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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      31 August 2012, Volume 28 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Invited Review
    State of the Art on Micromilling of Materials, a Review
    M.A. Camara, J.C. Campos Rubio, A.M. Abrao, J.P. Davim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 673-685. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The trend towards miniaturization has increased dramatically over the last decade, especially within the fields concerned with bioengineering, microelectronics, and aerospace. Micromilling is among the principal manufacturing processes which have allowed the development of components possessing micrometric dimensions, being used to the manufacture of both forming tools and the final product. The aim of this work is to present the principal aspects related to this technology, with emphasis on the work material requirements, tool materials and geometry, cutting forces and temperature, quality of the finished product, process modelling and monitoring and machine tool requirements. It can be noticed that size effect possesses a relevant role with regard to the selection of both work material (grain size) and tooling (edge radius). Low forces and temperature are recorded during micromilling, however, the specific cutting force may reach high values because of the ploughing effect observed as the uncut chip thickness is reduced. Finally, burr formation is the principal concern with regard to the quality of the finished part.

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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of Injection Molded olypropylene/TiO2 Nano-Composites: Effects of Surface Modification
    Mirigul Altan, Huseyin Yildirim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 686-692. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Polypropylene (PP)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-composites were prepared by melt compounding with a twin screw extruder. Nanoparticles were modified prior to melt mixing with maleic anhydride grafted styreneethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane. The composites were injection molded and mechanical tests were applied to obtain tensile strength, elastic modulus and impact strength. Antibacterial efficiency test was applied on the injection molded composite plaques by viable cell counting technique. The results showed that the composites including SEBS-g-MA and silane coated TiO2 gave better mechanical properties than the composites without SEBS-g-MA. Antibacterial efficiency of the composites varied according to the dispersion
    and the concentration of the particles and it was observed that composites at low content of TiO2 showed higher antibacterial property due to the better photocatalytic activity of the particles during UV exposure.

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    Fabrication and Dealloying Behavior of Monolithic Nanoporous Copper Ribbons with Bimodal Channel Size Distributions
    Wenbo Liu, Shichao Zhang, Ning Li, Jiwei Zheng, Yalan Xing
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 693-699. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) ribbons with bimodal channel size distributions can be fabricated through chemical dealloying of Mg-32 Cu alloy in an acidic solution at room temperature. The microstructure of the as-dealloyed samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These NPC ribbons are composed of interconnected large-sized channels (hundreds of nm) with highly porous channel walls (tens of nm). Both large- and small-sized channels are open, bicontinuous, and interpenetrating. Additionally, it is the first time to find that the evolution process of porous structure along the thickness direction of samples during the dealloying is from the interior to exterior, which is just
    contrary to the coarsening process along the thickness direction during the post-dealloying. Meanwhile, the corresponding mechanism is discussed in detail.

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    Thin Film and Coaatings
    Effect of Ni7+ Ion Irradiation on Structure and Ammonia Sensing Properties of Thermally Oxidized Zinc and Indium Films
    Amandeep Kaur Bal, Rajinder Singh, R.K. Bedi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 700-706. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    ZnO and In2O3 films were prepared by thermal oxidation of vacuum deposited zinc and indium films, respectively onto the glass substrate at 30 °C. The fabricated films have been irradiated with 100-MeV Ni7+ ions at different fluences ranging from 5×1011 to 5×1013 ions/cm2. The structural and gas sensing properties of pristine and irradiated films have been discussed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of pristine and irradiated films reveal that the films are polycrystalline in nature and crystallinity increases after irradiation. In this study,  highly porous In2O3 nanorods evolved when being irradiated at a fluence of 5×1013 ions/cm2 while ZnO film shows decrease in number of nanowires. The ammonia sensing performance of the Ni7+ irradiated In2O3 films
    shows an improvement as compared to its pristine counterpart.

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    Effect of Negatively Charged Ions on the Formation of Microarc Oxidation Coating on 2024 Aluminium Alloy
    Wei Yang, Bailing Jiang, Aiying Wang, Huiying Shi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 707-712. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The present study deals with the effect of negatively charged ions on the ceramic coating formation on 2024 aluminium alloy during microarc oxidation (MAO) process. On the basis of the experimental results, two steps (the formation of an incipient film without arc presence and the growth of a ceramic coating with arc discharge) of MAO process have been observed. For comparison, four different negatively charged ions studied. It is proved that negatively charged ions strongly participated in the formation of an incipient film with high impedance value at the first step. The growth of ceramic coating depends on the combination between Al of the substrate and O from the electrolyte, and the negatively charged ions are little consumed. As an anodic oxide coating is prepared on the sample surface instead of the incipient film, the first step occurs easily and the growth of ceramic coating is accelerated. Furthermore, the mechanism of negatively charged ions in the formation of the MAO coating has been proposed.

