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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      30 November 2010, Volume 26 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Thin Film and Coatings
    Effect of Substrate and Annealing Temperatures on Mechanical Properties of Ti-rich NiTi Films
    A. Kumar S.K. Sharma S. Bysakh S.V. Kamat S. Mohan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 961-966. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (860KB)
    The effect of substrate and annealing temperatures on mechanical properties of Ti-rich NiTi films deposited on Si (100) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering was studied by nanoindentation. NiTi films were deposited at two substrate temperatures viz. 300 and 400°C. NiTi films deposited at 300°C were annealed for 4 h at four different temperatures, i.e. 300, 400, 500 and 600°C whereas films deposited at 400°C were annealed for 4 h at three different temperatures, i.e. 400, 500 and 600°C. The elastic modulus and hardness of the films were found to be the same in the as-deposited as well as annealed conditions for both substrate temperatures. For a given substrate temperature, the hardness and elastic modulus were found to remain unchanged as long as the films were amorphous. However, both elastic modulus and hardness showed  an increase with increasing annealing temperature as the films become crystalline. The results were explained on the basis of the change in microstructure of the film with change in annealing temperature.
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    Influence of Nitrogen Flow Rate on the Microstructure and Properties of N and Me (Me=Cr, Zr) Co-doped Diamond-like Carbon Films
    Zhiyun Han, Hongkai Li, Guoqiang Lin, Chuang Dong
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 967-972. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (749KB)
    In this paper, Me (Me=Cr, Zr) and N co-doped diamond like carbon (DLC-MeN) composite films were prepared on cemented carbide substrates by pulsed bias arc ion plating. The effect of nitrogen flow rates on the microstructure and properties of the films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nano-indentation. Raman, GIXRD and HRTEM results show that the deposited films are nanocomposite films with MeN nanocrystalline phase embedded within DLC amorphous matrix, which are vital for the mechanical properties of the films. The nitrogen flow rate has significant effect on the compositions and structures and hence on the hardness and elastic modulus of the films, and increasing nitrogen flow rate decreases drastically the hardness and elastic modulus of the films.
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    Properties of ZnO Thin Films Grown on Si (100) Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition
    Young Rae Jang Keon-Ho Yoo Seung Min Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 973-976. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (625KB)
    ZnO thin films were grown on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition using a ZnO target. The substrate temperature was varied in the range of room temperature to 800°C, and the oxygen partial pressure of 0.1333 Pa (1 mTorr) to 1333 Pa (10 Torr). The properties of the resulting films were investigated by photoluminescence (PL), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the ultraviolet (UV, ~ 380 nm) to visible emission ratio in the PL spectrum, the optimum growth conditions were determined to be 600°C and 133.3 Pa (1 Torr), respectively. The oxygen 1s peak in the XPS spectrum was decomposed into two peaks. The peak at lower binding energy increased in intensity with the oxygen partial pressure from 0.1333 Pa (1 mTorr) to 133.3 Pa (1 Torr) while the other peak decreased. The GIXRD curve at the optimum condition showed strong two peaks (002) and (103). A strong correlation between the (103) peak intensity and the UV emission intensity was found.
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    Optical Properties of Neodymium Substituted Bismuth Titanate Thin Film Grown by Metal-organic Solution Deposition
    Yuehua Wang Xinyin Zhao Na Zhao Min Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 977-980. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (267KB)
    Well-crystallized Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 (BNT) thin film with good surface morphology was prepared by metal-organic solution deposition (MOD). The waveguide property was investigated by using a Metricon 2010 prism coupler. The nonlinear optical properties of the film were measured by Z-scan technique at a wavelength of 532 nm with pulse durations of 35 ps. A large positive nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear refractive coefficient and two-photon absorption coefficient were determined to be 2.7×10-7 esu, 5.29×10-7 esu and 2.41×10-7 m/W, respectively. The origin of optical nonlinearity of BNT thin film was discussed. The results suggested that the the BNT thin film may be a kind of new multifunctional materials.
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    Enhanced Ferroelectric Properties of Predominantly (100)-oriented Ca0:4Sr 0:6Bi4Ti4O15 Thin Films on Pt/Ti /SiO2/Si Substrates
    Che QuanDeSuhua Fany, Quande Che, Fengqing Zhang, Ran Yu and Wei Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 981-985. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (679KB)
    Predominantly (100)-oriented Ca0.4Sr0.6Bi4Ti4O15 (C0.4S0.6BTi) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel method at annealing temperatures ranging from 650°C to 850°C. The growth mode of the predominantly (100)-oriented C0.4S0.6BTi thin films fabricated by the sequential layer annealing method was discussed based on the structure evolution with the annealing temperature. The remnant polarization and coercive field of the C0.4S0.6BTi film annealed at 800°C are 16.1μC/cm2 and 85kV/cm, respectively. No evident fatigue can be observed after 109 switching cycles.
