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CN 21-1315/TG
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      30 May 2012, Volume 28 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Synthesis of Single-Crystal TiO2 Nanowire Using Titanium Monoxide Powder by Thermal Evaporation
    Z.G. Shang, Z.Q. Liu, P.J. Shang, J.K. Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 385-390. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    TiO2 nanowires were synthesized successfully in a large quantity by thermal evaporation using titanium monoxide powder as precursor. X-ray diffraction results showed that all the products were pure rutile phase of TiO2. According to microstructural observations, the nanowires have two typical morphologies, a long straight type and a short tortuous type. The straight nanowires were obtained at a wide temperature range of 900−1050 °C, while the tortuous ones were formed below 900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy characterization revealed that both the straight and the tortuous nanowires are single-crystal rutile TiO2. The preferential growth direction of the nanowires was determined as [110] orientation according to electron diffraction and high-resolution image analyses. The morphological change of TiO2 nanowires was discussed by considering the different atomic diffusion rates of Ti atoms caused by the phase transformation in Ti substrate at around 900 °C.
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    Oxygen Barrier of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Polymethyl Methacrylate Nanocomposites Prepared by in situ Method
    Ajaya K. Pradhan, Sarat K. Swain
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 391-395. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonic assisted emulsifier free emulsion polymerization technique with variable concentration of functionalized carbon nanotubes. MWCNTs were functionalized with H2SO4 and HNO3 with continuing sonication and polished by H2O2. The appearance of Fourier transform infrared absorption bands in the PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposites showed that the functionalized MWCNT interacted chemically with PMMA macromolecules. The surface morphology of functionalized MWCNT and PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposites were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The dispersion of MWCNT in PMMA matrix was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The oxygen permeability of PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposites gradually decreased with increasing MWCNT concentrations.
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    Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of In(OH)3 and In2O3 Nanorods through Carbon Spheres Template Method
    Xifeng Lu, Lei Zhang, Hui Zhao, Kai Yan, Yan Cao, Lumin Meng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 396-400. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Poly-crystalline In(OH)3 nanorods have been successfully prepared via a urea-based precipitation using the colloidal carbon spheres as the templates. After calcinations, the resulted In2O3 nanorods with poly-crystalline structure were fabricated. Structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The possible formation process was schemed. The sensor gas properties towards C2H5OH and CO were examined.
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    Light Weight Metals
    Synthesis of Nanostructured Mg−Ni Alloy and Its Hydrogen Storage Properties
    N.A. Niaz, I. Ahmad, Waheed S. Khan, S. Tajammul Hussain
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 401-406. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Nanostructured Mg−Ni alloy with the particle size in the range of 40−50 nm was synthesized by the thermal decomposition of bipyridyl complexes of Mg and Ni metals at 773 K for 24 h under dry argon gas ambient. The as-prepared nano-alloy was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for compositional and structural analysis. The alloy exhibited superior hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior with 3.2 wt% absorption within 1 min at 573 K and about 3 wt% desorption within 5-10 min at 573 K. This favorable behavior of Mg−Ni compound for the hydrogen storage is due to the specific nanostructure of the material. The low activation energy values and favorable thermodynamics indicate that the prepared Mg−Ni alloy is an attracting material for hydrogen storage applications.
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    High Temperature Creep and Superplasticity in a Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy
    S. Spigarelli, M. El Mehtedi, M. Regev, E. Gariboldi, N. Lecis
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 407-413. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Creep and superplasticity were investigated by testing a fine-grained extruded Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy under a wide range of applied stress in the temperature range between 100 and 300 °C. Grain boundary sliding became the dominating mechanism at 200 °C, leading to a true superplastic behaviour at 300 °C, where superplasticity was attained even under relatively high strain rates (5×10-3 s-1). By contrast, for lower temperatures, the straining process was controlled by dislocation climb. A comprehensive model, taking into account the simultaneous operation of the different mechanisms, was developed to describe the strain rate dependence on applied stress.
