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CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 February 2011, Volume 27 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Letter
    Twinnability Predication for fcc Metals
    B.Q. Li, M.L. Sui, S.X. Mao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 97-100. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Inherent twinnability of face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals was analyzed based on the direct competition between twinning partial dislocation nucleation and trailing partial dislocation nucleation, with which the twinnability of fcc metals can be simply expressed as function of the stacking-fault energy, the unstable stacking-fault energy, and the unstable twinning-fault energy of fcc metals. The predicted twinnability ranking matched well with former experimental results and provided a physical insight to understand twinnability from crystallographic orientation and fault energy parameters.
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    High Temperature Structure Materials
    Effect of Re Addition and Withdrawal Rate on the Solidification Behavior of Directionally Solidified Superalloy AM3
    F. Long, Y.S. Yoo, S.M. Seo, T. Jin, Z.Q. Hu, C.Y. Jo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 101-106. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The influence of Re addition and withdrawal rate on the solidification behavior of the first generation single crystal superalloy AM3 was investigated by directional solidification and quenching experiments. The primary dendrite arm spacing and eutectic volume fraction were measured from directionally solidified superalloy AM3 with different Re contents. It is found that the primary dendrite arm spacing is determined by the withdrawal rate, and Re does not influence on the value. The eutectic fraction increases with increasing Re addition. Partition coefficients of alloying elements were investigated with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis. The data was submitted to a statistical treatment to establish the solidification path, and the partition
    coefficients were measured by fitting the curve with a modified Scheil formula. It is shown that the addition of Re results in bigger microsegregation of alloying elements in directionally solidified AM3 superalloy.
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    Anisotropic Creep Rupture Properties of a Nickel-base Single Crystal Superalloy at High Temperature
    Shaohua Zhang, Jian Zhang, Langhong Lou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 107-112. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The stress rupture properties of a single crystal superalloy were tested at 975°C/255MPa as a function of the deviation degrees from [001]. The misorientation of the specimens away from [001] distributed approximately along a line between [001]-[011] and [001]-[-111] boundaries in the triangle of the stereographic projection. Creep rupture lifetimes of the specimens were not sensitive to the misorientation until the deviation degree exceeded ~30°. Two steps of lattice rotation were found in all specimens during creep, first towards the [001]-[-111] boundary, and then to [001] or [-111] along the boundary. Single slip and strong asymmetric deformation were observed during the first stage of lattice rotation in specimens with large misorientation. The rotation mechanism was associated with the activated slip systems according to the calculated Schmid factors. The impact of lattice rotation on the rupture properties was also discussed.
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    Solidification Behavior and Segregation of Re-containing Cast Ni-base Superalloy with Different Cr Content
    Xiurong Guan, Enze Liu, Zhi Zheng, Yongsi Yu, Jian Tong, Yuchun Zhai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 113-117. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The effect of chromium (Cr) on solidification and segregation behavior of Re-containing cast Ni-base superalloys was investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA). The results show that Cr has significant effect on solidification and segregation behavior of Re-containing cast Ni-base superalloys. The liquidus and solidus of alloy decrease with increasing Cr in alloys. The segregation coe±cient (K) of Mo increases and that of W and Re decreases gradually with increasing Cr element.
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    Evolution of Grain Selection in Spiral Selector during Directional Solidification of Nickel-base Superalloys
    Xiangbin Meng, Jinguo Li,Tao Jin, Xiaofeng Sun, Changbo Sun, Zhuangqi Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 118-126. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The process of grain selection in the spiral selector was investigated by both a ProCAST simulation based on a cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model and experimental confirmation. The results show that the height of starter block, the spiral diameter and initial angle play an important role in grain selection. The dimension of selector should be maintained in a stable range to optimize the grain orientation and select a single crystal efficiently. A selector which can efficiently select a single crystal had been successfully designed. Grain orientation fluctuation in the spiral part was also studied by means of the variation of thermal condition.
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    Novel Processing and Characterization Methods
    Hybrid Friction Stir Welding of High-carbon Steel
    Don-Hyun Choi, Chang-Yong Lee, Byung-Wook Ahn, Jung-Hyun Choi, Yun-Mo Yeon, Keun Song, Seung-Gab Hong, Won-Bae Lee, Ki-Bong Kang, Seung-Boo Jung
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 127-130. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    A high-carbon steel joint, SK5 (0.84 wt% C), was successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW), both without and with a gas torch, in order to control the cooling rate during welding. After welding, the weld zone comprised gray and black regions, corresponding to microstructural variation: a martensite structure and a duplex structure of ferrite and cementite, respectively. The volume fraction of the martensite structure and the Vickers hardness in the welds were decreased with the using of the gas torch, which was related with the lower cooling rate.