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    Nanostructural Features and Optical Performance of RF Magnetron Sputtered ZnO Thin Films
    A.K. Srivastava Praveen M. Arora S.K. Gupta B.R. Chakraborty S. Chandra S. Toyoda, H. Bahadur
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 986-990. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (655KB)
    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were grown on silicon substrate by RF (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering. Surface topography of these films exhibited a nanostructured granular appearance with the size of individual grains between 50 to 100 nm. Corresponding cross-sectional electron micrographs revealed columnar grains in the form of aggregated nanorods/wires with length of about 500 nm, similar to the thickness of these thin films of ZnO nucleated and grown vertically on the silicon substrate. High resolution lattice scale imaging using high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) elucidated the single crystalline 10¹10 planes of hexagonal-ZnO constituting the columnar grains with the individual nanorod diameter between 3 and 4 nm. The photoluminescence measurements showed the prominent emission peak at around 460 nm for the blue band, normally attributed to intrinsic defects in particular interstitial zinc (Zn). These films were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to evaluate various aspects on preferred growth orientations, band structures and vibrational modes originated in such fascinating nano-grained thin films of ZnO. The present investigations inferred that these films are advantageous in various potential applications for fabricating nano-scaled devices.
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    Thermal Stress in Free-standing Diamond Films with Cr Interlayer Destroyed
    Zheng Liu Liangxian Chen Chengming Li Lifu Hei Jianhua Song Guangchao Chen,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 991-995. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (846KB)
    Thermal stress in large area free-standing diamond films was remarkable during the post-deposition cooling of direct current (DC) arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In this research, the stress release caused by delamination of Cr interlayer was of great importance to ensure the integrity of free-standing diamond film. The effects of Cr interlayer on Mo substrate, namely composite substrate, on thermal stress were investigated. Thermo-mechanical coupling analysis of the thermal stress was applied by finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS code. It was found that the interlayer could be destroyed first by the large thermal stress, and then the stress could be released and the probability of diamond film crack initiation would be reduced. The stress concentration at the bent edge of diamond film was also discussed. In addition, diamond films deposited on Mo substrates with and without Cr interlayer were prepared by DC arc plasma jet CVD system and experimental measurements were used to characterize these films. It was found that composite substrate could be an effective method of growing free-standing crack-free diamond films by DC arc plasma jet CVD system when there is no special requirement to the film strength.
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    Preparation of Oriented Barium Titanate Thin Films by Combination of Electrophoretic Deposition with Hydrothermal Treatment
    Lihong Xue Youwei Yan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 996-1000. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (624KB)
    Highly oriented barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films on Pt substrate were fabricated by combination of electrophoretic deposition with hydrothermal treatment. The structure and morphology of thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the titania precursor film, Ba(OH)2  oncentration and hydrothermal temperature play crucial roles in the film morphology and orientation. The BaTiO3 thin films with highly (110) preferred orientation can be formed on  polycrystalline Pt substrate by appropriate adjustment of the reaction conditions. The orientation parameter f of highly oriented BaTiO3 films was up to 1.00. The films exhibited a smooth and crack-free surface and remained in the layered structure. In situ topotactic transformation and dissolution-crystallization mechanisms were proposed to explain the morphology and orientation of BaTiO3 films during hydrothermal treatment.
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    Numerical Study on the Effects of Equi-biaxial Residual Stress on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Film by Means of Nanoindentation
    Lizeng Ling Shiguo Long Zengsheng Ma Xu Liang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1001-1005. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (649KB)
    In this paper, mechanical properties of Nickel film under residual stress have been systematically examined by finite element method in nanoindentation. It was found that load-displacement curves shifted under elastic residual stress and residual stress exceeded the yield stress for fixed indentation depth. Indentation profiles changed monotonously with compressive and tensile stresses at peak force which determinates contact area observed directly by finite element modeling (FEM). The elastic residual stress has an effect slightly on the hardness but residual stress exceeded the yield stress shows a remarkable effect in nickel film. The hardness increased when residual stress exceeded the yield stress increased under tensile and compressive stress applied to specimen. The relationship between residual stress and hardness was linear. It was found that residual stresses didn0t affect elastic modulus whether elastic residual stress or plastic stress was applied to specimen.