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Lap Welded Aluminum Alloy AA2014
    S. Babu, G.D. Janaki Ram, P.V. Venkitakrishnan, G. Madhusudhan Reddy, K. Prasad Rao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 414-426. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Friction stir lap welds were produced in 3 mm thick Alclad sheets of Al alloy 2014-T4 using two different tools (with triangular and threaded taper cylindrical pins). The effects of tool geometry on weld microstructure, lap-shear performance and failure mode were investigated. The pin profile was found to significantly influence the hook geometry, which in turn strongly influenced the joint strength and the failure mode. Welds produced in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad sheets by using triangular and threaded taper cylindrical tools exhibited an average lap-shear failure load of 16.5 and 19.5 kN, respectively, while the average failure load for standard riveted joints was only 3.4 kN. Welds produced in alloy 2014-T6 Alclad sheets and in alloy 2014-T4 bare sheets (i.e.,
    no Alclad) were comparatively evaluated with those produced in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad sheets. While the welds made (with threaded taper cylindrical tool) in T6 and T4 conditions showed very similar lap-shear failure loads, the joint efficiency of the welds made in T6 condition (43%) was considerably lower (because of the higher base material strength) than those made in T4 condition (51%). The Alclad layers were found to present no special problems in friction stir lap welding. Welds made with triangular tool in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad and bare sheets showed very similar lap-shear failure loads. The present work provides some useful insights into the use of friction stir welding for joining Al alloys in lap configuration.
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    Thin Film and Coatings
    Mesoscopic Simulation of Diffusion Characteristics in the Corrosion Film
    Haitao Wang, En-Hou Han
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 427-432. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A cellular automata model was used to study the diffusion characteristics in the corrosion film at a mesoscopic scale. The model focused on a metal/film/electrolyte system, including a series of local evolution rules. The effect of diffusion rate on the film growth and metal corrosion was investigated. The result showed that the growth rate of the film followed a power law with the diffusion steps, and the corrosion rate had the same law as that of the film growth in the model with the feedback effect. There existed a diffusing plane in the film, where the concentration of the diffusing species did not depend on time. The diffusion steps were found to have a great influence on the position and species concentration of the diffusing plane.
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    Oxidation and Thermal Shock Behavior of a Glass-Alumina Composite Coating on K38G Superalloy at 1000 °C
    Minghui Chen, Mingli Shen, Xin Wang, Shenglong Zhu, Fuhui Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 433-438. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The glass-alumina composite coatings were successfully prepared on the K38G superalloy substrates. Their isothermal oxidation and thermal shock behavior at 1000 °C were characterized. With a post-annealing process at 850 °C, the composite coatings possessed an improved protective effect for the alloy substrates from isothermal oxidation and a higher resistance to thermal shock. Crystallization from the glass matrix and interfacial reaction between the matrix and alumina inclusions, which caused the composites more refractory and tough, accounted for this improvement. The  micromechanisms for the formation of oxidation results of spinel ZnCr2O4 were also discussed.
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    High Temperature Structural Materials
    Effect of Threshold Stress on Anisotropic Creep Properties of Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloy SRR99
    Guoming Han, Jinjiang Yu, Xiaofeng Sun, Zhuangqi Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 439-445. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The influence of orientation on the creep properties of the nickel-base single crystal superalloy SRR99 was investigated at 760 °C and various levels of applied stress. It was found that the effect of anisotropy was strikingly prominent at this temperature. Deformation mechanisms of single crystals with three principal orientations at 760 °C/790 MPa were explained according to detailed observations of dislocation arrangements by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Liability to shearing γ′ precipitates for [011] orientation and co-planar slip for [-111] orientation resulted in poor creep strength and short stress rupture life. It was also found that the apparent primary creep strain could be measured when the applied stress was increased
    to 565 MPa. Modified power law equation was adopted and the concept of a threshold stress σ0 which determines dislocation looping or shearing to be activated was then involved. Through detailed calculations, the threshold stress was obtained to further analyse the distribution of the applied stress and better rationalize the anisotropic creep behaviour in the stereographic triangle in combination with TEM observations.
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    Micro-segregation and Precipitation of Alloy 690 during Isothermal Solidification: the Role of Nitrogen Content
    Rong Jiang, Bo Chen, Xianchao Hao, Yingche Ma, Shuo Li, Kui Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 446-452. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The segregation and precipitation behavior of Alloy 690 containing 0.001-0.11 wt% nitrogen during isothermal solidification at 1370 and 1355 °C have been investigated using optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the volume fraction of TiN-type nitride formed during isothermal solidification increases with the nitrogen content of Alloy 690. Segregation of Ti and Cr exists in samples solidified at 1370 and 1355 °C. The Ti content in the residual liquid markedly decreases and the concentration of Cr increases when the nitrogen content of Alloy 690 increases. Furthermore, N and S also show segregation to some extent in the residual liquids at 1355 °C. Accompanying by the segregation of Cr, Ti, C, N and S, sulfides and chromium nitrides form. In a low nitrogen content Alloy 690, sulfur segregates and precipitates in the form of Ti4C2S2 and (Cr, Ti)S, but in the form of (Cr, Ti)S or CrS in a high nitrogen content Alloy 690. (Cr, Ti)N-type nitrides with an fcc crystal structure have been identified in a sample with 0.11 wt% nitrogen.