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    Microstructural Evolution of Infrared Brazed CP-Ti Using Ti-Cu-Ni Brazes
    C.T. Chang, T.Y. Yeh, R.K. Shiue, C.S. Chang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 131-138. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Microstructural evolution of infrared vacuum brazing CP-Ti using two Ti-based braze alloys, Ti-15Cu-15Ni and Ti-15Cu-25Ni, have been investigated. The infrared brazed joint consists of eutectic Ti2Cu/Ti2Ni intermetallic compounds and Ti-rich matrix. The eutectic Ti2Cu/Ti2Ni intermetallic compounds are disappeared from the joint after 1h annealed at 900oC. In contrast, the depletion rate of both Cu and Ni from the braze alloy into CP-Ti substrate at 750oC annealing is greatly decreased as compared with that annealed at 900oC. Blocky Ti2Cu/Ti2Ni phases are observed even if the specimen is annealed at 750oC for 15h. Because the Ni content of the Ti-15Cu-25Ni braze alloy is much higher than that of the Ti-15Cu-15Ni alloy, the amount of eutectic Ti2Cu/Ti2Ni phases in Ti-15Cu-25Ni brazed joint is more than that in Ti-15Ci-15Ni brazed joint. However, similar microstructural evolution can be obtained from the infrared brazed joint annealed at various temperatures and/or time periods for both filler metals.
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    Microstructural Characterization and Hardness Behavior of a Biological Saxidomus purpuratus Shell
    Wen Yang, Guangping Zhang, Huasai Liu, Xiaowu Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 139-146. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructures of the Saxidomus purpuratus shell were observed. It was found that the inner and middle layers of the shell are composed of crossed lamellae, while the outer layer exhibits porous structures. With the characteristic structure of each layer, the hardness of inner layer with narrow domains in crossed lamellar structure is the highest, and that of middle layer with wide domains is lower, while the outer layer has the lowest hardness. The damage morphologies of the indentations change a lot, depending not only upon the magnitude of the indentation load, but also upon the orientation between the indentation direction and the crossed lamellae in the microstructure of the shell, which illustrates the anisotropy in mechanical properties of such shells.
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    Growth of BeO nanograins synthesized by polyacrylamide gel route
    Xiaofeng Wang, Richu Wang, Chaoqun Peng, Tingting Li, Bing Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 147-152. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    BeO nanoparticles were synthesized by polyacrylamide gel route. The effects of the processing parameters on the morphology and size of the synthesized BeO nanoparticles were investigated. The calcination temperature of the gel precursor containing beryllium sulfate was determined by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), which is around 690 °C and 160 °C lower than the general temperature. X-ray diffractometry(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and specific surface area measurements(BET) showed that the synthesized nanoparticles under 700 °C were pure, globular and about ~ 5-20 nm with narrow distribution. Interestingly, the nanograins coalesced and grew under higher calcination temperatures and longer calcination times. The influence of calcination temperature on the morphology and growth behavior is greater than that of its duration. The activation energy for grain growth was estimated to be 24.53 kJ/mol, and the dominant growth mechanism was most likely to be related to the vapor transport in pore control mode and grain-rotation-induced grain coalescence (GRIGC) mechanism.
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    Growth Mechanism of Different Morphologies of ZnO Crystals Prepared by Hydrothermal Method
    Hu Wang, Juan Xie, Kangping Yan, Ming Duan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 153-158. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Different morphologies of zinc oxide (ZnO), including microrods, hexagonal pyramid-like rods and flower-like rod aggregates, had been synthesized, respectively, on glass substrates by controlling the reaction conditions (such as precursor concentration, reaction time and pH value) of hydrothermal method. The morphologies of the as-obtained ZnO were observed with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
    Also, the crystalline natures of di®erent ZnO crystals were analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The possible growth mechanism of ZnO crystals with di®erent morphologies was discussed.
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    Microstructural Evolution of Rapidly Solidified ZK60 Powders during Extrusion
    Zhenya Zhang, Huashun Yu, Shaoqing Wang, Hui Yu, Guanghui Min
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 159-164. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The microstructural evolution of rapidly solidified (RS) ZK60 powders extruded at 250°C was investigated. It was shown that formation of new ultrafine grains took place through continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX), accompanied by the perfect bonding of powders via severe plastic deformation. At a low strain level, a well-defined structure made up of equiaxed and elongated subgrains was developed. Simultaneously, the operation of basal and non-basal dislocation slip led to the formation of low-angle dislocation cells (LADC) within the elongated subgrains. With increasing strain, the number and average misorientation of LADC increased, resulting in fragmentation of original elongation subgrains into a finally homogeneous fine-grained structure. Almost full-recrystallized structure with an average grain size of 0.4 μm was finally evolved after large cumulative strain. The results suggested that structural change was connected with thermal strain, where dislocation activities dominated this process.
