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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      31 December 2010, Volume 26 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Modeling and Simulations
    First-principles Investigation of Bi Segregation at the Solder Interface of Cu/Cu3Sn(010)
    X.Y. Pang Z.Q. Liu S.Q. Wang J.K. Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1057-1062. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (883KB)
    Density functional theory was employed to investigate the bismuth segregation at Cu/Cu3Sn(010) interface. Five initial constructions were introduced by adopting the adhesion energy criterion. Among them, the so-called "between-Cu" construction in which the interface Cu atoms of Cu slab locate along Cu-Cu bond direction in Cu3Sn slab was found to be the most energy-favored at an adhesion energy of 1.96 J/m2. Based on this construction, five possible segregation sites were examined, and the most likely segregation site was determined with adhesion energy as low as 1.06 J/m2, which was almost half of the initial one. Comparing with other sites' adhesion energies, it was concluded that size effect took a large part in embrittlement. The analyses of atomic structure and electronic density revealed that the slabs shifted away from interfaces due to bismuth segregation, and the atoms around Bi atom were pressed away. This calculated work agreed qualitatively with reported experimental results.
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    Modelling the Effect of Initial Grain Size on Dynamic Recrystallization Using a Modified Cellular Automata and a Adaptive Response Surface Method
    Zhaoyang Jin Zhenshan Cui
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1063-1070. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1039KB)
    A modified cellular automata (CA) model of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and a flow stress-based nucleation parameter identification method have been developed. In the method, the modified CA model, which takes the role of deformation degree on nucleation behavior into consideration, is coupled with an adaptive response surface model (ARSM) to search for the optimum nucleation parameter. The DRX behavior of an oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper with different initial grain sizes has been taken as an example to validate the model. Good agreement is found between the simulated and the experimental results, which demonstrates that the new method can effectively improve the simulation accuracy.
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    Vibration Effects on the Structural Stability of Al-Ti Intermetallics by First-principles Calculations
    Hui Zhang Shaoqing Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1071-1077. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (559KB)
    The structural stability of the intermetallics AlTi3, Al2Ti, Al3Ti4 and Al3Ti in the Al-Ti system has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The calculated ground-state convex hull is in agreement with the experimental researches. Al3Ti4 (hP7) is metastable at 0 K and may be stabilized as the temperature increases due to the effects of the vibration entropy. For Al2Ti, r-Al2Ti is stable at 0 K and h-Al2Ti is stabilized by the vibration entropy at high temperatures. Al3Ti (tI16) is unstable considering vibration effects and Al3Ti (tI8) is the most stable structure at 0 K.
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    Light Weight Metals
    Effects of Multiple Strengthening Treatments on Mechanical Properties and Stability of Nanoscale Precipitated Phases in an Aluminum-Copper-Lithium Alloy
    S. Ahmadi H. Arabi A. Shokuhfar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1078-1082. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (609KB)
    Effects of multiple strengthening treatments (i.e. aging either at three or four consecutive temperatures) on mechanical properties and stability of nanoscale precipitated phases in an AA2090 alloy have been evaluated in this research. Various tests such as hardness, tensile, electrical resistance, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been performed. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the yield strength of the samples aged at four consecutive temperatures (i.e. natural aging+190°C+150°C+100°C) can be increased approximately to 660 and 610 MPa, respectively. It is also found that precipitation of T1 phase occurs during multiple aging process of the alloy and the higher amounts of enthalpies shown in DSC charts are linked to higher volume fraction of this precipitate. Furthermore, TEM observations reveal that T1 phase has plate shape morphology and its crystal structure is in the form of hcp with lattice parameters of a=0.467 nm and c=0.878 nm.
