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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 July 2011, Volume 27 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Invited Paper
    Mathematical Analysis on the Uniqueness of Reverse Algorithm for Measuring Elastic-plastic Properties by Sharp Indentation
    Yongli Huang, Xiaofang Liu, Yichun Zhou, Zengsheng Ma, Chunsheng Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 577-584. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The reverse analysis provides a convenient method to determine four elastic-plastic parameters through an indentation curve such as Young's modulus E, hardness H, yield strength σy and strain hardening exponent n. In this paper, mathematical analysis on a reverse algorithm from Dao model (Dao et al., Acta Mater., 2001, 49, 3899) was carried out, which thought that only when 20≤E*0:033≤26and 0.3n by dimensionless function Π2. It is shown that, however, there are also two solutions of n when 20≤E*0:033≤26 and 0≤n<0.1. A unique n can be obtained by dimensionless function Π3 instead of Π2 in these two ranges. E and H can be uniquely determined by a full indentation curve, and σy can be determined if n is unique. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis on obtaining n from dimensionless function Π3 or Π22 has been made.
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Reactivity of Nanostructured MnO2 in Alkaline Medium Studied with a Microcavity Electrode: Effect of Oxidizing Agent
    L. Benhaddad, L. Makhloufi, B. Messaoudi, K. Rahmouni, H. Takenouti
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 585-593. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The synthesis of MnO2 powders by hydrothermal method with different oxidizing agents has been successfully achieved. The characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analyses, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques confirm the synthesis of nanostructured γ-MnO2 powders. The electrochemical reactivity of these powders in 1 mol/l KOH is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by using microcavity electrode. The results reveal that the MnO2 synthesized with Na2S2O8 shows the highest electrochemical reactivity in the test medium. This is due both to its large expanded surface area and its crystallographic variety γ-MnO2 formed in the
    matrix of ramsdellite, which is largely used as cathodic material for primary batteries. However, the presence of pyrolusite in the structure of γ-MnO2 synthesized with (NH4)2S2O8 decreases its electrochemical reactivity due to its narrow 1×1 size tunnel, which hinders the protons insertion.
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    Role of ZnO-CeO2 Nanostructures as a Photo-catalyst and Chemi-sensor
    M. Faisal, Sher Bahadar Khan, Mohammed M. Rahman, Aslam Jamal, Kalsoom Akhtar, M.M. Abdullah
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 594-600. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    ZnO-CeO2 nanostructures were synthesized by simple and efficient low temperature method. The structure and morphology of the ZnO-CeO2  nanostructures were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which revealed elongated shaped CeO2 nanoparticles with diameters of 40-90 nm distributed on the surface of elongated ZnO nanostructures with diameters of 50-200 nm (edge{centre). Further the structure of the synthesized ZnO-CeO2 nanostructure was supported by Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-vis absorption spectrum was used to confirm the optical properties of the CeO2 doped ZnO nanostructures. Photo-catalytic activity of CeO2
    doped ZnO nanostructure was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange and methylene blue which degraded 84.55% and 48.65% in 170 min, respectively. ZnO-CeO2 nanostructures also showed good sensitivity (0.8331 μA·cm-2(mol/l)-1) in short response time (10 s) by applying to chemical sensing using ethanol as a target compound by I-V technique. These degradation and chemical sensing properties of ZnO-CeO2 nanostructures are of great importance for the application of ZnO-CeO2 system as a photo-catalyst and chemical sensor.
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    Thermodynamic Aspects of Nanostructured CoAl Intermetallic Compound during Mechanical Alloying
    S.N. Hosseini, T. Mousavi, F. Karimzadehy and M.H. Enayati
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 601-606. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The nanostructured CoAl intermetallic compound was produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of the Co50Al50 elemental powder mixture in a planetary high energy ball mill. The ordered B2-CoAl structure with the grain size of about 6 nm was formed via a gradual reaction after 10 h of MA. A thermodynamic analysis of the process was also done. The results showed that the intermetallic compound of CoAl had the minimum Gibbs free energy compared to solid solution and amorphous states indicating the initial MA product was the most stable phase in the Co-Al system which was changed to a partially disordered structure with a steady long-range order of 0.82 at further milling. This amount of disordering caused the enthalpy of final product to show an increase of about 5.1 kJ·mol-1. Calculation of enthalpy related to the triple defect formation revealed that the enthalpy required for Al anti-sites formation was about 3 times greater than that for Co anti-sites formation.
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    Magnetic and Microwave-absorption Properties of Graphite-coated (Fe, Ni) Nanocapsules
    Zhigao Xie, Dianyu Geng, Xianguo Liu, Song Ma, Zhidong Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 607-614. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The structure, magnetic and microwave-absorption properties of graphite-coated (Fe, Ni) alloy nanocapsules, synthesized by the arc-discharge method, have been studied. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanocapsules have a core/shell structure with (Fe, Ni) alloy as the core and graphite as the shell. All (Fe, Ni) alloy nanocapsules/paraffin composites show good microwave-absorption properties. The optimal reflection loss (RL) was found for (Fe70Ni30)/C nanocapsules/paraffin composites, being -47:84 dB at 14.6 GHz for an absorber thickness of 1.99 mm, while the RL  values exceeding -10 dB were found in the 12.4-17.4 GHz range, which almost covers the Ku band (12.4-18 GHz). For (Fe70Ni30)/C nanocapsules/paraffin
    composites, RL values can exceed -10 dB in the 11.4-18 GHz range with an absorber thickness of 1.91 mm, which cover the whole Ku band.