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    Production of  "Tricalcium Phosphate/Titanium Dioxide" Coating Surface on Titanium Substrates
    Onder Albayrak, Sabri Altintas
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1006-1010. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (515KB)
    A new method for the production of the coating surface consisting of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) on titanium (Ti) substrates by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed. Crack occurrence on coating surface and hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition into TCP, which are commonly encountered in EPD method, were used as an advantage in this study. HA nano-powders synthesized by acid-base method were used as the coating material. They were deposited on Ti substrates with different voltages and durations. Cracks on the deposited surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples were sintered in air atmosphere to allow TiO2 growth from the Ti substrate to fill the cracks. SEM observation and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved the occurrence of complete decomposition of HA into TCP, TiO2 growth between cracks, and coalescence of TCP/TiO2 on coating surface. This type of coating surface is expected to increase the coating strength because of TiO2 growth in the cracks and its coalescence with TCP.
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    Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microwave Electromagnetic Properties of Carbonyl Iron/Epoxy-Silicone Resin Coatings
    Yuchang Qing, Wancheng Zhou, Shu Jia, Fa Luo, Dongmei Zhu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1011-1015. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (731KB)
    Microwave absorbing properties of the carbonyl iron particles filled epoxy-silicone resin coatings showed visible degression when the coatings were heat treated at 300°C with different time. The complex permittivity and permeability of the coatings before and after heat treatment were measured. After heat treatment at 300°C, the real part of permittivity of the coatings increased with increasing treatment time and showed frequency dependence dielectric response. The complex permeability showed remarkable variation while the resonance frequency of the coatings heat treated at 300°C shifted from 7 to 12 GHz. The electromagnetic results indicated that microwave absorbing properties of the coatings showed more dependent on the complex permeability. The results showed that the difference of the electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties before and after heat treatment was mainly attributed to the crystalline state transition of carbonyl iron particles.
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    Effects of Current Density on the Microstructure and the Corrosion Resistance of Alumina Coatings Embedded with SiC Nano-particles Produced by Micro-arc Oxidation
    Yue Yang, Yaohui Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1016-1020. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (712KB)
    To improve the surface corrosion resistance of the alumina films fabricated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO), Al2O3 coatings at di®erent current densities (5, 7 and 10 A/dm2) were produced on aluminum alloys by adding SiC nano-particles into electrolyte during MAO process. The morphology and phase composition of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Furthermore, the corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated via a three-electrode system in a 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution. From the obtained morphology of alumina coatings, it was believed that the Al2O3 coatings embedded with SiC nano-particles were formed. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots and potentiodynamic polarization plots of the Al2O3 coatings with and without SiC nano-particles at different current densities reveal that the Al2O3 coatings with SiC nano-particles formed at 10 A/dm2 showed the better corrosion resistance than the other coatings produced at 5 and 7 A/dm2.
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    Preparation of a SiC/Cristobalite-AlPO4 Multi-layer Protective Coating on Carbon/Carbon Composites and Resultant Oxidation Kinetics and Mechanism
    Jianfeng Huang Wendong Yang Liyun Cao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1021-1026. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (643KB)
    In order to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, a SiC/C-AlPO4 multi-layer coating was fabricated on the C/C composites by a simple and low-cost method. The internal SiC bonding layer was prepared by a two-step pack cementation process and the external C-AlPO4 coating was deposited by hydrothermal electrophoretic deposition process. Phase compositions and microstructures of the as-prepared multi-layer coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scaning electron microspocy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Anti-oxidation properties, oxidation behavior and the failure behavior of the coated composites were investigated. The results indicate that the multi-layer coating exhibits obviously two-layer structure. The inner layer is composed of β-SiC, α-SiC phase with a scale of silicon phase. The outer layer is composed of cristobalite aluminum phosphate (C-AlPO4) crystallites. The SEM observation shows the good bonding between the inner and outer layers. The multi-layer coating displays an excellent oxidation resistance in air in the temperature range from 1573 to 1773 K, and the corresponding oxidation activation energy of the coated C/C composites is calculated to be 117.2 kJ/mol. The oxidation process is predominantly controlled by the diffusion of O2 through the C-AlPO4 coating. The failure of the multi-layer coating results from the generation of the microholes that may be left by the escape of the oxidation gases.
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    Comparison Study of Corrosion Behavior and Biocompatibility of Polyethyleneimine (PEI)/Heparin and Chitosan/Heparin Coatings on NiTi alloy
    Ping Dong, Weichang Hao, Yayi Xia ,Guozu Da, Tianmin Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1027-1031. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (471KB)
    Biomedical molecule has received extensive application in surface modification coating. In this paper, polyethyleneimine (PEI)/heparin coating and chitosan/heparin coating on NiTi alloy substrates were prepared by layer-by-layer method, and differences of corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of the coatings were studied. Static contact angles and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) test were used to analysis the surface morphology and structure character of the materials, and atomic absorption spectrum was used to verify the corrosion behavior of the materials. Furthermore, hemolysis, dynamic clotting time and platelet binding test were utilized to investigate the biocompatibility of the materials. The results revealed that the blood compatibility of PEI/heparin coating is better than that of the chitosan/heparin coating as well as the substrate.
