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CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 May 2002, Volume 18 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research Articles
    A Simple Model to Estimate the Yield Strength of Silicon Carbide Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composites
    Mingjiu ZHAO, Lijuan ZHU, Yue LIU, Jing BI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 193-194. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (428KB)
    In the present study, a modified Hall-Petch correlation on the basis of dislocation pile-up model was used to estimate the yield strength of SiCp/Al composites. The experimental results show that the modified Hall-Petch correlation expressed as scy=244+371l-1/2 fits very well with the experimental data, which indicated that the strength increase of SiCp/Al composites might be due to the direct blocking of dislocation motion by the particulate-matrix interface, namely, the dislocation pile-up is the most possible strengthening mechanism for SiCp/Al composites.
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    Water-Air Mixing Jet Produced by Electro-hydraulic Impulse Technology Strengthening the Quality of Surface of Metal Materials
    Zhenfang LIAO, Shijin ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 194-196. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (635KB)
    Electro-hydraulic impulse water-air mixing jet by which the quality of metal materials can be improved is described in this paper. The experimental results proved that the hardness and the micro-hardness of the surface layer of metal materials can be improved with this method, for example, the microhardness of CrWMn can be increased by 35.62 percent.
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    Modeling and Simulation of the Microstructure Evolution during a Cooling of Immiscible Alloys in the Miscibility Gap
    Jiuzhou ZHAO, L.Ratke, Jun JIA, Qingchun LI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 197-205. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1909KB)
    The microstructure development during a cooling period of alloys being immiscible in the liquid state such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi has gained renewed scientific and technical interest during the last decades. Experiments have been performed to investigate the phase transformation kinetics in the liquid miscibility gap and numerical models have been developed to simulate and analyze the solidification process. The recently developed computational modeling techniques can, to some extent, be applied to describe the decomposition, the spatial phase separation and the microstructure evolution during a cooling period of an immiscible alloy through the miscibility gap. This article overviews the researches in this field.
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    Crystalline Silicotitanate: a New Type of Ion Exchanger for Cs Removal from Liquid Waste
    Bo YU, Jing CHEN, Chongli SONG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 206-210. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1058KB)
    The research and developments of a new type of inorganic ion exchanger, crystalline silicotitanate (CST) are reviewed. This material is stable against radiation, and the CST has high selectivity for Cs over Na, K and Rb. It performs well in acidic, neutral, and basic solutions. The results of ion exchange tests show that CST is an excellent candidate for Cs removal from high-level liquid waste.
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    Review on Sol-Gel Derived Coatings: Process, Techniques and Optical Applications
    S.M.Attia, Jue WANG, Guangming WU, Jun SHEN, Jianhua MA
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 211-217. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1658KB)
    Sol-gel process is one of the simplest techniques to manufacture thin films. The quality of the prepared films depends on the parameters of the sol-gel process and the used technique for deposition. A great variety of the sol-gel derived films have been prepared for different applications. We present a review on the sol-gel derived coatings. The description of the process is introduced in details. Different sol-gel deposition techniques are mentioned. The optical applications of the sol-gel derived coatings are reviewed.