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    Light Weight Metals
    Solidification Studies of 3003 Aluminium Alloys with Cu and Zr Additions
    Majed M.R. Jaradeh, Torbjorn Carlbergy
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 615-627. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effects of Cu and Zr additions, on the microstructure formation, precipitation and ingot cracking, in commercial 3003 Al alloys have been studied. The investigation was carried out by characterizing the grain structure in DC-cast rolling ingots, and studying the solidification microstructure of Bridgman directionally solidified samples. To better understand the influence of the different Cu and Zr contents on the phase precipitations, differential thermal analysis (DTA) experiments were performed. Results from the ingot microstructure analysis show that in commercial alloys with relatively high contents of Cu and Zr, no significant differences in measured grain sizes compared to conventional 3003 Al alloys could be found. However, only Zr containing alloys exhibited significantly larger grain sizes. Increased grain refiner and/or titanium additions could compensate for the negative effects on nucleation normally following Zr alloying. Different types of precipitates were observed. Based on DTA experiments, increased Cu and Zr contents resulted in the formation of Al2Cu phase, and increased solidification range. It was also found that increased Mn content favors an early precipitation of Al6(Mn,Fe) giving relatively coarse precipitates. It was concluded that the Cu alloying has a detrimental effect on hot tearing.
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    Effects of Impurity on Microstructure and Hardness in Pure Al Subjected to Dynamic Plastic Deformation at Cryogenic Temperature
    F. Huang, N.R. Tao, K. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 628-632. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Microstructure and hardness were investigated in pure Al samples with different purities (5N: 99.999%, 4N: 99.993%, and 2N: 99.7% in weight) subjected to dynamic plastic deformation at cryogenic temperatures. The saturated sizes of refined grains/subgrains in these samples induced by plastic deformation are about 240 nm without an obvious impurity effect, but the dislocation density in 2N Al is evidently higher than that in other samples. Boundary misorientations for 5N and 4N Al are below 10° with average values of 2-3°, while the average misorientation for 2N Al is obviously larger, being about 14°. Microhardness of LNT-DPD 2N Al is higher than that of 5N and 4N Al, owing to the enhanced dislocation density as their grain/subgrain sizes are almost identical.
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    Hot Cracking in AZ31 and AZ61 Magnesium Alloy
    C.J. Huang, C.M. Cheng, C.P. Chou, F.H. Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 633-640. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    This paper examined the impact of the number of thermal cycles and augmented strain on hot cracking in AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy. Statistical analyses were performed. Following observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used for component analysis. Results showed that Al content in magnesium alloy has an effect on hot cracking susceptibility. In addition, the nonequilibrium solidification process produced segregation in Al content, causing higher liquid Mg-alloy rich Al content at grain boundaries, and resulting into liquefied grain boundaries of partially melted zone (PMZ). In summary, under multiple thermal cycles AZ61 produced serious liquation cracking. AZ61 has higher (6 wt%) Al content and produced much liquefied Mg17Al12 at grain boundaries under multiple thermal cycles. The liquefied Mg17Al12 were pulled apart and hot cracks formed at weld metal HAZ due to the augmented strain. Since AZ31 had half the Al content of AZ61, its hot-cracking susceptibility was lower than AZ61. In addition, AZ61 showed longer total crack length (TCL) in one thermal cycle compared to that in three thermal cycles. This phenomenon was possibly due to high-temperature gasification of Al during the welding process, which resulted in lower overall Al content. Consequently, shorter hot cracks exhibited in three thermal cycles. It was found the Al content of AZ31 and AZ61 can be used to assess the hot-cracking susceptibility.
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Influence of Processing Parameters on the Strength of Air Brazed Alumina Joints Using Aluminium Interlayer
    A. Ibrahim, F. Hasan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 641-646. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Alumina specimens were joined together with thin aluminium interlayer at 750 and 900°C under different applied pressures and holding time in air. Flexural strength of the joints was then measured using a standard four-point bend test method. Characterization of the interface was carried out to correlate the increase in flexural strength with the applied pressure, holding temperature and time. The study showed that the strength of joint is affected by all three parameters, i.e., processing temperature, holding time as well as applied pressure.
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    Friction Stir Welding of Al Alloy Thin Plate by Rotational Tool without Pin
    Liguo Zhang, Shude Ji, Guohong Luan, Chunlin Dong, Li Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 647-652. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    For friction stir welding (FSW), a new idea is put forward in this paper to weld the thin plate of Al alloy by using the rotational tool without pin. The experiments of FSW are carried out by using the tools with inner-concave-flute shoulder, concentric-circles-flute shoulder and three-spiral-flute shoulder, respectively.