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    Microstructure and Phase Transformation of a Niobium-rich TiAl-based Alloy Containing Boron and Carbon
    Ziyong Chen, Xianglin Su, Zhilei Xiang, Zuoren Nie
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 453-460. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Microstructure and phase transformation of Ti46Al8Nb0.5B0.2C alloy have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that as-cast and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) alloy mainly composed of γ and α2 phase have fully lamellar microstructure with point-like or ribbon-like TiB2 distributing in lamellar colony or at grain boundary. The mean size of lamellar colony is about 150 and 450 μm for as-cast and HIP alloy, respectively. The lamellar spacing is about 550 and 600 nm for as-cast and HIP alloy, respectively. It has been found that cooling rates and quenching temperatures have significant effect on phase transformation of Ti46Al8Nb0.5B0.2C alloy. When the alloy is treated at 1380 °C for 1 h and cooled from α domain, water cooling leads to complete α→α2 transformation, oil cooling leads to predominant α →α2 and part α→γm transformation, air cooling leads to α →α + γp2 →L(α + γ) →L(α2 + γ) transformation, and furnace cooling leads to α→α + γp3→L(α +γ) →L(α2 + γ) transformation. However, when the alloy is treated at 1400 °C for 1 h and cooled from α domain, water cooling leads to predominant α →α2 and part α →α +γp4 →γm transformation, oil cooling leads to α→α +γp5 →γm transformation, air cooling leads to α→ α +γp6→L(α + γ) →L(α2 + γ) transformation, and furnace cooling leads to α→α + γp7 →L(α +γ) →L(α2 +γ) transformation. Microstructural evolution of the alloy during various heat treatments has been examined and the phase transformation mechanisms have been elucidated. Based on the experimental observation, schematic CCT diagrams for the alloy have been given.
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    Iron and Steel
    Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Martensite in Medium Carbon Steel
    Y. Prawoto, N. Jasmawati, K. Sumeru
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 461-466. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In industrial application, unintentional manufacturing line troubles often consequence in heating raw materials excessively, in terms of either time or temperature. One of the effects of such occurrence is a product with a variation of prior austenite grain size, even if after the heat treatment the end result is the same, martensite. The variation of the prior austenite grain size is believed to vary the end results of the martensite. This undesirable variation includes the variation of fatigue resistance, impact strength, yield strength, hardness, etc. This research studies the effect of the prior austenite grain size on the morphology of the martensite microstructure. The results show that within the typical industrial application of temperature and holding time set up, as holding time or the temperature increases, the prior austenite average diameter increases. The block and packet sizes in the martensite also increase. The variation of mechanical property dependence on the grain size is indeed due to the different characteristics reflected in the martensite morphology. With
    respect to the same area, smaller grain has more blocks and packets, which agrees with higher dislocation density verified with transmission electron microscopic evaluation.
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    Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of 13%Cr Martensitic tainless Steel under Hot Working Condition
    G.R. Ebrahimi, H. Keshmiri, A.R. Maldar, A. Momeni
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 467-473. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, the effect of hot deformation on martensitic stainless steel was carried out in temperatures between 950 to 1100 °C and strain rates of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 s-1. Two important dynamic recrystallization parameters, the critical strain and the point of maximum dynamic softening, were derived from strain hardening rate vs stress curves. Then the calculated parameters were used to predict the dynamic recrystallized fraction. Our results show that critical stress and strain increase with decreasing deformation temperature and increasing strain rate. The hot deformation activation energy of the steel is also investigated in the present work with 413 kJ/mol. Our experimental °ow curves are in fair agreement with the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization model.
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    Potentiostatic Electrochemical Noise Analysis of 2101 Lean Duplex Stainless Steel in 1 mol/L NaCl
    Juliang Xu, Tao Sun, Lihua Zhang, Jin Li, Yiming Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (5): 474-480. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The critical pitting temperature (CPT) of 2101 lean duplex stainless steel (DSS) in 1 mol/L NaCl was investigated. Potentiostatic electrochemical noise (EN) technique coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the corrosion process of 2101 DSS at different temperatures (15, 25, 28, and 35 °C) from below CPT to above CPT. The EN data were analyzed by wavelet technique based on orthogonal db4 wavelet. The results showed that, the patterns of current noises were different at different temperatures. The characteristics of energy distribution plot (EDP) obtained from wavelet analysis technique can be used as "fingerprints" of EN signal and can be used to interpret the corrosion process. With increasing solution temperature, the
    maximum relative energy defined in EDP changed from the region of crystal series coefficients with smaller scales through middle scales to larger scales, which indicated the process of initiation, propagation and growth into stable pitting of metastable pitting. The results were well confirmed by the  corresponding morphologies.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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