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      28 June 2012, Volume 28 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Impurity Effect on Wear Resistance of Ultrafine-Grained Copper
    Bin Yao, Zhong Han, Ke Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 481-487. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The wear properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Cu samples of different purities were investigated in comparison with the coarse-grained (CG) Cu. The UFG Cu samples, prepared by means of plastic deformation via quasi-static compression, exhibit an enhanced wear resistance relative to the CG Cu samples. For both the UFG and the CG Cu samples, wear volumes increase at higher purities. A steady state worn subsurface structure was formed in each sample after sliding for 60 min, consisting of a heavily deformed nanostructured mixing layer (NML) on top of a continuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX) layer. A pronounced correlation is identified that wear volume increases monotonically with an increasing grain size of the DRX layer. The impurity level of the Cu samples has an obvious in°uence on the DRX grain sizes, which in turn determines the wear resistance of the Cu samples.
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    Understanding Formation Mechanism of Titanate Nanowires through Hydrothermal Treatment of Various Ti-Containing Precursors in Basic Solutions
    Jie Xie, Xiaohui Wang, Yanchun Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 488-494. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Titanate nanowires prepared by hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 in NaOH solution have attracted intensive attentions, but the formation mechanism is still under debate. Herein, we report an in-depth study on the formation mechanism through investigating the hydrothermal behavior of various Ti-containing precursors in basic solutions, including Ti, TiN, TiO2, Ti2SnC and Ti2AlN. Based on the results by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that the crystal structure of the hydrothermal products is irrespective to the structure of the precursors or the types of basic solution (NaOH or KOH) in use. Alkali ions play an important role in the formation of titanate nanowires. The formation mechanism of the resultant titanate nanowires was proposed to be dissolution-crystallization mechanism.
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    Surfactant Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of CdSe Nanostructural Materials
    Ganganagappa Nagaraju, Gujjarahalli Thimmanna Chandrappa
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 495-499. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    CdSe/CTAB composite nanostructural materials were successfully synthesized at 160-200 °C for 2 days through a facile surfactant (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-CTAB) assisted hydrothermal method using cadmium acetate and sodium selenate as precursor. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. Optical properties were studied by photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy and morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.
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    Thin Film and Coatings
    Synthesis and Characterization of (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) Thin Films Formed by a Diol-based Sol-gel Process
    Sebastian Wiegand, Stefan Flege, Olaf Baake and Wolfgang Ensinger
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 500-505. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Lead-free (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) thin films were fabricated by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a diol-based sol-gel process. Na-acetate, K-acetate, Nb-pentaethoxide and 1,3 propanediol were used to prepare the NKN precursor solution. Thermal analysis showed two characteristic temperatures of 360 and 600 °C. Based on these temperatures, a heat treatment program with pyrolysis at 360 °C and calcination at 600 °C after every layer was used. To avoid inhomogeneities and secondary phases, an excess of sodium and potassium was necessary. To evaluate the proper excess amount of sodium and potassium secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) lateral element maps and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded. An excess amount of 20% led to homogeneous distribution of the elements and to single phase perovskite NKN films with random crystal orientation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a pore free surface with 100 nm grains. The leakage current measurements showed a current of 1Χ10-3 A/cm2 at 150 kV/cm.
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    Effect of Surface Roughness on Laser Induced Nonlinear Optical Properties of Annealed ZnO Thin Films
    Vinay Kumari, Vinod Kumar, Devendra Mohan, Purnima, B.P. Malik, R.M. Mehra
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 506-511. 
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    Variation of nonlinear optical properties with surface roughness of ZnO thin films deposited on corning glass substrates at different annealing temperature (TA) was reported. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR transmission and single beam z-scan technique using second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser. Surface morphology of the samples was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface roughness was found minimum (8.4 nm) for ZnO sample annealed at 450 °C. The nonlinear optical properties (NLO) were found to be dependent on surface roughness and the highest value of third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3)=4.3×10-7 esu) was obtained for ZnO at TA 450 °C.