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    Materials for Sustainable Energy
    Solution Combustion Synthesis of TiO2 and Its Use for Fabrication of Photoelectrode for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
    Shyan-Lung Chung, Ching-Mei Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 713-722. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Three different types of TiO2 nano powders were synthesized by a solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method using three different fuels and for comparison, another type of TiO2 nano powder was synthesized by calcination of titanyl hydroxide. These TiO2 nano powders were used to fabricate photoelectrodes for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and their performance was compared to that of the DSSC fabricated with Degussa P25 TiO2. The results showed that the SCS TiO2 could work well as photoelectrode for DSSC. The SCS TiO2 contained impurities of C and/or S, thus exhibiting visible light absorption and reduced band gap. The open circuit voltage and the fill factor both varied little among the various TiO2 and thus both had little effect on the photoelectrical conversion efficiency (μ). However, the variation of μ was seen to be in quite a good agreement with that of the short circuit current (Isc), suggesting that μ was dominated by IscIscwas found to be enhanced by light scattering effect due to the presence of large particles but reduced by high impurity content due to an increase in electron transfer resistance. In addition, the specific surface area of the powders was found to be an important factor affecting the Isc and thus the μ.

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    Preparation, Thermal Stability and Electrochemical Properties of LiODFB
    Hongming Zhou, Furong Liu, Jian Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 723-727. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) was synthesized in dimethyl carbonate solvent and purified by the method of solvent-out crystallization. The structure characterization and thermal stability of LiODFB were performed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). LiODFB was exposed to 50% humid air at 25 °C for different time, then dried at 80 °C for 12 h, and the electrochemical properties of the cells using 1 mol/L dried LiODFB in ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate + ethyl(methyl)carbonate were investigated. The results showed that, pure crystallization LiODFB was obtained; it had good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 248 °C; when it was exposed to humid air, it was firstly converted into LiODFB?H2O; with increasing exposure time, more and stronger impurity peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of LiODFB were observed, and both the discharge specific capacity and the capacity retention decreased gradually.

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    Iron and Steel
    A Criterion for the Change from Fast to Slow Regime of Cementite Dissolution in Fe−C−Mn Steels
    M. Gouné, P. Maugis, J. Drillet
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 728-736. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The present study clarifies the role of Mn in cementite on the driving force of cementite dissolution and the growth of austenite. From an experimental study, the effects of manganese composition and temperature on the cementite dissolution were shown. From a theoretical analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, a criterion for the change from fast to slow regime of cementite dissolution was proposed. This criterion is in good agreement with the experimental results. It can be easily calculated and can define the composition and temperature ranges where the cementite dissolution is slow or fast.

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    Correlation between Microstructures and Yield Strength of a High Strength Enameling Steel
    Ming Jiang, Xuefeng Yang, Shiyan Pan, Bruce W. Krakauer, Mingfang Zhu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 737-744. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Numerical estimates of the components of yield strength of a high strength Fe{C{Mn{P{N{Si enameling steel were determined using empirical relationships between microstructure and yield strength. Results are reported for both the hot rolled (HR) and cold rolled (CR) forms before and after simulating an enamel-fire anneal (EFA). To determine the solubilities of alloying elements, thermodynamic calculations were performed in combination with the considerations of process conditions and the element diffusivities. The results show that the main solid solution strengtheners were the elements Mn, Si, and P, while the elements C and N were nearly completely tied up as precipitates. The yield strength reduction, due to the EFA, resulted primarily from an increase in grain size and a decrease in dislocation density, and the EFA appeared to have a negligible efect on the element solubilities.

