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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 January 2011, Volume 27 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Light Weight Metals
    Effects of Strain Rate and Deformation Temperature on Microstructures and Hardness in Plastically Deformed Pure Aluminum
    F. Huang N.R. Tao K. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 1-7. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructures and hardness of pure Al samples subjected to plastic deformation with different temperatures and strain rates were investigated. The results showed that the strain-induced grain refinement is significantly benefited by increasing strain rate and reducing deformation temperature. The saturated size of refined subgrains in Al can be as small as about 240 nm in cryogenic dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). Grain boundaries of the DPD Al samples are low-angle boundaries due to suppression of dynamic recovery during deformation. Agreement of the measured hardness with the empirical Hall-Petch relation extrapolated from the coarse-grained Al implies that the low-angle boundaries can contribute to strengthening as effective as the conventional grain boundaries.
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    Microstructural Evolution of 6061 Alloy during Isothermal Heat Treatment
    Na Wang Zhimin Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 8-14. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The semi-solid billet of 6061 aluminum alloy was prepared by the near-liquidus semi-continuous casting (LSC) with rosette or near-spheroide grains. The pre-deformation processing was applied before partial remelting to further improve the microstructure and properties of the semi-solid alloy. The effects of different processing parameters, such as holding temperature and holding time, on the semisolid microstructures during partial remelting have been investigated. It was found that the optimal partial remelting parameters should be 630°C and 10{15 min for 6061 alloy cold rolled with 60% reduction in height of pre-deformation. The coarsening rates were anasysed by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory. The pre-deformed 6061 alloy exhibits lower coarsening rate constants than that of the as-cast one, and also lower than other alloys processed by different method found in previous literature. It is because the coarsening rate is associated with the initial microstructure and composition of the alloy. The secondary phases in the alloy inhibit the migration of the liquid film grain boundaries. The microstructure obtained by using the combination of near-liquidus semicontinuous casting and pre-deformation treatment is better than that without pre-deformation processing, which demonstrates that the used method is promising for fabricating high quality semi-solid alloys.
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    Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al/Mg Alloy Multilayered Composites Produced by Accumulative Roll Bonding
    H.S. Liu B. Zhang G.P. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 15-21. 
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    Al/Mg alloy multilayered composites were produced successfully at the lower temperature (280°C) by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) processing technique. The microstructures of Al and Mg alloy layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Vickers hardness and three-point bending tests were conducted to investigate mechanical properties of the composites. It is found that Vickers hardness, bending strength and stiffness modulus of the Al/Mg alloy multilayered composite increase with increasing the ARB pass. Delamination and crack propagation along the interface are the two main failure modes of the multilayered composite subjected to bending load. Strengthening and fracture mechanisms of the composite are analyzed.
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    Liquid Phase Bonding of 316L Stainless Steel to AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
    Waled Elthalabawy Tahir Khan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 22-28. 
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    The excellent corrosion resistance, formability and strength make stainless steels versatile for diverse applications. However, its high specific strength and good crashworthiness make it suitable for transportation and aerospace industry. On the other hand, the need to reduce the weight of vehicle and aerospace components has created renewed interest in the use of magnesium alloys. Due to their differences in physical and metallurgical properties, bonding of the 316L steel and AZ31 magnesium alloy using conventional fusion welding methods encountered many limitations. Therefore, the use of liquid phase forming interlayers is required to overcome the differences in their properties, eliminates the need for a high bonding pressure to achieve intimate contact between the bonded surfaces. Both Cu and Ni interlayers successively formed a eutectic phase with magnesium. The formation of intermetallics and Mg diffusion caused the eutectic phase to isothermally solidify with increasing bonding time. The formation of ternary intermetallic phases (λ1 and B2) impaired the bond shear strength particularly at the end of the isothermal solidification stage where no eutectic phase was observed. However, the joints showed a higher shear strength value of 57 MPa when bonding with Cu interlayer at 530°C for 30 min compared to 32 MPa when Ni interlayer was used at 510°C for 20 min.
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    Influence of Grain Size and Texture on the Yield Asymmetry of Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy
    S.M. Yin C.H. Wang Y.D. Diao S.D. Wu S.X. Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 29-34. 
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    The yield asymmetry between compression and tension of magnesium alloy Mg-3Al-1Zn (AZ31) with different grain sizes and textures has been studied by tensile and compressive testing of as-cast, as-extruded and equal channel angular pressed (ECAPed) specimens. The significant yield asymmetry (the ratio of yield strength between compression and tension σycyt is~0.44) was found in as-extruded specimens and the corresponding microstructure evolution during deformation revealed that {1012} tensile twinning is the underlying reason for the large yield asymmetry. Strong texture and grain size are influential factors for large yield asymmetry. The separate contributions of grain size and texture on yield asymmetry were investigated.
