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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 July 2012, Volume 28 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Effect of Substrate Pretreatment on Controllable Growth of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays
    Minjiang Gao, Yuxiang Li, Min Guo, Mei Zhang, Xidong Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 577-586. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Well-aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (TNAs) were prepared on the pretreated quartz substrates. The effect of the pretreatment conditions on the growth of TNAs was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It is demonstrated that the pre-coating TiO2 crystal seeds on the substrates can greatly improve the growth orientation of TNAs. Rutile TiO2 crystal seeds induce the nucleation and growth of TNAs more preferably than the anatase TiO2 seeds. The growth density and diameter distribution of TNAs strongly depend on the TiO2 crystal seeds density. It is proved that TNAs with different morphologies can be controllably synthesized by using hydrothermal approach by pretreating substrates. The photocatalytic activity of TNAs was investigated by measuring the photodegradation rate of methyl blue aqueous solution under UV irradiation (254 nm). And the results show that TNAs with large growth density and small diameter size exhibit relatively higher photocatalytic activity.
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    Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metals Doped ZnO Nanorods
    G. Murugadoss
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 587-593. 
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    Different morphologies of undoped and transition metals (Mn, Co and Ni) doped one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by chemical method in an air atmosphere using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a surfactant. The structure and optical properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The doped ZnO nanorods exhibited a blue-shifted band gap and enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission. In addition defect related emission was observed for the doped ZnO.
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    Effect of MWCNT Inclusion in TiO2 Nanowire Array Film on the Photoelectrochemical Performance
    Menglei Chang, Liangpeng Wu, Xinjun Li, Wei Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 594-598. 
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    Rutile TiO2 nanowire array films with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) inclusion perpendicularly grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The absorption edges of the TiO2 nanowire array films are blue-shifted with increasing MWCNT content. The resistance of the TiO2 nanowire array film is decreased by MWCNT inclusion. The optimum TiO2/MWCNT molar ratio in the feedstock is 1:0.1. For the TiO2 nanowire array film with MWCNT inclusion served as electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), an overall 194% increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency has been achieved.
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    Microstructural Evolution and Oxidation Resistance of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Silicon Powder at High Temperatures
    Ming Luo, Yawei Li, Shengli Jin, Shaobai Sang, Lei Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 599-605. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructural evolution and oxidation resistance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by directly heating silicon powder and MWCNTs in a coke bed from 1000 to 1500 °C are investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The results showed that the morphology and microstructure of MWCNTs did not change much after being treated from 1000 °C to 1200 °C. An obvious SiC coating was formed on the surface of MWCNTs from 1300 to 1400 °C. Up to 1500 °C, nearly all the MWCNTs transformed into SiC nanowires. The oxidation resistance of the treated MWCNTs was improved compared with as-received ones. Non-isothermal kinetics showed that the oxidation activation energy of the treated MWCNTs reached 208 kJ/mol, much higher than 164 kJ/mol of as-received ones.
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    High Temperature Structural Materials
    Optimization of N18 Zirconium Alloy for Fuel Cladding of Water Reactors
    B.X. Zhou, M.Y. Yao, Z.K. Li, X.M. Wang, J. Zhou, C.S. Long, Q. Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 606-613. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In order to optimize the microstructure and composition of N18 zirconium alloy (Zr–1Sn–0.35Nb–0.35Fe–0.1Cr, in mass fraction, %), which was developed in China in 1990s, the effect of microstructure and composition variation on the corrosion resistance of the N18 alloy has been investigated. The autoclave corrosion tests were carried out in super heated steam at 400 °C/10.3 MPa, in deionized water or lithiated water with 0.01 mol/L LiOH at 360 °C/18.6 MPa. The exposure time lasted for 300–550 days according to the test temperature. The results show that the microstructure with a fine and uniform distribution of second phase particles (SPPs), and the decrease of Sn content from 1% (in mass fraction, the same as follows) to 0.8% are of benefit to improving the corrosion resistance; It is detrimental to the corrosion resistance if no Cr addition. The addition of Nb content with upper limit (0.35%) is beneficial to improving the corrosion resistance. The addition of Cu less than 0.1% shows no remarkable influence upon the corrosion resistance for N18 alloy. Comparing the corrosion resistance of the optimized N18 with other commercial zirconium alloys, such as Zircaloy-4, ZIRLO, E635 and E110, the former shows superior corrosion resistance in all autoclave testing conditions mentioned above. Although the data of the corrosion resistance as fuel cladding for high burn-up has not been obtained yet, it is believed that the optimized N18 alloy is promising for the candidate of fuel cladding materials as high burn-up fuel assemblies. Based on the theory that the microstructural evolution of oxide layer during corrosion process will affect the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys, the improvement of corrosion resistance of the N18 alloy by obtaining the microstructure with nano-size and uniform distribution of SPPs, and by decreasing the content of Sn and maintaining the content of Cr is discussed.