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    Structural, Wettability and Optical Investigation of Titanium Oxynitride Coatings: Effect of Various Sputtering Parameters
    Sushant K Rawal, Amit Kumar Chawla, R. Jayaganthan, Ramesh Chandra
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 512-523. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of various sputtering parameters such as nitrogen flow rate, deposition time and sputtering pressure on structural, wettability and optical properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on glass substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering. The X-ray diffraction graphs of titanium oxynitride films show evolution of various textures of TiOxNy and TiN phases with increasing nitrogen flow rate and deposition time, but an increase in sputtering pressure from 4.0 to 8.0 Pa results in decline of various textures observed for TiOxNy and TiN phases. The stress and strain calculated by sin2Ψmethod are compressive, which decrease with increasing nitrogen flow rate from 55 to 100 sccm (standard cubic centimeter per minute) and increase with increasing deposition time from 80 to 140 min due to atomic penning effect and increasing thickness of the deposited films. The titanium oxynitride films have contact angle values above 90 deg., indicating that films are hydrophobic. The maximum contact angle of 109.1 deg. is observed at deposition time of 140 min. This water repellent property can add value to potential protective, wear and corrosion resistant application of titanium oxynitride films. The band gap decreases from 1.98 to 1.83 eV as nitrogen flow rate is increased from 55 to 100 sccm; it decreases from 1.93 to 1.79 eV as deposition time is increased from 80 to 140 min as more nitrogen incorporation results in higher negative potential of valence band N2p orbital. But it increases from 2.26 to 2.34 eV for titanium oxynitride films as sputtering pressure increases from 4.0 to 8.0 Pa.
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    Light Weight Metals
    Morphologies of Al4Sr Intermetallic Phase and Its Modification Property upon A356 Alloys
    Chengwei Liao, Jianchun Chen, Yang Li, Rui Tu, Chunxu Pan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 524-530. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In general, the modification performance of Al−Sr master alloys is primarily dependent upon the morphologies and sizes of the Al4Sr intermetallic phase. In this paper, the crystal structure, morphologies, sizes, hardness and elastic modulus of Al4Sr in Al{Sr master alloys prepared from variant processes were studied by means of optical metallurgical microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and nanoindentation system. The results revealed that the microstructures and modi¯cation performance of the Al4Sr phase were related to the preparation processes. That is to say, when a "direct reaction-hot extrusion" process was used, the Al4Sr phase exhibited a homogeneous distribution in the Al matrix with small size and roundish shapes, which ensured the Al−Sr master alloy wire advantages involving high recovery, good reproducibility, no delitescence of modification, no corrosion on equipments, and good workability. However, in the case of the traditional "direct reaction" process, the Al4Sr phase was in large size with shapes of rectangular stripe and plates, which limited the Sr content increasing due to the brittleness of the Al−Sr alloy. It was also found that the morphology and size of the Al4Sr phases changed during heat treatment at high temperature up to 600 °C.
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    Evolution of Microstructure and Texture during Hot Deformation f a Commercially Processed Supral100
    Y. Huang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 531-536. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructure and texture in a commercially processed Al-6 wt% Cu-0.4 wt% Zr (Supral100) aluminium alloy have been investigated after annealing and hot tensile straining at 450 °C, using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure of commercially processed alloy had a relatively large fraction of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) which were aligned parallel to the rolling direction, and a strong texture. Annealing at 450 °C led to an increase in the fraction of HAGBs and to an increase in HAGB spacing and these changes were progressively enhanced by subsequent tensile deformation. The increasing fraction of HAGBs was due to the annihilation of low
    angle grain boundaries (LAGBs). A sharpening of texture during annealing was attributed to preferential textural growth, and the reduction of texture at higher tensile strains led to the development of superplastic behaviour. The present work supports the view that the evolution of the fine grain microstructure during the high temperature straining of Supral100 is primarily due to the accumulation of a large area of grain boundary during the initial thermomechanical processing, and does not involve any unusual restoration processes.
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    Effects of Butt Design and Gap Width on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Welds
    Honggang Dong, Chuanqing Liao, Liqun Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 537-542. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effects of parallel and angular butt designs with different gap widths on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant magnesium joints in gas tungsten arc welding were investigated. The experimental results displayed that the tensile strength of the joint made with angular butt joint and 0.3 mm-wide gap reached 266 MPa, the joint fractured through the heat-affected zone or base metal during tensile testing, and the microstructure examination showed that no macropore appeared in the fusion zone. However, macropores in diameter of larger than 200 micron occurred for other joint designs, the tensile strength of the resultant joints decreased, and the joints fractured through the fusion zone during tensile testing. The fracture surfaces
    were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the microhardness distribution in the joints was measured by using a Vickers microhardness tester.