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    Magnetic Ordering and Exchange Interaction of Laves Compounds Sm0.9Pr0.1(Fe1-xCox)2
    Zhijun GUO, Zhidong ZHANG, Xinguo ZHAO, Xiaoping SONG, Bowen WANG, Ximei JIN, Dianyu GENG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 219-224. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1471KB)
    Structure, magnetic properties and magnetostriction of Sm0.9Pr0.1(Fe1-xCox)2 compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, a.c. initial susceptibility, extracting sample magnetometer, Mössbauer spectroscopy and standard strain gauge techniques. The lattice parameter a of the MgCu2-type Laves compounds Sm0.9Pr0.1(Fe1-xCox)2 decreases nonlinearly with increasing Co concentration, deviating from the Vegard's law. Curie temperature Tc increases initially from 668 K for x=0 to 694 K for x=0.2 and then decreases to 200 K for x=1.0. The saturation magnetization Ms at temperatures 1.5 K, 77 K and 300 K have the same variation tendency as the composition dependence of Curie temperature, in consistence with rigid-band model. The easy magnetization direction (EMD) of Sm0.9Pr0.1(Fe1-xCox)2 lies along [111] direction in the range x<0.6, and changes to [110] for x=0.8, while Sm0.9Pr0.1Co2 stays in the paramagnetic state at room temperature. The composition dependence of the average hyperfine field, Hhf, demonstrates a similar variation tendency as that of the saturation magnetization Ms and Curie temperature Tc. The spontaneous magnetostricton l111 increases with increasing Co content. The saturation magnetostriction ls decreases monotonically with increasing x, which is caused by the increase of magnetostriction constant l100 with opposite sign to that of l111. A two-sublattice model has been proposed to understand the intermediate region between the [111] and [110] spin configurations, which can also be used to explain the temperature dependence of magnetization.
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    Influence of Magnetic Field Intensity on the Shape of them-T Curves for Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 Alloy
    Yajing ZHANG, Kaiyuan HE, Zhi WANG, Changsheng LIU, Lizhi CHENG, Hongcai YANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 224-226. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (574KB)
    Under different magnetic field intensities, the dependence of the permeability m on temperature T(m-T curve) for the Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy annealed at 350~620°C was investigated. The results showed that the magnetic field intensity had a remarkable influence on the shape of m-T curves. For amorphous alloy, the sharp Hopkinson peak of m-T curve disappeared gradually with the increase of magnetic field intensity.
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    Isothermal Gas Forming of Mg Alloy AZ31 Sheet
    Yung-Hung Chen, Shyong Lee, Jian-Yih Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 227-230. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2376KB)
    There have been reports on sheet forming of Mg alloy in industry via the punch and die method; this paper is probably the first formal one for studying the sheet formability of AZ31 employing pressurized gas to press the sheet into a female die cavity at various elevated temperatures. The results indicate it is feasible to form a rectangular box via pressurized gas from extruded sheets of 0.5 and 1.7 mm thick. The formed box has 1:2 depth over width ratio, which should be large enough when dealing with realistic industrial sheet forming parts. Presently, forming a sheet of 0.5 mm thick is considered a technical challenge by industry, and it is conquered as demonstrated in this paper. Gas forming technique applied to Mg alloy is unprecedented and shows potential for industrial utilization.
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    EPR and Magnetic Susceptibility Investigation of Fe Ions in B2O3-SrF2 Glass Matrix
    I.Ardelean, M.Peteanu, V.Simon, G.Salvan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 231-233. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (528KB)
    The structural and magnetic propertiies of an oxide-fluoride mixe vitreous matrix 2B2O3•SrF2, were explored by using Fe impurities as probes. Information about the structural units involving iron ions, their valence state, the strengths and type of interactions involving them was obtained using EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements.
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    Effect of Cu Addition on W-Ni-Fe Alloys Sintered at a Low Temperature
    Chuanbin WANG, Qiang SHEN, Lianmeng ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 234-236. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (862KB)
    In this study, Cu was added as the third additive to lower the sintering temperature of W-Ni-Fe alloy. By adding 2 wt pct Cu, a dense 93W-3.5Ni-1.5Fe-2.0Cu tungsten alloy was obtained by hot-pressing at a low temperature of 1573 K which is a process of liquid-phase sintering. As a result, the morphology of W-Ni-Fe alloy changed obviously after the addition of Cu and the alloy had higher relative density and rupture strength. The mechanism of the densification of W-Ni-Fe-Cu alloy at the low temperature was then mainly investigated. It was found that, part sintering activators Ni and Fe could exist in liquid form at 1573 K due to the addition of Cu, which made it easy for Ni and Fe to dissolve W and thus the full densification of W-Ni-Fe-Cu alloy at the low temperature was realized.
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    A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions
    Xingqiu CHEN, Hailan LI, Xueyong DING, P.Rogl, P.Podloucky
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 237-241. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (937KB)
    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.