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    Microstructure Dependent Fatigue Cracking Resistance  Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si Alloy
    Z.M. Song, L.M. Lei, B. Zhang, X. Huang, G.P. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 614-621. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Fatigue cracking behavior from a notch was investigated at room temperature for Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si (TC11) alloys with four different microstructures obtained at different cooling rates from the β transus temperature. It was found that the alloy with lamellar structures consisting of α/β lamellae or acicular α' martensite laths had a higher fatigue crack initiation threshold from the notch, while the bimodal structure with coarse α grain had a lower fatigue cracking resistance. The alloy with α/β lamellar structure showed a higher fatigue crack growth resistance. The length scales of the microstructures were characterized to correlate with fatigue cracking behavior. Fatigue cracking mechanism related to microstructures was discussed.
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    Liquid-phase Separation in Rapid Solidification of Undercooled Fe-Co-Cu Melts
    Ning Liu, Feng Liu, Zheng Chen, Gencang Yang, Changlin Yang, Yaohe Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 622-265. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The homogeneous liquid was separated into two phases, (Fe, Co)-rich L1 and Cu-rich L2, once the melt was undercooled below a liquid-phase separation temperature Tsep. If the duration from Tsep to Ts1 (solidification temperature of L1 phase), termed the liquid-phase separation interval Δt, exceeded a critical value, an egg-type structure was observed. By utilizing differential thermal analyses (DTA), the solidification process of the undercooled Fe-Co-Cu alloys was studied. Additionally, an immiscible boundary was obtained, which was a convex parabola with a symmetrical axis of xCu=0.52. Depending on the relative amounts of L1 and L2, the minor phase was nucleated firstly to form liquid droplets and separated from the original liquids at the beginning of liquid-phase separation.
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    Thin Film and Coatings
    An Inverse Approach for Extracting Elastic–plastic Properties of Thin Films from Small Scale Sharp Indentation
    Z.S. Ma, Y.C. Zhou, S.G. Long, C.S. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 626-635. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    An inverse method for extracting the elastic–plastic properties of metallic thin films from instrumented sharp indentation has been proposed in terms of dimensional analysis and finite element modeling. A wide range of materials with different elastic modulus, yield strength, and strain-hardening exponent were examined. Similar to the Nix–Gao model for the depth dependence of hardness H, (H/H0)2=1+(h*H/h), the relationship between elastic modulus E and indentation depth h can be expressed as (E/E0)4=1+(h*E/h) . By combining these two formulas, we find that there is a relationship between yield stress σy and indentation depth h: σyy0?(1+(h*E/h))r(n)?(1+(h*E/h))[0.25-0.54f(n)], where σy0 is the yield strength associated with the strain-hardening exponent n, the true hardness H0 and the true elastic modulus E0. f(n)= (2(1-n))-1 is constant, which is only related to n, and h*H and h*E are characteristic lengths for hardness and elastic modulus. The results obtained from inverse analysis show that the elastic–plastic properties of thin films can be uniquely extracted from the solution of this relationship when the indentation size effect has to be taken into account.
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    Fabrication and Characterization of Ca-Mg-P Containing Coating on Pure Magnesium
    Yanjin Lu, Lili Tan, Hongliang Xiang, Bingchun Zhang), Ke Yang, Yangde Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 636-641. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A biodegradable Ca-P coating mainly consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was fabricated on pure magnesium via the chemical deposition in a simulated Hank0s solution. The method significantly accelerated the coating formation on magnesium. Moreover, the morphology, phase/chemical composition, the coating formation mechanism as well as degradation behavior in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the coating had three layers and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the coating mainly contained Ca3(PO4)2 and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2. Electrochemical test showed that the corrosion current density (Icorr) of the coated Mg was decreased by about
    one order of magnitude as compared to that of pure magnesium. The immersion test indicated that the coating could obviously reduce the degradation rate.
