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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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  Current Issue
      30 August 2011, Volume 27 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Quantifying the Microstructures of Pure Cu Subjected to Dynamic Plastic Deformation at Cryogenic Temperature
    F. Yan, H.W. Zhang, N.R. Tao, K. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 673-679. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A pure Cu (99.995 wt%) has been subjected to dynamic plastic deformation at cryogenic temperature to a strain of 2.1. Three types of microstructures that are related to dislocation slip, twinning and shear banding have been quantitatively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assisted by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) analysis. Microstructures originated from dislocation slip inside or outside the shear bands are characterized by low angle boundaries (<15°) that are spaced in the nanometer scale, whereas most deformation twins are deviated from the perfect Σ3 coincidence (60°/<111>) up to the maximum angle of 9°. The quantitative structural characteristics are compared with those in conventionally deformed Cu at low strain rates, and allowed a quantitative analysis of the flow stress-structural parameter relationship.
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    Porous Indium Oxide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties
    Xifeng Lu, Longwei Yin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 680-684. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Porous indium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by calcination of indium hydroxide, which were prepared through a simple sol-gel and aging process at low temperature in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were adopted to characterize the phase composition and morphology of the resulted samples. The sensing properties towards H2 were examined at 340°C, which showed better sensitivity and quick response/recovery merits.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Nano-silver Loaded Montmorillonite with Strong Antibacterial Activity and Slow Release Property
    Guangnian Xu, Xueliang Qiao, Xiaolin Qiu, Jianguo Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 685-690. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Nano-silver loaded montmorillonite (Ag-MMT) was prepared by ion-exchange and then a UV-photoreduction two-step approach was applied. The silver content in Ag-MMT determined by Volhard method was about 6.4 wt%. The morphology and structure of as-synthesized Ag-MMT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the Ag nanoparticles were spherical and their diameters were about 15−20 nm. Moreover, the structure of MMT did not change. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of Ag-MMT was 100×10-6 and the sterilizing efficiency (SE) of Ag-MMT was approximately 100% against Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 (E. coli). In addition, the slow release property of silver in Ag-MMT was also demonstrated.
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    Nanomaterials Synthesis and Effect of Granular Disorders on Electrical Behavior of Lanthanum Manganites
    Avneesh Anshul, S.S. Amritphale, Sarabjeet Kaur, Renu Hada
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 691-695. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Comprehensive investigation on the synthesis and electrical transport behaviors of polycrystalline samples of lanthanum manganite due to static disorder was reported. The process parameters were optimized for different batches to yield variable grain sizes. Different sintering conditions and technique like thermal cycling were employed to obtain better grain packing density. The liquid nitrogen and air quenching of the samples were carried out to restrict the grain growth with well defused grain boundary. Variable grain habits and sizes were synthesized by standard solid-state reaction and modified sol-gel synthesis routes. Large variation of grain size, connectivity and packing was observed by varying sintering temperature and synthesis technique. The process dependent grain sizes were observed in the wide range from 20 nm to 1.5μm by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The variations in residual resistivity as well as metal-insulator transitions are observed. The observed data were analyzed on the basis of contributions from various dynamic interactions and static disorders.
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    Synthesis of Anatase Titania Nanostructures at Room Temperature by PECVD Technique
    K.M.K. Srivatsa, Deepak Chhikara, M. Senthil Kumar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 696-700. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Anatase titania nanostructures have been synthesized at room temperature by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process on silicon (100) substrates using titanium tetraisopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4, TTIP] vapor, argon and oxygen mixtures under various deposition pressures. The deposited titania has been characterized for its structural, morphological and chemical composition by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy recordings. With the variation of deposition pressure, titania assumes various nanostructures viz. nanocrystals, nanoparticles, noanorods and comb-like structure. EDX and FTIR measurements show that the deposited titania is of high chemical purity. The possible growth mechanisms for the observed titania nanostructures have been discussed.
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    Synthesis of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Array on Silicon and Sapphire Substrates by Thermal Evaporation Technique
    K.M.K. Srivatsa, Deepak Chhikara, M. Senthil Kumar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 701-706. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    High density ZnO nanorods were grown by thermal evaporation of Zn powder at 700°C on Si (100) and sapphire (0001) substrates at atmospheric pressure without adding any catalyst. The nanorods were characterizated in terms of their structural and optical properties. The nanorods grown on Si have a diameter of 350-400 nm and a length of 1.2 μm while those on sapphire have a diameter of 600-800 nm and a length of 2.5 μm. During the structural characterization, it is noticed that the rods grow along the (0002) plane with perfect hexagonal facet. The room temperature photoluminescence spectrum showed a strong UV emission peak at 385 nm with a weak green band emission, which confirms that nanorods have good optical properties. It is observed that the oxygen partial pressure plays an important role to control the shape and size of the nanorods in thermal evaporation growth technique.