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    Coarsening Manner and Microstructure Evolution of Al-In Hypermonotectic Alloy during Rapidly Cooling Process
    Yuan LIU, Jingjie GUO, Jun JIA, Yanqing SU, Hongsheng DING, Jiuzhou ZHAO, Xiang XUE
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 241-244. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (689KB)
    A numerical model reflecting the real physical processes well has been developed to predict the coarsening manner of the second phase droplets and the microstructural evolution under the common action of nucleation, diffusional growth, colliding coagulation during rapid cooling Al-In hypermonotectic alloys. The model reflects the real physical processes well and is also applicable to other immiscible alloys.
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    Effect of Al Content on Precipitation of a2 Ordered Phase in Ti-Al-Sn-Zr-Mo-Si-Nd Alloys
    Jun ZHANG, Dong LI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 245-247. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (869KB)
    The precipitation characteristics of the a2 ordered phase in Ti-Al-Sn-Zr-Mo-Si-Nd alloys with various content of Al, under different aging conditions, were investigated. The distribution and size of the a2 ordered phase changed with temperature and Al content. The dislocations were the only places where the a2 ordered phase could precipitate at higher temperature near the critical transformation temperature for each alloy experimented. With the addition of Al content, the critical transformation temperature of a2 ordered phase increased. When the aging temperature was relatively low (650ºC), the precedent precipitation of a2 ordered phase took place in primary a phase at the early stage of aging, in the duplex microstructure (the primary a with the transformed b) of the alloys with lower Al content. But after certain aging time (50h), the size of a2 particles was almost equal in both the primary a and the transformed b. And no obvious growth of a2 particles could be observed after 50 h.
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    Influence of Ti Powder Characteristics on Combustion Synthesis of Porous NiTi Alloy
    Yonghua LI, Lijian RONG, Yiyi LI, V.E.Gunther
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 248-250. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (966KB)
    Porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) is a novel biomedical material used for human hard tissue implant. The influence of elemental titanium powder characteristics such as powder morphology, particle size and specific surface area (SSA) on the minimal ignition temperature, combustion temperature and final product of porous NiTi SMA fabricated by combustion synthesis method was investigated in this paper by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction. The preliminary data indicated that the titanium powder characteristics had a strong effect on combustion synthesis of porous NiTi SMA.
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    Formation and Oxidation Behavior of Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystal
    Chungen ZHOU, Huibin XU, Shengkai GONG, Guangming KANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 251-253. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1011KB)
    Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 alloy was prepared by arc melting. It was found that the formation of quasicrystalline phase is related to the condition of annealing, such as temperature and duration. Weight gain of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal during the oxidation at 700 and 800ºC in dry air was measured by means of thermal balance. The oxidation kinetics showed that the quasicrystal has good oxidation resistance. Only a-Al2O3 was formed on Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 quasicrystal. The surface morphologies of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal after isothermal oxidation for different times were observed.
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    Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Lattice Distortion Region Produced by Rounded Grain Boundary in Nanocrystalline Materials
    Xiaowei WANG, Jingyang WANG, Douxing LI, J.Rifkin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 254-256. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (588KB)
    The distortion structure in nanocrystalline NiAl is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The rounded grain boundaries in these nanograins are a direct source for the observed lattice distortion. The change of grain size affects directly the volume fraction of the distorted lattice in the nanograin.
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    Strengths and Fracture Mechanisms of Al2O3 Short Fiber Reinforced Al-Mg Alloy Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperatures
    Guozheng KANG, Chuan YANG, Jixi ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 257-260. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1274KB)
    Using the experimental and theoretical methods, the tensile strengths and fracture mechanisms of Al2O3 short fiber reinforced Al-Mg alloy matrix composite at elevated temperatures were researched. The interfacial microstructural characteristics and the fracture surfaces of the composite at different temperatures were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and by scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Then, from the results of microscopic observation, the fracture mechanisms of the composite at different temperatures are discussed. Finally, the tensile strengths of the composite at elevated temperatures were predicted by statistical integration average (SIA) method with the consideratio of various fracture mechanisms. It was shown that the strengths and fracture mechanisms of the composite at elevated temperature (300°C) were significantly different from those at room temperature due to the variations of interfacial bonding states. The tensile strengths predicted by the SIA method at elevated temperatures agreed well with the experimental results.