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    Hardness-Lattice Parameter Correlation for Aged Al-Zn-Mg Alloys
    P. Fernandez G. Gonzalez I. Alfonso I.A. Figueroa
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1083-1088. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (722KB)
    Two ternary Al-2.2Zn-0.95Mg and Al-5.5Zn-2.1Mg (in wt pct) alloys, with Zn:Mg ratios close to 2.5 were produced by conventional ingot casting metallurgy. The ingots were solution heat treated at 500°C for 0.5 h and aged at 180°C for times between 0.5 and 80 h. The structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Vickers microhardness measurements (HV). The study was focused on the investigation of the precipitates formation and the relationship between hardness and lattice parameter for α-Al. The results showed that there was an inverse correlation for all the experimental conditions, and the aged peaks coincided with lattice parameter minima. Significant precipitates formation only occurred for the alloy containing 5.5 wt pct Zn and 2.1 wt pct Mg, provoking an important strengthening and variations in the lattice parameter, however, this was not observed for the alloy containing 2.2 wt pct Zn and 0.95 wt pct Mg. A plausible explanation of the increment of hardness values could be the presence of a well distributed μ phase (MgZn2). At initial stages of the precipitation process, μ' was the most abundant precipitate while the phase τ was observed at overaged conditions. These results showed that the aging response of the conventionally cast Al-Zn-Mg alloys could be obtained using the lattice parameter of the α-Al matrix, even for alloy systems with low precipitates formation.
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    Eutectic Solidification in Near-eutectic Al-Si Casting Alloys
    H.C. Liao M. Zhang J.J. Bi K. Ding X. Xi S.Q. Wu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1089-1097. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1248KB)
    Eutectic solidification in near-eutectic Al-13 wt pct Si casting alloys and the effect of trace addition of boron or strontium on it have been investigated using thermal analysis and microstructural characterization. In unmodified alloy, dual eutectic structure has been observed. The coarse eutectic (dendrite-like Al+ coarse Si flakes) is formed above the equilibrium temperature of eutectic (Al+Si) reaction (577°C). The coarse eutectic (CE) grains nucleate from the primary silicon particles formed earlier due to local enrichment of silicon solute and grow in a divorced mode between the dendritic Al phase and large silicon flakes. The fine eutectic (FE) grains nucleate later on other potential sites activated by melt undercooling and grow in coupled-growing mode with the silicon crystals as fine flakes. The formation of the FE grains is favored in the alloys containing boron because of a great number of potential nucleation sites being added from boron-containing particles. Addition of strontium to the alloys restrains completely the formation of primary silicon particles and hence limits the nucleation of the CE. This is because the eutectic point has moved far enough to make the alloy, at this composition (Al-13 wt pct Si), hypo-eutectic. Local cooling rate during solidification has an important influence on competition formation of these two eutectics.
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    Mechanical and Functional Properties of Materials
    Electrical, Magnetic and Catalytic Investigations on Some Manganite Perovskites Prepared by Combustion Method
    R.G. Shetkar A.V. Salker
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1098-1102. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (391KB)
    AMnO3 (A=Sr, Sm and Nd) manganites with perovskite structure, prepared by combustion method were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The solid state and spectroscopic studies such as electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance (ESR) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were carried out and attempted to correlate with the catalytic activities of the compounds. To evaluate the catalytic activity, a model reaction of CO oxidation over these compounds was undertaken. An attempt was made to understand the effect of A-site change by different metal cations in the manganite perovskites on solid state and catalytic properties.
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    Synthesis, Electrical Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficient of La 0.9 A 0.1FeO3 (A=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)
    Na Yin Hongchao Wang Chunlei Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1103-1106. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (312KB)
    Lanthanum ferrites ceramics La0.9A0.1FeO3 (A=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) have been prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray power diffraction analysis reveals that all samples are of pure perovskite structure with orthorhombic phase. Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient have been measured in vacuum within the temperature range between room temperature and 800°C. The electrical conductivity shows semiconducting behavior. Temperature dependence of electrical conductivity indicates that adiabatic small-polaron hopping mechanism is dominant for their electric transportations. Seebeck coefficients are positive for samples, suggesting p-type conduction in the whole temperature range. The highest Seebeck coefficient is found to be 654 μV/K for La0.9Mg0.1 FeO3. Except La0.9Ba0.1FeO3, the electrical conductivity of La0.9A 0.1FeO3 increases with increasing atomic number of the A-site element, while Seebeck coefficient decreases.