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    Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology
    Electrophoretic Deposition of Oxide Nanoparticles for Electron Emission Enhancement
    Jong Rok Ahn, Gil Seon Kang, Hwack Joo Lee, Chang Joon Park
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1032-1036. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (825KB)
    Four oxide nanoparticles, such as yttrium oxide, lanthanum oxide, cerium oxide and zirconium oxide were coated on rhenium filaments by an electrophoretic deposition method. The oxide coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and electron emission characteristics of the oxide-coated rhenium were studied to find alternative oxide materials for replacing the hazardous thorium oxide. Among four oxides tested in this work, yttrium oxide and lanthanum oxide coated rhenium showed enhanced electron emission compared with an uncoated rhenium. However, lanthanum oxide coating evaporated too quickly in a vacuum chamber, and hence yttrium oxide was found to be the only alternative material for use in a routine mass spectrometry. An optimum coating thickness of the yttrium oxide and lanthanum oxide was around 20 μm.
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    A Cost-Effective Co-precipitation Method for Synthesizing Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles without Chlorine Contamination
    Haiwen Wang, Xiujuan Xu, Jianrong Zhang, Chunzhong Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1037-1040. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (328KB)
    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles with crystallite size of 12.6 nm and specific surface area of 45.7 m2·g-1 were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The indium solution was obtained by dissolving metal indium in HNO3. The tin solution was obtained by dissolving metal tin in HNO3 and followed by stabilizing with citric acid. The free of chlorine ions in the synthesis process brought several advantages: shortening the synthesis time, decreasing the particle agglomeration, decreasing the chlorine content in the ITO nanoparticles and improving the particle sinterability. This is the first time to report the synthesis of ITO nanoparticles free from chlorine contamination without using the expensive metal alkoxides as starting materials.
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    Factors Affecting the Growth of SiC Nano-whiskers
    Y.F. Chen, X.Z. Liu, X.W. Deng
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1041-1046. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (692KB)
    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a IV-IV compound semiconductor material with a wide band gap. Semiconductor electronic devices and circuits made from SiC are presently developed for high-temperature, high-power, and high-radiation conditions, in which conventional semiconductors cannot be adequately performed. In this paper, SiH4 and C2H2 were used to synthesize SiC nano-whiskers. Metal Ni was the catalyst. SiC nano-whiskers were grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. The effects of the H2 flow rate, growth temperature, catalyst thickness and growth pressure to grow SiC nano-whiskers were studied. 3C-SiC thin film and nano-tips can be synthesized by controlling the growth conditions.
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    Microstructure Investigation on the Triple Junction with an Adjoining Twin Boundary in Nanocrystalline Palladium
    Yuchen Wang, Zhenxing Su, Dehai Ping
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1047-1050. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (526KB)
    By using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, a [¹110] triple junction (TJ) containing a twin boundary (TB) in nanocrystalline palladium has been observed along the common axis direction. Molecular statics calculation and imaging simulation were performed to determine the atomic structure of the TJ. The modeling structure exhibits that the adjoining TB is a distorted one, whilst other two adjoining grain boundaries (GBs) exist in steady equilibrium states. The present observation gives a clear  example  demonstrating that the adjoining TB can release the larger stresses residing at the junction.
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    Structure and Magnetic Properties of Boron-oxide and Boron-nitride Coated Iron Nanocapsules
    W.S. Zhang, J.G. Zheng, E. Bruck, P.Z. Si, D.Y. Geng, Z.D. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 26 (11): 1051-1056. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (584KB)
    The boron-oxide coated iron nanocapsules have been prepared by arc-discharge in a mixture of diborane and nitrogen, and then the boron-nitride coated iron nanocapsules by a subsequent annealing under a nitrogen atmosphere at 1100°C. After the arc-discharge, the boron-oxide coated iron nanocapsules form, which show an  amorphous surface layer of B2O3 (and/or B) and a core of γ-Fe, α-Fe, FeB phases. After being annealed, part of the α-Fe phase transforms to the γ-Fe phase, and the FeB phase decomposes while the BN phase forms. The BN shell structure formed in the BN encapsulating iron nanocapsules is incomplete. Magnetic properties of the boron-oxide coated and the boron-nitride coated iron nanocapsules were compared and discussed in terms of the particles sizes, the phase components, and the surface structures.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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