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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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  Current Issue
      28 June 2011, Volume 27 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Structural, Transport and Optical Properties of Boron-doped Zinc Oxide Nanocrystalline
    Vinod Kumar, R.G. Singh, L.P. Purohit, R.M. Mehra
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 481-488. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The paper has reported the structural, transport and optical properties of boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films grown on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating process. It is observed from the analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results that the crystalline quality of the films is improved with increasing B concentration. A crystallite size of ~17 nm is obtained for B doped films. A minimum resistivity of 7.9×10-4 ­Ωcm is obtained at 0.6 at.% of B concentration in the ZnO:B films. Ionized and intragrain cluster scattering are found to dominate the scattering mechanism in ZnO:B films. Optical interference pattern in transmittance spectra shows good homogeneity with a transparency of ~88% in the visible region. The band gap of the films is increased from 3.24 to 3.35 eV with increasing B concentration. Band gap widening is analyzed in terms of Burstein-Moss shift. The origin of the broad band photoluminescence (PL) spectra is explained in terms of the intragrain cluster scattering.
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    A Crystallization Study of Nanocrystalline PZT 53/47 Granular Arrays Using a Sol-Gel Based Precursor
    A. Suarez-Gomez, J.M. Saniger-Blesa, F. Calderon-Pinar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 489-496. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this work, we intend to perform a detailed study on the crystallization process of PZT 53/47 nanostructured powders by starting out with an amorphous precursor synthesized by a sol-gel based solution. Our interests also lie in the feasibility for controlling the average grain size of the final structure in the submicron range on an ab initio basis. Purposely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman (Stokes and Anti-Stokes), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the microstructural characteristics based on previously reported differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA) data. The results show a crystallization temperature of 800°C to attain pure perovskite phase with excellent morphological quality, average grain size <DG>< 300 nm and with average crystallite size <DC><15 nm.
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    Nanocrystallization of α-Fe Crystals in Fe52Cr18Mo7B16C4Nb3 Bulk Amorphous Alloy
    S. Ahmadi, H.R. Shahverdiy, S.S. Saremi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 497-502. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Crystallization kinetics of Fe52Cr18Mo7B16C4Nb3 alloy was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential
    scanning calorimetric (DSC) tests and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations in this research
    work. In effect, crystallization and growth mechanism were investigated by using DSC tests at four different
    heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 K/min). Results showed that a two-step crystallization process occurred in
    the alloy in which α-Fe and Fe3B phases were crystallized, respectively in the structure after heat treatment.
    Activation energy for the first step of crystallization, i.e. α-Fe was measured to be 421 and 442 kJ/mol
    according to Kissinger-Starink and Ozawa models, respectively. Further, Avrami exponent calculated from
    DSC curves was 1.6 and a two-dimensional diffusion controlled growth mechanism with decreasing nucleation
    rate was observed in the alloy. Moreover, it was known from the TEM observations that crystalline α-Fe phase
    nucleated in the structure of the alloy in an average size of 10 nm and completely mottled morphology.
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    Structure and Magnetic Properties of S-doped Mn3O4/S Composited Nanoparticles and Mn3O4 Nanoparticles
    X. He, Z.H. Wang, D.Y. Geng, Z.D. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 503-506. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Composited nanoparticles, consisting of Mn3O4, S-doped Mn3O4 and S, were synthesized by co-precipitation reaction and Mn3O4 nanoparticles were then obtained after removing the pure S from the composited nanoparticles. The Mn3O4-type phase with larger lattice constant a was formed by doping sulfur. At fixed temperatures below Curie temperature (TC), the magnetization of the S-doped Mn3O4/S composited nanoparticles was smaller than that of the Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The blocking temperature was 36.3 and 34.8 K for S-doped Mn3O4/S composite and Mn3O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The anisotropy field of S-doped Mn3O4/S composite was determined to be about 55.3 kOe.
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    Realizing Zinc Blende GaAs/AlGaAs Axial and Radial Heterostructure Nanowires by Tuning the Growth Temperature
    Jingwei Guo, Hui Huang, Xiaomin Ren, Xin Yan, Shiwei Cai, Wei Wang, Yongqing Huang, Qi Wang, Xia Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 507-512. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Vertical zinc blende GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure nanowires were grown at different temperatures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition via Aussisted vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. It was found that radial growth can be enhanced by increasing the growth temperature. The growth of radial heterostructure can be realized at temperature higher than 500°C, while the growth temperature of axial heterostructure is lower than 440°C. The room temperature photoluminescence properties of the nanowires were investigated and the relevant growth mechanism was discussed.