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    Mechanical Properties and Temper Resistance of Deformation Induced Ferrite in a Low Carbon Steel
    Luhan Hao Namin Xiao Chengwu Zheng Dianzhong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1107-1113. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (849KB)
    The microstructures and mechanical properties of deformation induced ferrite (DIF) in the low carbon steel Q235 under different deformation temperatures have been investigated systematically. Through deformation induced ferrite transformation (DIFT), ferrite grain can be refined to 3 μm and accounts for above 85% of the overall fraction. Yield strength of DIF (>500 MPa) is increased by up to 100% compared with the conventional low carbon steel. Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties in the Q235 steel with DIF and tempered DIF microstructure illustrates that the strengthening mechanism of DIF microstructure is the com- bination of grain boundary strengthening and carbon supersaturated strengthening. Electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis and high magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation denote that high-angle grain boundary among ultrafine ferrite grain and the transformation product of retain austenite membrane along ferrite boundaries are responsible for the stability of ferrite grain size during tempering process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrates that the transformation product of retained austenite membrane between ferrite grain boundaries is cementite.
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Synthesis and Characterization of Bioceramic Calcium Phosphates by Rapid Combustion Synthesis
    S. Sasikumar, R. Vijayaraghavan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1114-1118. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (595KB)
    Calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has been synthesized in short duration by rapid solution combustion by employing different fuels. Calcium nitrate was taken as source of calcium and diammonium hydrogen phosphate served as the source of phosphate ions. Citric acid, tartaric acid, sucrose, glycine and urea were used as the fuels and nitrate ions and nitric acid were used as oxidizers. The influence of fuels on the morphology of the phase formed was studied. Results of the studies by powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed the formation of hydroxyapatite as a major phase for all the fuels. The thermal analysis of the decomposed precursor showed variation in heat content for different fuels. Scanning electron microscopy showed different morphologies of the products obtained by different fuels. Chemical analyses to determine the Ca:P atomic ratio in synthesized ceramics showed that the ratio was 1:1.66.
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    Synthesis of a Kind of Temperature-responsive Cell Culture Surface for Corneal Sheet
    Yanqing Guan Zhibin Li Xin Wang Xiaoli Ni Aini Yang Junming Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1119-1126. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (537KB)
    In this study, acrylic acid (AA) and 4-azidoaniline were used to modify poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (NI-PAAm) in order to fabricate temperature-responsive surface for corneal epithelia cell adhesion and detachment. First, NIPAAm was copolymerized with acrylic acid. Then, the copolymer was coupled with azidoaniline to synthesize AzPhPIA, derivative of p(NIPAAm-co-AA), which possesses both thermo- and photo-sensitivities. Second, the synthesized copolymer was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and a CHN analyzer. The thermo-sensitivity was characterized by temperature reducing experiment, contact angle measurement and low critical solution temperature (LCST) testing. Third, the derivatized copolymer was immobilized by photolithography on a polystyrene plate, and then the surface characterization of AzPhPIA-coated polystyrene plate (PSt) was measured by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The thermo-sensitivity and cytocompatibility of the AzPhPIA-coated PSt were investigated by corneal epithelial cells culture. The results revealed that the AzPhPIA-coated PSt exhibited good cytocompatibility and cell detachability when temperature decreased.
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    New Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber/Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite
    Xiangwen Zhou Yuefeng Zhu Ji Liang Suyuan Yu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1127-1132. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (411KB)
    A novel technology to prepare styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites was developed by combining a spray drying method and a subsequent mechanical mixing process. The cross-linking degrees of the vulcanized composites increased gradually with the additive CNTs contents. By comparing with those of the pure SBR composites, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tear strength and hardness of the composites filled with CNTs at certain contents were dramatically improved almost by 600%, 250% and 70%, respectively. The fabrication of the CNTs filled with SBR composites by combination of the spray drying method and subsequent mechanical mixing process was effective for enhancing the reinforcement effects of CNTs in rubbers. The novel technology can also open a new route for the modification and reinforcement on the nanocomposites with large amount of CNTs.