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    Corrosion Behavior of SiCp/2024 Al Matrix Composites in 3.5 wt pct Sodium Chloride
    Chunlin HE, Changsheng LIU, Fengqin LI, Qingkui CAI Zhiming SHI, Liqing CHEN, Jing BI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 261-263. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (638KB)
    The influences of volume fraction and particle size of SiC particulate reinforcements on the corrosion characteristics of SiCp/2024 Al metal matrix composites in aerated 3.5 wt pct NaCl aqueous solution were investigated. The electrochemical behavior was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the general corrosion behavior of the composites was studied further by immersion tests. The results showed that pitting susceptibility was about the same for the composites and the alloy. The corrosion potentials were also independent of SiC phase. The corrosion resistance for the composites decreased as the volume fraction increased or particle size decreased.
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    Effect of Stearic Acid on Ettringite Formation
    Essam A.Kishar
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 263-265. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1230KB)
    The hydration reaction of a mixture of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum with the molar ratio of 1:3 was carried out at room temperature and a water/solid ratio of 4.0. The hydration was carried out in presence of 0, 1 and 3% stearic acid and the mixes were designated as A, B and C, respectively. Ettringite was the only hydration product formed in the presence and absence of stearic acid. Phase composition, microstructure, infra-red analysis as well as degree of hydration were carried out for the different hydration mixtures. The rate of ettringite formation in the presence of 3% stearic acid was accelerated during the first half hour of hydration, and then retardation was occurred. In the presence of 1% stearic acid the ettringite formation was accelerated first till 3 days, then retardation was observed at later hydration ages.
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    Density Evolution of the Surface Short Fatigue Cracks of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Pipe-Weld Metal
    Yongxiang ZHAO, Jinnuo WANG, Qing GAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 266-270. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1271KB)
    The evolutionary density and the scatter of densities of the short fatigue cracks on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti pipe-weld metal were observed by local and overall viewpoints, respectively. The local viewpoint, which is in accordance with a so-called ``effectively short fatigue crack criterion", paid attention to the dominant effective short fatigue crack (DESFC) initiation zone and the zones ahead of the DESFC tips. The overall viewpoint focused on the whole test piece of specimen. The results revealed that the density and scatter evolution exhibited a significant character of microstructural short crack and physical short crack stages. The evolutionary behavior by the local viewpoint was sensitive to the increase of DESFC size and tip location. The mechanism of the short crack growth associated with the general test observations that the DESFC acted gradually as a long crack and the scatter of DESFC growth rates tended gradually to that of a long crack was well revealed. Intrinsic causes of the random cyclic strain-life relations and stress-strain responses are appropriately given. In contrast, the evolutionary behavior by the overall viewpoint was non-sensitive and violated the general test observations. Therefore, the intrinsic localization and randomization of material evolutionary fatigue damage should be more appropriately revealed from the observations by the local viewpoint.
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    Effect of Si, Mn and Al on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ADI Weld Metal
    Daqian SUN, Zhenfeng ZHOU, Wenquan WANG, Lian LIU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 271-274. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (873KB)
    The effects of Si, Mn and Al on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ADI weld have been studied. The microstructure of ADI weld metal mainly consists of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite. Mechanical properties of ADI weld increase with increasing Si content, but an excess of Si(3.79%) results in decreasing the austemperability owing to decreasing the carbon content of the matrix austenite. Mn increases the retained austenite volume fraction, but the ductility and impact toughness of weld obviously decrease with increasing Mn content because of increased amount of martenite and twin martenite. In the range of 0.13%~0.64%, increasing Al content favours improving the mechanical properties of ADI weld. Therefore, it is very important to select suitable Si, Mn and Al contents to improve mechanical properties of ADI weld.