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    Iron and Steel
    Nucleation and Growth Kinetics of MgO in Molten Steel
    Hong Lei, Jicheng He
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 642-646. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The size, number, morphology and type of inclusion particles are the key factors to estimate the quality of steel product. Although considerable efforts have been made in the mathematical modeling of inclusion growth, few papers were involved in inclusion0s nucleation and collision-growth, and all the existing researches about the behaviors of magnesia inclusion were based on the experiments. Thus, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the nucleation, Ostwald ripening and collision-growth of magnesia inclusion in the molten steel. Numerical results showed that the predicted particle size distributions are consistent with the previous experimental data. For the magnesia inclusions smaller than 100 nm, Brownian collision is the main
    collision modes. For the inclusions ranging from 0.1 to 10 μm, Brownian collision and turbulent collision are the main collision modes. For the inclusions ranging from 10 to 100 μm, turbulent collision and Stokes collision are the main collision modes. Thus, the strong turbulent flow can decrease the peak-value diameter of the magnesia inclusion effectively.
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    Cytocompatibility of High Nitrogen Nickel-Free Stainless Steel for Orthopedic Implants
    Tianchi Ma, Peng Wan, Yuyan Cui, Guirong Zhang, Jiqiang Li, Jihui Liu, Yibin, Ke Yang, Li Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 647-653. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Cytocompatibility of high nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel (HNS) with different nitrogen content was evaluated and compared with a conventional austenitic stainless steel 317L. The MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on MG63 osteoblasts to assess the cytotoxicity. The expression of selected marker typical of differentiated osteoblasts, such as alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP), was also monitored in MG63 cells cultured on the tested materials. As a result, HNS had higher cell growth than 317L; meanwhile the cytocompatibility was increased with increasing nitrogen content. Furthermore, HNS enhanced osteoblasts differentiation, as confirmed by AKP activity. Overall these facts indicated that HNS had higher cytocompatibility than 317L and the nitrogen content contributed to the higher cytocompatibility of HNS. The influence of nitrogen on surface energy further explained the cytocompatibility of HNS.
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    Regular Papers
    Structural, Sintering and Electrical Properties of Cr-doped La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ (x=0.10, 0.20) Oxides
    Hui Lu, Linlin Zhu, Jong Pyo Kim, Sou Hwan Son, Jung Hoon Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 654-660. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The perovskite Cr-doped La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ (x=0.10, 0.20) oxides were synthesized via the citrate gel method. The perovskite forming of the La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ (x=0.10, 0.20) oxides were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Structural and chemical stability under H2-containing helium atmospheres of La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ (x=0.10, 0.20) were investigated by TG and XRD. The sintering microstructures of the perovskite La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ (x=0.10, 0.20) ceramics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrical conductivities of both oxide ceramics were also measured up to 900 ±C. The results demonstrated that the chemical stability of the Co-free La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ (x=0.10, 0.20) oxides was significantly improved compared to the Co-containing La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ and Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ oxides. The incorporation of Cr cations in the B-site of the pervoskite oxides resulted in the improved structural and chemical stability of the as-synthesized La0.6Sr0.4CrxFe1-xO3-δ(x=0.10, 0.20) oxides.
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    Effect of Diamond Additions on Wettability and Distribution of SnAgCu Composite Solder
    Wei Zhang, Ying Zhong, Chunqing Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 661-665. 
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    Diamond/SnAgCu composite solder bumps were prepared on Cu pad by mechanically incorporating diamond particles into Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (SAC) solder powders, mixing with flux and reflowing at 260℃ for 60 seconds. Spreading areas of composite solder were calculated and distributions of copper-coated diamonds were characterized. When diamond additions are below 3wt%, the spreading area decreases with diamond additions, and diamonds distributes mainly at the interface between solder and Cu pad; however, when additions are beyond 3wt%, discharge of diamond particle occurs, and the spreading area increases due to the reduction of surface energy.
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    Template-free Fabrication and Luminescent Characterization of Highly Uniform and Monodisperse Y2O2S:Sm3+ Hollow Submicrospheres
    S.Q. Deng, Z.P. Xue, Y.H. Yang, Q. Yang, Y.L. Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (7): 666-672. 
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    Well dispersed and homogeneous Y2O2S:Sm3+ hollow submicrospheres were successfully achieved by a template-free solvothermal method combining with a postcalcining process. The crystalstructure and particle morphology were investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), respectively. A possible growth mechanism was proposed to reveal the formation process. Luminescence properties of the Y2O2S:Sm3+ long-lasting phosphor were analyzed by measuring the excitation spectra, emission spectra, afterglow decay curve and thermoluminescence curve. The excitation spectra indicated that the phosphor could be excited effectively by the ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) or blue LED, and the emission spectra showed that the phosphor could emit red light from 600 to 650 nm.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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