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    Micro- and Nano-structure Characterization of Isotropic Pyrocarbon Obtained via Chemical Vapor Deposition in Hot Wall Reactor
    Kezhi Li Dongsheng Zhang Lingjun Guo Hejun Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1133-1138. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (765KB)
    The hot wall reactor was used to deposit isotropic pyrocarbon. The density of the product was measured by Archimedes method. The fracture morphology and texture of the product were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy was also applied to characterizing the structure of the product. The results show that the density of the product is about 1.31 g/cm3. The pyrocarbon consists of granular particles with the size of about 1.5 μm under SEM images. Under TEM images, the pyrocarbon is composed of irregular grains and onion-like particles are also detected. The orientation angle (180 deg.) of pyrocarbon reveals its isotropic character. The ID/IG ratio in Raman spectrum is about 1.2, indicating the isotropic feature of the product qualitatively.
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    Regular Papers
    Oxidation Protective C/SiC/Si-SiC Multilayer Coating for Carbon/Carbon Composites Applying at 1873 K
    Yulei Zhang Hejun Li Xinfa Qiang Kezhi Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1139-1142. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (493KB)
    A C/SiC/Si-SiC multilayer coating for protecting carbon/carbon (C/C) composites against oxidation was prepared by slurry and pack cementation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that the inner coating obtained from the slurry and pack cementation was a C/SiC gradient layer acting as bonding layer, and the exterior coating formed in the second pack cementation was a Si-SiC double phase coating. Oxidation tests at 1873 K in air showed that the coating exhibited excellent oxidation protective ability and thermal shock resistance. The coating could effectively protect C/C composites from oxidation at 1873 K in air for 170 h and undergo the thermal cycling between 1873 K and room temperature for 8 cycles. The weight loss of the coated C/C composites is due to the formation of cracks and holes in the coating and the volatilization of SiO2 glass at high temperature.
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    Fast Spreading of Liquid SnPb Solder on Gold-coated Copper Wheel Pattern
    Wei Liu Lei Zhang K.J. Hsia J.K. Shang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1143-1147. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (633KB)
    The reactive Sn63Pb37 spreading on patterned film structures was examined in a reducing atmosphere (H2 5%+Ar 95%). Liquid solder spreading was observed to follow the wheel pattern made of Au/Cu thin film. At the center, a liquid cap was formed around the hub by viscous spreading of the liquid front. Ahead of the main viscous flow front, a liquid film was found to be extended on thin Au-Cu lines at a fast rate to a great distance by rapid Sn-Au chemical reaction.
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    Effects of Porous Alumina Support and Plating Time on Electroless Plating of Palladium Membrane
    Mettaya Kitiwan Duangduen Atong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (12): 1148-1152. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (693KB)
    The present work was focused on the preparation of palladium alloy membranes and the effect of properties of ceramic support on the composited membrane morphology. Palladium-base membrane is known to have high selectivity and stability for hydrogen separation. In order to increase hydrogen permeation and separation factor, the membrane must be thinner and defect-free. Palladium membrane supported on a porous alumina prepared by electroless plating is the promising method to provide good hydrogen permeability. The alumina tube substrate was pre-seeded by immersing in the palladium acetate solution and followed by reduction in the alkaline hydrazine solution. After that, the deposition of palladium membrane could be achieved from the plating bath containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) stabilized palladium complex and hydrazine. The morphology of palladium film was observed to progress as a function of plating time and a dense layer membrane was available after plating for 3 h. The porosity of ceramic support exhibited an effect on the microstructure of deposited film such that the support with low porosity tended to achieve a defect free palladium membrane.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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