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    Laser Cladding of Cold-Work Tool Steel by Pulse Shaping
    Matej Pleterski, Janez Tusek, Tadej Muhic, Ladislav Kosec
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 707-713. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Repair welding of cold-work tool steels in cold is very risky and almost impossible by conventional processes. The application of pulse shaping in laser cladding with wire to avoid the solidification problems in relevant steel is demonstrated. The results show that sound remelting and/or cladding can be achieved by the right selection of laser parameters and pulse shape, i.e. long pulse duration, moderate pulse peak powers and ramped-down
    pulse shape. Despite the defects and softening in the cladding due to the formation of retained austenite, the cladding shows better wear resistance at lower loads compared to the heat-treated base material.
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    Modeling and Simulations
    Thermo-activated Dislocation Emission at the Cu/Nb Interface Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
    Dejun Yu, Yue Zhang, Kaiming Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 714-718. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Nanolayered Cu-Nb composites offer a series of enhanced properties for their use in extreme conditions, e.g. high field magnets and high irradiation resistance. However, the stability of the Cu/Nb heterogeneous interface needs confirmation under various conditions. In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the interfacial behavior under various temperatures with initial stress at the interface. It is found that the interface becomes unstable at simulation temperatures higher than 600 K, resulting in the emission of dislocations and loops within one or more slip systems. The emission process is found to be thermally-activated, i.e., the higher temperature, the shorter annealing time needed. The present study is
    believed to assist the experimental synthesis of the Cu-Nb multilayer nanocomposites for multiple applications.
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    First-principles Study of NiAl Alloyed with Rare Earth Element Ce
    You Wang, Junqi He, Mufu Yan, Chonggui Li, Liang Wang, Ye Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 719-724. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The structural, elastic, and electronic properties of NiAl alloyed with rare earth element (REE) Ce have been investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). It is found that Ce has a strong Al site preference and causes lattice distortion of NiAl. The calculation of elastic constants shows that Ce increased both the hardness and the ductility of NiAl, which could be explained by the formation of new ionic bonds between Al (and Ni) and Ce and the enhancement of covalent bonds in Ni8Al7Ce. Our results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical results.
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    Modeling of Nucleation and Growth of M23C6 Carbide in Multi-component Fe-based Alloy
    Naqiong Zhu, Yanlin He, Wenqing Liu), Lin Li, Shuigen Huang, Jef Vleugels, Omer Van der Biest
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 725-728. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) technique has been used to study the nucleation and growth of  M23C6 carbide in a supersaturated multi-component Fe-based alloy aged at 800°C. 3D images indicate that the radius of  M23C6  carbide after ageing for 10 min is about 9 nm. Concentration profiles of alloy elements in the carbide are also obtained. Combined with PANDAT and Thermo-Calc software, attempts to model the early stages of precipitation are present. The calculated particle size and composition of  M23C6  carbide is in good agreement with 3DAP data.
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    Computer Simulation of Fe-Al-Si System Diffusion Couples
    Zhongping He, Yanlin He, Yi Gao, Lin Li, Shuigen Huang, Omer Van der Biest
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 729-734. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Diffusion couples, Fe-6.8 wt% Al-1.0 wt% Si/Fe and Fe-6.3 wt% Al-0.9 wt% Si/Fe were constructed and separately annealed at 1050°C for 3 h and at 1000°C for 64 h. The concentration profiles of Fe, Al and Si atoms in these couples were measured by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), while the diffusion behavior was also simulated by coupling thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Fe-Al-Si system. The simulation results were in good agreement with the measured concentration profiles showing the validity of dynamic parameters of Fe-Al-Si system. Calculation was made for Fe-7 wt% Al-1 wt% Si/Fe diffusion couples at 1000°C with different diffusion time. Silicon uphill was found under the in°uence of aluminum.
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    Effects of Nb Alloying on Nano-Crystallization Kinetics of Fe55-xCr18Mo7B16C4Nbx(x=0, 3) Bulk Amorphous Alloys
    S. Ahmadi, H.R. Shahverdi, S.S. Saremi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 735-740. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Crystallization kinetics of Fe55-xCr18Mo7B16C4Nbx(x= 0, 3) bulk amorphous alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning  calorimetric (DSC) tests. In practice, crystallization and growth mechanism were evaluated using DSC tests at four different heating rates (10, 20, 30, and 40 K/min) and kinetic models. Two-step crystallization behavior was observed when Fe55Cr18Mo7B16C4 and Fe52Cr18Mo7B16C4Nb3 bulk amorphous alloys were annealed, where Fe36Cr12Mo10 phase was crystallized in the first step of crystallization. Results show that Fe36Cr12Mo10 and Fe3C phases were crystallized in the structures of the alloys after further annealing process. Activation energy for the crystallization of Fe36Cr12Mo10 phase was measured to be 543 kJ/mol in Fe52Cr18Mo7B16C4Nb3 alloy and 375 kJ/mol for Fe55Cr18Mo7B16C4 alloy according to Kissinger-Starink model. Moreover, a two-dimensional diffusion controlled growth mechanism with decreasing nucleation rate was found in Fe52Cr18Mo7B16C4Nb3 alloy whereas a three-dimensional diffusion controlled growth mechanism with decreasing nucleation rate was found in crystallization of Fe36Cr12Mo10 phase during annealing of  Fe55Cr18Mo7B16C4 alloy. TEM (transmission electron microscopy) observations reveal that crystalline Fe36Cr12Mo10 phase nucleated in the structures of the alloys in an average size of 10 nm with completely mottled morphology.