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    Materials for Sustainable Energy
    Electrical Conductivity and Sensitive Characteristics of Ag-Added BaTiO3-CuO Mixed Oxide for CO2 Gas Sensing
    A.M. El-Sayed F.M. Ismail S.M. Yakout
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 35-40. 
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    Carbon dioxide gas sensors based on BaTiO3-CuO composite with different concentrations of Ag addition (1, 1.5 and 2 wt%) have been prepared by stander ceramic method and sintered at 500 and 700°C for 5 h. Electrical conductivity and gas sensing properties of the prepared samples were investigated. Electrical conductivity measurement was used to characterize the obtained sintered sensor pellets. It was found that electrical conductivity and the sensitivity to CO2 were improved with Ag addition and sintering. The correlation between Ag content at different sintering temperature and sensing characteristics towards CO2 is discussed.
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    ±Micro-sized and Nano-sized Fe3O4 Particles as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
    Y.X. Chen L.H. He P.J. Shang Q.L. Tang Z.Q. Liu H.B. Liu L.P. Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 41-45. 
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    Micro-sized (1030.3§178.4 nm) and nano-sized (50.4±8.0 nm) Fe3O4 particles have been fabricated through hydrogen thermal reduction of α-Fe2O3 particles synthesized by means of a hydrothermal process. The morphology and microstructure of the micro-sized and the nano-sized Fe3O4 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. The micro-sized Fe3O4 particles exhibit porous structure, while the nano-sized Fe3O4 particles are solid structure. Their electrochemical performance was also evaluated. The nano-sized solid Fe3O4 particles exhibit gradual capacity fading with initial discharge capacity of 1083.1 mAhg¡1 and reversible capacity retention of 32.6% over 50 cycles. Interestingly, the micro-sized porous Fe3O4 particles display very stable capacity-cycling behavior, with initial discharge capacity of 887.5 mAhg¡1 and charge capacity of 684.4 mAhg−1 at the 50th cycle. Therefore, 77.1% of the reversible capacity can be maintained over 50 cycles. The micro-sized porous Fe3O4 particles with facile synthesis, good cycling performance and high capacity retention are promising candidate as anode materials for high energy-density lithium-ion batteries.
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    Electrochemical Characteristics of LaNi4.5Al0.5 Alloy Used as Anodic Catalyst in a Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell
    Lianbang Wang Guobin Wu Zhenzhen Yang Yunfang Gao Xinbiao Mao Chun'an May
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 46-50. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Fuel cells using borohydride as the fuel have received much attention because of high energy density and theoretical working potential. In this work, LaNi4.5Al0.5 hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material has been investigated. It was found that the increasing operation temperature was helpful to the open-circuit potential, the discharge potential and the power density, but showed a negative effect on the utilization of the fuel due to the accelerated hydrogen evolution. The high KOH concentration was favorable for high-rate discharge capability. The adsorption and transformation of hydrogen on LaNi4.5Al0.5 alloy electrode has been observed, but its contribution to the discharge capability during a high-rate discharge was small.
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    Thin Film and Coatings
    Influence of Sputtering Gas on Morphological and Optical Properties of Magnesium Films
    Yogendra K. Gautam Amit K. Chawla Vipin Chawla R.D. Agrawal
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 51-58. 
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    The influence of sputtering gas (He & Ar) on the structural properties of Mg thin films has been investigated. The optical property (reflectance) that results from the growth of films at varying substrate temperatures (Tsub) was also studied. The deposited films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scaning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The smaller crystallite size and lower deposition rate were observed in the presence of Helium atmosphere compared to Argon. Morphology of the films shows 2D hexagonal geometry of grains in the deposition temperature range (Tsub≈50−150°C) in both the sputtering gases. The surface roughness of the polycrystalline films were found to increase with increase in the deposition temperature of both ambient gases. Optical reflectance of Mg films was measured in near infrared region and larger reflectance was observed from Mg films sputtered in He atmosphere compared to that in argon.