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Extruded Mg-2Dy-0.5Zn Alloy
    Guangli Bi, Daqing Fang, Weichuan Zhang, Jothi Sudagar, Qingxin Zhang, Jianshe Lian, Zhonghao Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 543-551. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg-2Dy-0.5Zn (at.%) alloy during isothermal ageing at 180 °C were investigated. Microstructure of the as-extruded alloy is mainly composed of α-Mg phase, 14H long period stacking order (LPSO) phase and small amounts of (Mg, Zn)xDy particle phases. During ageing, the 14H LPSO phase forms and develops and its volume fraction increases with increasing ageing time. Tensile test showed that the peak-aged alloy exhibits similar yield and ultimate tensile strengths and elongation to failure at room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C, but excellent elevated temperature strengths at 300 °C as compared to the as-extruded and over-aged alloys. The analysis showed that the excellent elevated temperature strengths of the peak-aged alloy are attributed to the LPSO phase strengthening and the grain refinement strengthening, and the role of the LPSO strengthening is related to not only its amount, but also its morphology.
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    Iron and Steel
    High Magnetic Field Influence on the WidmanstÄatten Transformation in High Purity Fe-0.36 wt% C Alloy
    Shoujing Wang, Xiang Zhao, Na Xiao, Liang Zuo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 552-557. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The influence of high magnetic field with different strength on the proeutectoid ferrite transformation in high purity Fe-0.36 wt% C during diffusional γ→α phase transformation was studied. It was found that the formation of acicular ferrite (i.e. Widmanstatten ferrite) was obviously suppressed by the applied high magnetic field. The stronger the magnetic field is, the more the ferrite grains elongating and aligning along the field direction will be. This is attributed to additional driving force for phase transformation and demagnetization effect introduced by the applied magnetic field. This is also considered to be related to the preferential growth of proeutectoid ferrite nuclei along field direction caused by magnetic dipolar interaction.
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    Compression Stability of Reversed Austenite in 9Ni Steel
    S.H. Chen, M.J. Zhao, X.Y. Li, L.J. Rong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 558-561. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effect of compressive stress on the stability of reversed austenite in 9Ni steel was investigated by uniaxial and hydrostatic compression. It was found that the uniaxial compressive pressure promoted the γ→α transformation, while the hydrostatic pressure suppressed the γ→α transformation. The pressure dependent transformation behavior can be explained according to thermodynamic analysis.
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    Regular Papers
    Short-time Oxidation of Alloy 690 in High-temperature and High-pressure Steam and Water
    F. Huang, J.Q. Wang, E.H. Han, W. Ke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 562-568. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The oxidation behavior of alloy 690 exposed to high-temperature and high-pressure steam and water at 280 °C for 1 h was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In high-temperature and high-pressure steam, the oxide film is composed of an outermost Ni-rich hydroxides layer, an intermediate layer of hydroxides and oxides enriched in Cr, an inner oxide layer. The film formed in high-temperature water is similar to that in steam, except for missing the Ni-rich hydroxides layer. Samples with different surface finishes (electropolished, mechanically polished, ground, and as-received) were prepared for comparison. A general increase of the oxide thickness with the degree of surface roughness is observed. The equivalent oxide thicknesses lie in the range of 100{200 nm for the as-received samples, 150{250 nm for the samples ground to 400# and 10−20 nm for the samples ground to 1500#, mechanically polished, and electropolished.
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    Electronic Transport Properties of Sodium Tungsten Bronzes Na0.54WO3 Single Crystals
    Song Yue, Yuan Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 569-571. 
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    Single crystals of ternary sodium tungsten bronzes have been prepared by the electrolysis of molten Na2WO4-WO3 system. X-ray powder diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy results reveal that the obtained samples are of cubic phase with empirical formula of Na0.54WO3. Electrical resistivity measurement indicates a metallic conducting behavior without any anomaly from 5-300 K.
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    Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Alumina via a Reverse Precipitation Method
    Y.S. Wu, J. Ma, F. Hu, M.C. Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (6): 572-576. 
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    Mesoporous alumina γ-Al2O3 with high specific surface area and large pore volume is prepared by using a facile reverse precipitation method from sodium aluminate and nitric acid. The effects of terminal pH value, aging time and thermal stability on the characterization of γ-Al2O3 are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that γ-Al2O3 with better properties can be obtained by changing the preparation parameters. High BET surface area of 340 m2/g can be obtained by calcining at 500 °C for 4 h with large pore volume of 0.90 cm3/g and average pore size of 7.6 nm. After calcining at 1000°, the surface area is still 86 m2/g and the pore volume is 0.37 cm3/g.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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