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    Effect of Bismuth on Intermetallic Compound Growth in Lead Free Solder/Cu Microelectronic Interconnect
    T.Y. Kang, Y.Y. Xiu, L. Hui, J.J. Wang, W.P. Tong, C.Z. Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 741-745. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The intermetallic compound (IMC) growth kinetics in pure Sn/Cu and Sn10 wt%Bi/Cu solder joints was studied, respectively, after they were aged at 160-210°C for different time. It was found that the total IMC in Sn10 wt%Bi/Cu joint developed faster than it did in pure Sn/Cu solder joint, when they were aged at the same temperature. And the activation energy Qa for total IMC in Sn10 wt%Bi/Cu joint was lower than that for pure Sn/Cu interconnect. The IMC growth process was discussed. The IMC Cu6Sn5 was enhanced in compensation of reduced IMC Cu3Sn growth. The work reveals that Bi element containing in lead free solder alloys with 10 wt% can enhance IMC growth in lead free solder/Cu joint during service.
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    Regular Papers
    Behaviors of Oxide Layer at Interface between Semi-solid Filler Metal and Aluminum Matrix Composites during Vibration
    Lei Shi, Jiuchun Yan, Yanfei Han, Bo Peng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 746-752. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The joint interface between semi-solid Zn-Al filler metal and SiCp/Al composites with applying vibration for different time was examined. With increasing vibrating time, the oxide layer was disrupted prior at the centre to the periphery of the interface. And the solid grains near the centre of interface in semi-solid filler metal aggregated into two solid regions and compressed the composites during vibration; the solid grains near the periphery of interface moved toward the edge and scraped the composites during vibration. The models of disrupting oxide layer under the vibration condition were developed. At the centre of interface, the oxide layer was tore and stripped during the solid grains in the semi-solid filler metal depressing the composites with a very high compressive stress. At the periphery of interface, the oxide layer was cut and stripped into the filler metal during the solid grains scraping the interface.
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    Effects of Sc Addition and Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the As-rolled Mg-3Li alloy
    Guiying Sha, Xiaoguang Sun, Teng Liu, Yuhong Zhu, Tao Yu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 753-758. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructures and mechanical properties of the as-rolled Mg-3Li and Mg-3Li-1Sc (wt%) alloys before and after annealing treatment have been investigated. Results show that the grains are refined evidently and the recrystallization temperature is improved for more than 100°C by adding 1 wt% Sc into the Mg-3Li alloy. After complete recrystallization, both the strength and ductility of the Mg-3Li alloy are improved evidently with the addition of minor Sc. The brittle fracture tendency of Mg-3Li-1Sc alloy also reduces obviously.
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    Effect of Cerium Doping on Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3 Ceramics
    Sabina Yasmin, Shamima Choudhur, M.A. Hakim, A.H. Bhuiyan, M.J. Rahman
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 759-763. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A solid state reaction method was used to synthesize barium titanate (BT) and barium cerium titanate (BCT) ceramics at sintering temperature of 1473 K for 4 h. The effect of cerium (Ce) on the structure, microstructure and dielectric properties of BCT was investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations revealed that the grain size increases with increasing Ce content. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed mostly the BT phase, where the lattice parameter decreased with the addition of Ce. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant showed decrease in the phase transition temperature with higher Ce content. The dielectric constant decreased slightly with increasing frequency. The direct current (dc) density-voltage
    characteristics of the ceramics showed ohmic behavior for both the BT and BCT. As the temperature increased, the dc resistivity of the ceramics decreased. The activation energy increased with increasing Ce content.
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    Enhancement of the Photoelectric Performance of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells by Sol-gel Modified TiO2 Films
    Yunfeng Zhao, Xiaojie Li, Qiuping Li, Changsheng Deng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (8): 764-768. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Modified TiO2 films have been prepared by combining commercial titania powders (Degussa P25) with sol-gel made by titanium chloride (Ti-sol). The result shows that clusters are formed by nanoparticles and large pores can be seen on the surface of the TiO2 films. The short circuit photocurrent density and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells are obviously enhanced compared with those without modification. The relationship between the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the amount of Ti-sol was investigated. With the addition of 30 wt% Ti-sol, the photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 9.75% is achieved, increasing by 28.3% compared with the solar cells without modification.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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