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    Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Film/Bi2O3 Microgrid Heterojunction
    Liugang Wang Junying Zhang Chunzhi Li Hailing Zhu Wenwen Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 59-63. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    TiO2 film modified by Bi2O3 microgrid array was successfully fabricated by using a microsphere lithography method. The structure and morphology of TiO2 film, Bi2O3 film and TiO2 film/Bi2O3 microgrid heterojunction were characterized through X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical transmittance spectra and the photocatalytic degradation capacity of these samples to rhodamine B were determined via ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results indicated that the coupled system showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and Bi2O3 films under xenon lamp irradiation. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the special structure, which could improve the separation of photo-generated electrons and holes, enlarge the surface area and extend the response range of TiO2 film from ultraviolet to visible region.
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    Regular Papers
    Magnetic and Electrical Behavior of MnTe1-xSbx Alloys
    X. Hey Y.Q. Zhang Z.D. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 64-68. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The structure, magnetic and electrical properties of MnTe1-xSbx (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) alloys have been investigated. The MnTe1-xSbx compounds crystallize in hexagonal NiAs - type structure, and impurity MnSb phase appears when x ≧0.15. MnTe0.9Sb0.1 alloy exhibits ferromagnetic behavior at 350 K. The anomaly of resistance of the MnTe0.9Sb0.1 alloy is observed around 300 K. A peak appears around 304 K in the temperature dependence of the specific heat of all the MnTe1-xSbx (x = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.25) alloys. A plausible explanation is given for the anomaly of resistivity and the peak of specific heat of the MnTe0.9Sb0.1 alloy.
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    Influence of Voids on the Tensile Performance of Carbon/epoxy Fabric Laminates
    Hongyan Zhu Baochang Wu Dihong Li Dongxing Zhang Yuyong Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 69-73. 
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    This paper aims at investigating the effect of voids on the tensile properties of [(±45)4/(0,90)/(±45)2]S and [(±45)/04/(±45)(0,90)]S composites. Specimens with void contents in the range of 0.4% to 9.0% were fabricated from carbon/epoxy fabric. The void content was determined by ultrasonic attenuation and optical image analysis, and microscopic inspection was also used to analyze the shape and size of the voids. The influence of voids on the tensile strength and modulus of both stacking sequence is compared in terms of the size and the shape of the voids. The effect of voids on the initiation and propagation of tensile failure of both stacking sequence composite was investigated.
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    Immobilization of Co (II) Ions in Cement Pastes and Their Effects on the Hydration Characteristics
    Eisa Hekal Essam Kishar Wafaa Hegazi Maha Mohamed
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 74-80. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The immobilization of Co (II) in various cement matrices was investigated by using the solidification/stabilization (S/S) technique. The different cement pastes used in this study were ordinary Portland cement in absence and presence of water reducing- and water repelling-admixtures as well as blended cement with kaolin. Two ratios of Co (II) were used (0.5% and 1.0% by weight of the solid binder). The hydration characteristics of the used cement pastes were tested via the determination of the combined water content, phase composition and compressive strength at different time intervals up to 180 d. The degree of immobilization of the added heavy metal ions was evaluated by determining the leached ion concentration after time intervals extended up to 180 d. The leachability experiments were carried out by using two modes: the static and the semi-dynamic leaching processes. It was noticed that the concentration of the leached Co2+ ions in the static mode of leachability was lower than the solubility of its hydroxide in all the investigated cement pastes.
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    Effects of CuO Nanoparticles on Microstructure, Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Self-Compacting Cementitious Composites
    Ali Nazari Shadi Riahi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 81-92. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In the present study, split tensile strength of self-compacting concrete with different amount of CuO nanoparticles has been investigated. CuO nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to self compacting concrete and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that CuO nanoparticles are able to improve the split tensile strength of self compacting concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on split tensile strength. CuO nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages of hydration. The increase of the CuO nanoparticles more than 4 wt% causes the decrease of the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of related peaks to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction (XRD) results all also indicate that CuO nanoparticles up to 4 wt% could improve the mechanical and physical properties of the specimens. Finally, CuO nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.
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    Effects of Weaving Laser on Weld Microstructure and Crack for Al 6k21-T4 Alloy
    B.H. Kim N.H. Kang W.T. Oh C.H. Kim J.H. Kim Y.S. Kim Y.H. Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (1): 93-96. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    For Al 6k21-T4 overlap weld joint, the shear-tensile strength by using the weaving laser was improved as compared to the case of linear laser. For the specimen of low strength, the porosity was distributed continuously along the intersection between the plates and fusion line. However, for the optimized welding condition, large oval-shaped porosities were located only in the advancing track of the concave part. Therefore, the continuity of cracks and porosities played a key role to determine the strength. And, the weaving width was also the important parameter to control the strength. Furthermore, the concave part had more significant hot and cold cracking in the weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ), respectively, than the convex part.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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