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    Synthesis and Photoluminescence Enhancement of Silver Nanoparticles Decorated Porous Anodic Alumina
    Song Ye, Yidong Hou, Renyi Zhu, Shulong Gu, Jingquan Wang, Zhiyou Zhang, Sha Shi, Jinglei Du
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 165-169. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully assembled in porous anodic alumina (AAO) templates via a green silver mirror reaction. The Ag NPs/AAO composite templates then were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the photoluminescence (PL) properties were also investigated. Compared with the blank AAO, the PL intensity of Ag NPs/AAO templates are enhanced and the maximum enhancement is 2.58 times. Based on the local electric field enhancement e®ect, the theoretical values were also deduced, which are basically coincident with the experimental.
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    Regular Papers
    Electron Structure and Microwave Absorbing Ability of Flaky FeSiAl Powders
    T.D. Zhou, D.F. Liang, L.J. Deng, D.C. Luan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 170-174. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Soft magnetic metallic materials have been widely used for absorbing electromagnetic wave. Flaky Fe86-tSitAl14 (t=9, 11, 14 and 16) alloys powders were prepared from melt-quenched ribbons by annealing and milling. In a previous report we discussed the order-disordered structure of this alloys. In this article, we studied their electron structure. Covalence electron numbers of (111) and (100) plane increase with increasing Si content but Bohr magneton decreases. Complex permittivity and complex permeability are both decreased with increasing Si content t. The lowest value of reflectivity among the four alloys is originated from Fe70Si14Al14. The peak values of reflectivity are all lower than -10 dB, and the absorbing frequency range (R<-10 dB) increases
    from 1 to 2 GHz when t reaches 16.
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    A Rate-Dependent Crystal Plasticity Analysis of Orientation Stability in Biaxial Tension of Magnesium
    Donghong Zhang, Saiyi Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 175-182. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The development of texture during plastic deformation plays an important role in determining the stretch formability of magnesium alloy sheets. In this study, the orientation stability during equibiaxial tension of magnesium was analyzed based on three dimensional lattice rotations calculated by using a rate-dependent crystal plasticity model and assuming five different combinations of slip modes. The results show that no orientations can satisfy the stability criteria with both zero rotation velocity and convergent orientation flow in all dimensions. However, relatively stable orientations with zero rotation velocity and an overall convergence are found. They are featured by characteristic alignments of specific crystallographic directions in the macroscopic axis of contraction, depending on the slip modes involved in the deformation. It is also shown that the orientation stability varies significantly with the deviation of deformation mode from equibiaxial tension. The simulation results are briefly discussed in comparison with pre-existing experiments.
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    Solute Redistribution with Shear Flow in Molten Pool of Ni-Cr Alloy
    Zhibo Dong, Shujuan Wang, Rui Ma, Yanhong Wei, Kuijing Song, Guofu Zhai
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 183-188. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Columnar grain growth with shear °ow in molten pool of Ni-Cr alloy was simulated with a coupled model of grain growth and solute transport. The results indicate that shear °ow alters solute distribution at the vicinity of columnar grains. The solute concentration gradient on the upstream side is greater, while that on the downstream side is smaller, leading to asymmetrical growth of columnar grains. In the interior of a columnar grain, solute concentration increases from the bottom to the dendrite tip, but the rate of increase tends to be reduced. The simulated results are consistent with the experiments.
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    Crystallization Behaviour and Nanostructuring in Alkali Niobiosilicate Glasses
    E. Fanelli, P. Pernice, M. Xiao, A. Aronne, V.N. Sigaev
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27 (2): 189-192. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    23K2O·27Nb2O5·50SiO2 (KNS), 13K2O·10Na2O·27Nb2O5·50SiO2 (KNaNS) and 15K212Li2O·27Nb2O5·46SiO2 (KLiNS) transparent glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching technique, and studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to reveal the effect of the devitrification behaviour on transparent nanostructure. Just above the glass transition temperature Tg in the KNS glass, an unidentified phase was formed, while in KNaNS and KLiNS, mixed-alkali niobate phases with tungsten bronze structure were obtained by bulk crystallization. Heat treatments at Tg performed on the KNS glass resulted in the transparent nanostructure with second order harmonic generation (SHG) activity. Heat treatment for 10 h on KNaNS and KLiNS decreased the first DTA exothermic peaks (at least 24°C), indicating the bulk nucleation, which was confirmed by the DTA in comparison with the powdered as-quenched samples. KNaNS and KLiNS showed similar XRD profiles as the K3Li2Nb5O15 crystal with the five most intense peaks at 22.7, 29.4, 32.3, 46.3 and 52.0 deg. HRTEM micro-graph showed clear-cut nano-sized circular domains and spherical nanocrystals dispersed into the amorphous matrix.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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