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    A Theoretical Analysis of Ball Spinning
    Maosheng LI, Dachang KANG, Shihong ZHANG, Yi XU, Zhongtang WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 275-278. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (751KB)
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    Analyses on Ignition-Proof Mechanics of AZ91D Alloy Added with Ce
    Xiaofeng HUANG, Hong ZHOU, Zhenming HE
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 279-280. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (521KB)
    Theoretical analysis on ignition-proof of AZ91D alloy added with Ce was studied. The effect of Ce on burning temperature was investigated. The burning temperature increases with increasing Ce by insulation work at different temperatures. The influence of Ce on maximum insulation work time was also studied. The maximum insulation work time increases with increasing Ce and decreases with the melting temperature. There is a tendency for Ce to concentrate on the surface of melting AZ91D alloy. Ce will react with MgO and O2. The resultant will fill the cavity of MgO film to form multifilm. So the density of surface film of liquid Mg will increase to prevent burning.
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    Investigation of the Microstructure of Rolled Semi-Solid Steel
    Renbo SONG, Yonglin KANG, Jianlin SUN, Xiongfei YANG, Aimin ZHAO, Weimin MAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 281-282. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1068KB)
    In this paper, spring steel-60Si2Mn and stainless steel-1Cr18Ni9Ti were rolled one pass in the semi-solid state. The microstructural evolution during rolling of the steels with different solid fraction was investigated. The experimental results showed that the manner of liquid and solid phases flowing and deforming was different. During rolling, most of solid phases remained in the center of the rolled specimens, while liquid phase flowed to the edge, which resulted in the macrosegregation of liquid and solid phases. Only the amount of solid fraction reached a certain value, were the solid phases deformed and flattened.
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    Nonlinear Electrical Properties of SnO2-Li2O-Nb2O5 Varistor System
    Changpeng LI, Jinfeng WANG, Wenbin SU, Hongcun CHEN, Wenxin WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 283-285. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (710KB)
    The electrical properties of (Nb, Li)-doped SnO2 ceramics as a new varistor material were investigated. The sample 97.95%SnO2.0.50%Li2O.0.05%Nb2O5 (mol fraction) sintered at 1450ºC possess the highest density (r=6.77 g/cm3) and nonlinear electrical coefficient (a=11.6). The substitution of Sn4+with Li+ increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies, together with the formation of solid solution, which will increase the sintering rate greatly and decrease the optimized sintering temperature. The substitution of Sn4+with Li+ and the variation of temperature play very important effects on the densities, dielectric constant, nonlinear electrical properties and other characteristics of the samples. The properties of the grain boundary barrier and the microstructural characteristics were investigated to ensure the effect of the dopants and the temperature. A grain boundary defect barrier model was used to illustrate the grain boundary barriers formation in SnO2-Li2O-Nb2O5 varistors.
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    Thermal Expansion Behavior of La1-xSrxMn1-yCoyO3-d Perovskites
    Wenhui MA, Gang XIE, Hua WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 286-287. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (365KB)
    The thermal expansion behavior of La1-xSrxMn1-yCoyO3-d (x=0.2~0.4, y=0.1~0.3) perovskites in air has been investigated. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients increased with increasing Sr content up to 40 mole fraction or Co content up to 30 mole fraction. The expansion is generally attributed to an increase in the average cation radius as some of the cations in the perovskite are reduced in valence when oxygen ions are removed from the structure.
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    Plasma Spray Forming of Nanostructured Composite Coatings
    Xianliang JIANG, Eric H.Jordan, Leon Shaw, Maurice Gell
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (03): 287-288. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (617KB)
    The nanostructure composite coating is obtained via plasma spraying of Al2O3-13 wt pct TiO2 powder. Brittle and hard lamella results from melted nanostructured powder. Ductile nanostructured matrix forms from unmelted nanostructured particles. Through the adjustment of constituent and nanostructure, hardness/strength and toughness/ductility are balanced and overall properties of the structure composite are achieved.
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