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    Synthesis and Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of Flower-shaped Mn Doped ZnO Nanostructures
    Y.Q. Chang, P.W. Wang, R.H. Tang, Q.L. Sun, Y. Long
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 513-517. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Large-scale flower-shaped Mn doped ZnO nanostructures have been grown on silicon substrates by simple thermal evaporation at atmospheric pressure. The flower-shaped nanostructure makes up of many nanorods, which are rooted in one center. Analysis of X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectra results reveal that the products are of single phase with wurtzite structure. Elemental mapping results show that no impurity clusters exist in the doped materials. The photoluminescence spectra demonstrate that many oxygen vacancies exist in the doped materials, and the crystal quality is improved and the content of oxygen vacancies is decreased by annealing treatment. The flower-shaped Mn doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering above room temperature, and its magnetization is decreased by the annealing treatment, which indicates that the magnetic behavior of the doped materials may be related to the interaction between Mn doping and the oxygen vacancies.
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    Mechanical and Functional Properties of Materials
    Efect of Hot Extrusion on Interfacial Microstructure and Tensile Properties of SiCp/2009Al Composites Fabricated at Different Hot Pressing Temperatures
    Peng Jin, Bolu Xiao, Quanzhao Wang, Zongyi Ma, Yue Liu, Shu Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 518-524. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effects of hot extrusion on the interfacial microstructures and tensile properties of 15 vol.% SiCp/2009Al composites fabricated at different hot pressing temperatures were investigated. After hot extrusion, the relative density of the composites increased, the SiC particle distribution became more uniform, and the SiC particles tended to align along the extrusion direction. Furthermore, the interface bonding was improved after hot extrusion; however, the extrusion exerted no obvious effect on the interfacial reaction products formed during sintering process. Tensile tests indicated that the mechanical properties of the composites were improved significantly after extrusion. Fractography revealed that the fracture mechanism of the extruded composites fabricated at the hot pressing temperatures below 540°C was mainly the interfacial debonding. For the extruded composites fabricated at 560-600°C, the fracture was the matrix ductile fracture and the SiC particle fracture. When the composites were hot pressed at or above 620°C, after extrusion, the fracture mechanism of the composites was the matrix ductile fracture, the interface cracking and the SiC particle fracture.
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    High-temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-substituted Bi2Ba2Co2-xCuxOy Oxides
    Haoshan Hao, Huizhi Yang, Yongtao Liu, Xing Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 525-528. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Cu-substituted Bi2Ba2Co2-xCuxOy (0.0≤x≤0.4) samples were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method and the effect of Cu substitution on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties were investigated. The partial substitution of Cu for Co in Bi2Ba2Co2-xCuxOy led to an increase in the electrical conductivity because of an increase in the hole concentration and grain size of sintered bodies. In addition, Cu substitution led to an increase in Seebeck coefficients while kept the thermal conductivity unchanged. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT value) was obtained in x=0.4 sample and the value was 1.5 times as large as that of Cu-free sample at 873 K.
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    Effects of Phase Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Lu2O3-doped Porous Silicon Nitride Ceramics
    Quan Li, Xiaowei Yin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 529-533. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Porous silicon nitride ceramics (Si3N4) were fabricated by pressureless sintering using different particle size of silicon nitride powder. Lu2O3 was used as sintering additive. According to phase relationships in the ternary system Si3N4-SiO2-Lu2O3, porous Si3N4 ceramics with different phase composition were designed through the change of the content of SiO2 which was formed by the oxidation at 800°C in air. Porous Si3N4 with different phase compositions was obtained after sintering at 1800°C in N2 atmosphere. A small content of SiO2 favored the formation of secondary phase Lu4Si2O7N2, while large content of SiO2 favored the formation of secondary phase Lu2Si2O7 and Si2N2O. Porous Si3N4 ceramics with secondary phase Lu4Si2O7N2 had a flexural strength of 207 MPa, while that with secondary phase Si2N2O and Lu2Si2O7 had lower flexural strength.
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    Effect of Minor Alloying on Crystallization Behavior and Thermal Properties of Zr64.5Ni15.5Al11.5Cu8.5 Bulk Amorphous Alloy
    Muhammad Iqbal, Javed Iqbal Akhter, Haifeng Zhang, Zhuangqi Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 534-538. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Minor alloying plays an important role in the synthesis and improvement of thermal stability of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of minor additions of Y, Ti and Nb on crystallization behavior and thermal properties of Zr64.5Ni15.5Al11.5Cu8.5 base alloy. Thermal parameters and the activation energies for crystallization were calculated for four [Zr0.645Ni0.155Al0.115Cu0.085]100-xMx (M = Y, Ti and Nb while x = 0, 2 at. %) alloys. Parameters describing thermal stability in these systems, including the activation energies for crystallization, were determined. The present alloys have wide supercooled liquid region of ≥87 K. Maximum activation energy was found to be greater than 300 kJ/mol for the base alloy. Four crystalline phases were identified in the samples annealed at 823 K. Reduced glass transition temperature (Trg) and other thermal parameters like γ, δ and β improved by Y and Ti addition. Niobium addition resists crystallization below annealing temperature 713 K however its effect on thermal properties is not very promising.
