.7% to 94.5% and from 36.7% to 54.8% for the as-spun (30 m/s) alloys, respectively.
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    Solidification Behavior of Immiscible Alloys under the Effect of a Direct Current
    Hongxiang Jiang, Jiuzhou Zhao, Jie He
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1027-1035.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.008
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    Directional solidification experiments were carried out with Al-Pb alloys under the effect of a direct current (DC). The experimental results show that the DC causes a migration of the minority phase droplets (MPDs) from the middle part to the surface region of the sample. Samples with either a finely dispersed microstructure or a shell/core structure were obtained by solidifying the alloy under the effect of the properly selected DC densities. A model was developed to describe the microstructure evolution in an immiscible alloy directionally solidified under the effect of the DC. The microstructure formation in the Al-Pb alloys was calculated. The numerical results are in favorable agreement with the experimental ones. They demonstrate that the DC affects the microstructure formation mainly through changing the spatial motions of the MPDs and the temperature field of the melt in front of the solid/liquid interface. The formation mechanisms of the finely dispersed microstructure as well as the shell/core structure were sufficiently clarified.
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    Waterborne Epoxy Nanocoatings Modified by Nanoemulsions and Nanoparticles
    Zhenyu Wang, Enhou Han, Fuchun Liu, Zhouhai Qian, Liwei Zhu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1036-1042.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.004
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Electrically conductive coatings are required for static charge dissipation in power ground network. In the present investigation electrically conductive nanocoatings were prepared by the incorporation of graphite, nano-SiO2 concentrate, acrylic nanoemulsion and fluorocarbon emulsion onto the waterborne epoxy polymer. The nanosize distribution of nano-SiO2 concentrate and nanoemulsion was characterized with laser diffraction analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From the results of SEM image, the graphite particles were well distributed in conductive coating. The corrosion resistance and thermal stability of nanocoatings were comparatively studied by SEM and thermogravimetry (TG). The corrosion-inhibiting properties of the conductive nanocoatings were investigated by salt immersion test. The measurements of contact angle, bonding strength and heat-freeze charge demonstrated that 1.5-2.0 wt% nanoparticles improve the resistance to pollution, adherence and resistance to heat-freeze charge of conductive nanocoatings. The measured results of surface electric resistance of nanocoatings demonstrated that a small amount of nano-SiO2 particles could enhance the conductivity in the corrosive environment.
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    In Situ Corrosion Monitoring of Mild Steel in a Simulated Tidal Zone without Marine Fouling Attachment by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
    Xin Mu, Jie Wei, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1043-1051.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The corrosion behaviors of the isolated short and vertical long scale Q235B steel in a simulated tidal zone were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring and corrosion weight loss calculation in an experimental indoor simulating trough. The results show that the corrosion rate of the isolated short scale Q235B steel in the tidal zone acquired by the EIS agrees with the corrosion weight loss result. The corrosion rates of the short scale steel are in the order of middle tidal zone > the central zone between the middle tidal zone and low tidal zone > high tidal zone > low tidal zone. The fastest corrosion rate in the middle tidal zone is attributed to the longest wet time in a tidal cycle. According to the comparison of corrosion weight loss between the vertical long scale and isolated short scale specimens, the corrosion rate of vertical long scale specimens of Q235B steel is lower than that of the isolated short scale specimens in the tidal zone, but the result is contrary in the immersion zone.
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    Heat-induced Internal Strain Relaxation and its Effect on the Microstructure of Polyacrylonitrile-based Carbon Fiber
    Denghua Li, Chunxiang Lu, Gangping Wu, Yu Yang, Zhihai Feng, Xiutao Li, Feng An, Baoping Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (10): 1051-1058.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.12.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The transformation of the internal strain and its effect on the microstructure of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber during the high-temperature graphitization were investigated. The internal compressive strain within the carbon turbostratic structure was confirmed through a careful analysis by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Heat-induced strain/stress relaxation along the fiber axis was observed and was found to have a profound effect on the structure of both the crystallites and microvoids. The results indicated that, the relaxation of residual strain changed the graphite layers from a wrinkled and distorted morphology to a straight and smooth one, and consequently led the crystallites to stack closely and orderly with increasing stack height. The strain relaxation also changed the morphology of crystallites and microvoids, resulting in an anisotropic growth for the latters.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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