    The experimental results show that the grain size in weld nugget zone attained by the tool with three-spiral-flute shoulder is nearly the same while the grain sizes decrease with the decrease of welding velocity. The displacement of material flow in the heat-mechanical affected zone by the tool with three-spiral-flute shoulder is much larger than that by the tool with inner-concave-flute shoulder or concentric-circles-flute shoulder. The above-mentioned results are verified by numerical simulation. For the tool with three-spiral-flute shoulder, the tensile strength of FSW joint increases with the decrease of welding velocity while the value of tensile strength attained by the welding velocity of 20 mm/min and the rotation speed of 1800 r/min is about 398 MPa, which is 80% more than that of parent mental tensile strength. Those verify that the tool with three-spiral-flute shoulder can be used to join the thin plate of Al alloy.
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    Joining of Zirconia and Ti-6Al-4V Using a Ti-based Amorphous Filler
    Yuhua Liu, Jiandong Hu, Yaping Zhang, Zuoxing Guo, Yue Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 653-658. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Polycrystalline ZrO2-3 mol.%Y2O3 was brazed to Ti-6Al-4V by using a Ti47Zr28Cu14Ni11(at.%) amorphous ribbon at 1123-1273 K in a high vacuum. The influences of brazing temperature on the microstructure and shear strength of the joints were investigated. The interfacial microstructures can be described as ZrO2/TiO+TiO2+Cu2Ti4O+Ni2Ti4O/α-Ti+(Ti,Zr)2(Cu,Ni) eutectic/acicular WidmanstÄaten structure/Ti-6Al-4V alloy. With the increase in the brazing temperature, the thickness of the TiO+TiO2+Cu2Ti4O+Ni2Ti4O layer reduced, the content of the α-Ti+(Ti,Zr)2(Cu,Ni) eutectic phase decreased, while that of the coarse α-Ti phase gradually increased. The shear strength of the joints did not show a close relationship with the thickness of the  TiO+TiO2+Cu2Ti4O+Ni2Ti4O layer. However, when the coarse (Ti,Zr)2(Cu,Ni) phase was non-uniformly distributed in the α-Ti phase, or when α-Ti solely situated at the center of the joint, forming a coarse block or even connecting into a continuous strip, the shear strength greatly decreased.
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    Regular Papers
    Fatigue Behavior of HDPE Composite Reinforced with Silane Modified TiO2
    C.X. Dong, S.J. Zhu, Mineo Mizuno, Masami Hashimoto
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 659-667. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The composite of high density polyethylene reinforced with silane-modified TiO2 particles (silane-TiO2/HDPE) is a potential bone substitute biomaterial. The structure, bioactivity, and mechanical properties of silane-TiO2/HDPE are analogous to those of natural bone, correspondingly. In order to investigate the effect of silane connection and saline solution on fatigue behaviors, flexural fatigue tests with this composite were carried out in both air and saline solution. Saline solution was found to have different effect on fatigue life. In saline solution, the fatigue life could be improved at stress levels lower than 30 MPa, while the fatigue life could be reduced at stress levels higher than 30 MPa. After analyzing the fracture morphologies, different failure mechanisms were proposed, and the important role of silane connection in the composite during the fatigue process was discussed. Silane connection cannot only support the loading stress but also hinder the failure process under loading effectively. For dry specimens, no interfacial failure between the filler and matrix was found. For wet specimens, it is inferred that the synergetic effect of saline solution and high concentrated stress at high stress level could easily destroy the silane connection, which accelerated the fracture process, whereas the synergetic effect of saline solution and silane connection at low stress level could promote the formation of more microcracks on sample surface, which hindered the final fracture.
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    Effect of Melt Superheating Treatment on Directional Solidification Interface Morphology of Multi-component Alloy
    Changshuai Wang, Jun Zhang, Lin Liu, Hengzhi Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (7): 668-672. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The influence of melt superheating treatment on the solid/liquid (S/L) interface morphology of directionally solidified Ni-based superalloy DZ125 is investigated to elucidate the relationship between melt characteristic and S/L interface stability. The results indicate that the interface morphology is not only related to the withdrawal velocity (R) but also to the melt superheating temperature (Ts) when the thermal gradient of solidification interface remains constant for different Ts with appropriate superheating treatment regulation. The interface morphology changes from cell to plane at R of 1.1 μm/s when Ts increases from 1500°C to 1650°C, and maintains plane with further elevated Ts of 1750°C. However, the interface morphology changes from coarse dendrite to cell and then to cellular dendrite at R of 2.25 μm/s when Ts increases from 1500°C to 1650°C and then to 1750°C. It is proved that the solidification onset temperature and the solidification interval undergo the nonlinear variation when Ts increases from 1500°C to 1680°C, and the turning point is 1650°C at which the solidification onset temperature and the solidification interval are all minimum. This indicates that the melt superheating treatment enhances the solidification interface stability and has important effect on the solidification characteristics.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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