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    Effect of Phosphorus on Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability of Fine-grained GH761 Alloy
    Shulin Yang, Wenru Sun, Jianxi Wang, Zhimei Ge, Shouren Guo, Zhuangqi Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 539-545. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effect of phosphorus on mechanical properties and thermal stability of fine-grained GH761 alloy has been investigated. The results show that, when the content of phosphorus is in the range of 0.0007%-0.040%, there are no significant effects on the tensile properties. Phosphorus strongly affects the stress rupture life. The content of 0.023% P results in the longest life in this experiment. Compared with that of the alloy with 0.0007% P, the life is increased more than 2 times in the alloy with 0.023% P. After ageing at 700°C for 1000 h, the life reduced to some extent. However, phosphorus exhibits the similar effect on the life as before ageing. The tensile properties of the alloy are not influenced by long term ageing obviously. The present results suggested that the optimum content of phosphorus is 0.023%. The phosphorus with this content can optimize the precipitates at the grain boundaries and prevent the excessive growth of the precipitates. The combining mechanical properties of GH761 alloy can be largely improved by phosphorus addition combined with grain refinement.
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    Regular Papers
    An in-vitro Investigation of Iron-Containing Hydroxyapatite/Titanium Composites
    Q. Chang, H.Q. Ru, D.L. Chen, X.Y. Yue, L. Yu, C.P. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 546-552. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The in-vitro biological behavior of a newly-developed iron-containing hydroxyapatite/titanium (HA/Ti) composite was investigated by immersing the composites in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 5 weeks. The addition of iron was observed to have a significant influence on the in-vitro biological behavior of the composites. The obtained results revealed that the stability of the composites in the physiological solution was markedly improved. The solubility decreased in the order of pure HA, HA/5%(Ti-33%Fe), and HA/15%(Ti-33%Fe). Precipitation occurred on the surface of HA/5%(Ti-33%Fe) composite, showing a good combination of physiostability with bioactivity, while HA/15%(Ti-33%Fe) composite exhibited superior physiostability since there was no obvious change on the surface of HA/15%(Ti-33%Fe).
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    Dislocation Behavior in ZrC Particles during Elevated Temperature Compressive Deformation of a 30 vol.% ZrCp/W Composite
    Taiquan Zhang, Qingchang Meng, Yujin Wang, Yu Zhou, Guiming Song
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 553-558. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A 30 vol.% ZrCp/W composite has been deformed in compression in the temperature range of 1200-1600°C. Dislocation nucleation mechanism in ZrC particles is discussed by analyzing the harmonious deformation between tungsten-matrix and ZrC particles. Thermal activation apparently increases the mobility of screw segments, resulting in the formation of many kinetics jogs and thermodynamics jogs above 1300°C. The formation mechanisms of the dislocation configurations are studied.
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    Solvothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Indium Sulfide Microspheres
    Wen Cai, Yinsheng Zhao, Jie Hu, Jiasong Zhong, Weidong Xiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 559-562. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    ZnIn2S4 microspheres have been solvothermally prepared at 160°C for 12 h with ZnCl2·2H2O, InCl3, and thiourea as the starting reagents in ethanol. The morphology, structure, and phase composition of the asprepared product were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Results revealed that the prepared ZnIn2S4 microspheres were composed of sheetlike nanocrystals. The average diameter of the microspheres and the thickness of the nanosheets are about 1-6 μm and 10-50 nm, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the ZnIn2S4 nanosheet-built microspheres was proposed and briefly discussed.
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    Synthesis of Flower-like Zinc Oxalate Microspheres in Ether-water Bilayer Refluxing Systems and Their Conversion to Zinc Oxide Microspheres
    Liang Ni, Lei Wang, Bing Shao, Yinjue Wang, Wenli Zhang, Yong Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 563-569. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Flower-like zinc oxalate with a mean diameter of 50 μm was synthesized via the reaction of zinc acetate and dimethyl oxalate in ether-water bilayer refluxing systems at low temperature. Flower-like zinc oxalate microspheres can be further transformed into the similar morphology to zinc oxide by the  decomposition of zinc oxalate at 500°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetric (TG-DSC), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX) and Fourier transforminfrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-synthesized products. The UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrum of flower-like zinc oxide microspheres were studied. The experimental results showed that flower-like zinc oxalate microspheres may be self-assembled by the zinc oxalate flakes. The ether-water volume ratio of 4:1 and refluxing temperature of 40°C were considered to favor the preparation of flower-like zinc oxalate microspheres.
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    Mechanical Response of All-composite Pyramidal Lattice Truss Core Sandwich Structures
    Ming Li, Linzhi Wu, Li Ma, Bing Wang, Zhengxi Guan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (6): 570-576. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The mechanical performance of an all-composite pyramidal lattice truss core sandwich structure was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Sandwich structures were fabricated with a hot compression molding method using carbon fiber reinforced composite T700/3234. The out-of-plane compression and shear tests were conducted. Experimental results showed that the all-composite pyramidal lattice truss core sandwich structures were more weight efficient than other metallic lattice truss core sandwich structures. Failure modes revealed that node rupture dominated the mechanical behavior of sandwich structures.
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CN: 21-1315/TG
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