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    Mechanical and Functional Properties of Materials
    Complex Permittivity and Microwave Absorbing Property of Si3N4−SiC Composite Ceramic
    Guopeng Zheng, Xiaowei Yin, Jie Wang, Mengluo Guo, Xi Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 745-750. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Si3N4-SiC composite ceramics were fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration using porous Si3N4 ceramic as preform. The average grain size of SiC was 30 nm. Relationship between SiC content and relative complex permittivity of Si3N4-SiC within the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X-band) was investigated. The average real part of relative complex permittivity ε' of Si3N4-SiC increased from 3.7 to 14.9 and the relative imaginary part  ε'" increased from 0.017 to 13.4 when the content of SiC increased from 0 to 10 vol.%. The Si3N4-SiC ceramic with 3 vol.% SiC achieved a reflection loss below -10 dB (90% absorption) at 8.6-11.4 GHz, and the minimum value was -27.1 dB at 9.8 GHz when the sample thickness was 2.5 mm. The excellent microwave
    absorbing abilities of Si3N4-SiC ceramic were attributed to the interfacial polarization at interface between Si3N4 and SiC and at grain boundary between SiC nanocrystals.

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    Sintering Behavior and Microwave Dielectric Properties of MgTiO3 Ceramics Doped with B2O3 by Sol-Gel Method
    Huanping Wang, Qinghua Yang, Denghao Li, Lihui Huang, Shilong Zhao, Shiqing Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 751-755. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    The B2O3-doped MgTiO3 powders and ceramics have been prepared by sol-gel method using Mg(NO3)2?6H2O, Ti(C4H9O)4 and H3BO3 as the starting materials. The sintering behavior and microwave dielectric properties of ceramics prepared from powders with different particle sizes were investigated. The gels were calcined at 650, 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900°C and the derived particle sizes of powders were 20-30 nm, 30-40 nm, 40-60 nm, 60-90 nm, 90-120 nm and 120-150 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles with the size of 30{60 nm benefited the sintering process with high surface energy whereas nanoparticles with the size of 20-30 nm damaged the microwave dielectric properties due to the pores in the ceramics. The addition of B2O3 used as
    a liquid sintering aid reduced the sintering temperature of MgTiO3 ceramic, which was supposed to enter the MgTiO3 lattice and resulted in the formation of (MgTi)2(BO3)O phase. The B2O3-doped MgTiO3 ceramic sintered at 1100°C and prepared from the nanoparticles of 40-60 nm had compact structure and exhibited good microwave dielectric properties: εr=17.63, Q × f=33,768 GHz and τf=-48×10-6 °C-1.

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    Regular Papers
    Microstructure Evolution of Zr50Cu18Ni17Al10Ti5 Bulk Metallic Glass during Cold-rolling
    Honghong Yan, Yong Hu, Zhijie Yan, Xiaohua Zheng, Yongtang Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 756-760. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Zr50Cu18Ni17Al10Ti5 bulk metallic glass has been rolled at room temperature up to 95% in thickness reduction, and the dependence of microstructure on the strain was investigated. With increasing thickness reduction, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and crystallization enthalpy decrease gradually till 80%, and then increase evidently at 95%. It is revealed that the reversible transition between the ordered and disordered atomic configurations was found in the metallic glass as the deformation proceeds, which is further verified by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The final microstructure in metallic glass during cold-rolling is the net result of two competing processes between shear-induced disordering and diffusion
    controlled reordering.

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    Analysis of Surface Integrity in Drilling Metal Matrix and Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites
    T. Rajmohan, K. Palanikumar, J. Paulo Davim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28 (8): 761-768. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF

    Hybrid metal matrix composites consist of at least three constituents|a metal or an alloy matrix and two reinforcements in various forms, bonded together at the atomic level in the composite. Despite their higher specific properties of strength and stiffness, the non homogeneous and anisotropic nature combined with the abrasive reinforcements render their machining difficult. In this paper, the surface integrity of machining in drilling hybrid composites has been discussed. Drilling tests are carried out at different spindle speed, feed rates, and different drill tool materials to investigate the effect of the various cutting parameters on the surface quality and the extent of the deformation of drilled surface due to drilling. Materials used for the present investigation are Al356/10SiC (wt%) metal matrix and Al356/10SiC-3mica (wt%) hybrid composites. The composites are fabricated using stir casting route. The drilling tests are conducted on vertical computer numeric control (CNC) machining center using carbide, coated carbide and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) drills. The surface roughness decreases with increasing spindle speed and increases with increasing feed rate. The machined surface is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images of the machined surfaces indicate the presence of grooves and pits. Microhardness depth profiles indicate that the subsurface damage is limited to the top of 100-250 μm.

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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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