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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 July 2002, Volume 18 Issue 04 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research Articles
    Effects of Al2O3-Particulate-Contained Composite Filler Materials on the Shear Strength of Alumina Joints
    Jianguo YANG, Hongyuan FANG, Xin WAN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 289-290. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (505KB)
    Al2O3/Al3O3 joints were brazed with a new kind of filler materials, which were formed by adding Al2O3 particulates into Ag-Cu-Ti active filler metal. The results showed that the material parameters (the Ti content, Al2O3 particulate volume fraction) of the composite filler materials affected the shear strength of brazed joints. When the Ti content was 2 wt pct in the filler metal, the shear strength of brazing joints decreased with the increasing the volume ratio of Al2O3 particulate. When the Ti content was 3 wt pct in the filler metal, the shear strength of joints increased from 93.75 MPa(Al2O3p 0 vol. pct) to 135.32 MPa(Al2O3p 15 vol. pct).
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    Experimental Study about Activated Water Generated by the Electro-hydraulic Impulse Strengthening the Mechanical Performance of Concrete
    Shijin ZHANG, Zhenfang LIAO, Changlin YANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 290-292. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (619KB)
    On the basis of a great number of experiments, it is proved that the strength of concrete is improved greatly when it is mixed with activated water produced by the electro-hydraulic impulse. With the proper parameters, the compression strength of concrete can be increased by 45%. The reason for improvement of concrete strength by using activated water is discussed from the aspect of the structure of molecule.
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    Giant Stress-impedance Effect in Amorphous and Current Annealed Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 Ribbons
    Deren LI, Zhichao LU, Wei HAN, Shaoxiong ZHOU, Zhen GAO, Junfeng ZHANG, Hui LIU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 293-294. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (369KB)
    The giant stress-impedance (GSI) effect in amorphous and current annealed Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 ribbons has been investigated. The results showed that the GSI effect changed drastically with annealing techniques and the maximum stress impedance ratio of 350% was obtained after optimal conditions of current annealing. The behaviors of the stress impedance vary with densities of annealing current and the stress longitudinally applied during currentannealing. The maximum change of stress impedance existed in the sample annealed by high-current-density electropulsing under applied stress of 100 MPa.
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    Solidification Structure Formation of Undercooled Single Phase Alloys
    Jinfu LI, Yaohe ZHOU, Wanqi JIE, Gencang YANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 295-298. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1265KB)
    Solidification structure variation of single phase alloy with undercooling prior to nucleation has been widely studied. The progress, especially during the last decade, is reviewed so as to give a comprehensive knowledge for it, in which the emphases are laid on the structure evolution mechanism and the potential application. Lastly, the future interesting subjects are presented.
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    Modeling of the Microstructure Evolution in Continuously Cast Al-Pb Alloys
    Jiuzhou ZHAO, L.Ratke
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 306-310. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (991KB)
    A numerical model is presented describing the microstructure evolution of an immiscible alloy under the continuous casting conditions. Calculations are carried out to investigate the microstructure evolution in a vertical strip cast sample of Al+5 wt pct Pb alloy. The numerical results show that there exists a peak value for the supersaturation in front of the solid/liquid interface, and the minority phase droplets are nucleated in a region around this peak. Under strip casting conditions the Marangoni migration dominates the motion of droplets. This leads to an accumulation of the minority phase droplets in front of the solid/liquid interface.
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    Simulation Using Realistic Spray Cooling for the Continuous Casting of Multi-component Steel
    Houfa SHEN, Richard A.Hardin, Robert MacKenzie, C.Beckermann
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 311-314. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (975KB)
    A three-dimensional heat transfer model for continuous steel slab casting has been developed with realistic spray cooling patterns and a coupled microsegregation solidification model that calculates the solidification path for multi-component steels. Temperature and composition dependent properties are implemented in a database for 15 chemical species.Considerable effort is made to accurately model the spray cooling heat transfer. Each spray nozzle position and distribution is considered, including variations of the spray patterns with flow rate,and spray overlap. Nozzle type,layout, nozzle-to-slab distance, and spray span and flux are variable.Natural convection, thermal radiation and contact cooling of individual rolls are computed. The present model provides more comprehensive information and realistic slab surface temperatures than results from a model using the “averaged” treatment of boundary conditions. Cooling operating conditions and parameters of individual spray nozzles can be analyzed to optimize nozzle spray distribution, improve product quality, and troubleshoot issues such as nozzle clogging that may arise during production. One spray cooling correlation is used for the entire machine, achieving as good or better agreement with surface temperature measurements than was found previously for the model using an “averaged” treatment of boundary conditions and using three machine-segment-dependent correlations.
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    Solidification Simulation of Single Crystal Investment Castings
    Jiarong LI, Shizhong LIU, Zhengang ZHONG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 315-318. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (735KB)
    The three dimensional solidification simulation of the single crystal investment castings at withdrawal rates of 2 mm/min, 4.5 mm/min and 7 mm/min was performed with the finite element thermal analysis method. The calculated results were in accordance with the experimental ones. The results showed that with the increase of withdrawal rate the concave curvature of the liquidus isotherm was bigger and bigger and the temperature gradient of the castings decreased. No effects of withdrawal rate on the distribution of the temperature gradient of the starter and helical grain selector of the castings were observed at withdrawal rates of 2 mm/min, 4.5 mm/min and 7 mm/min. The relatively high temperature gradient between 500°C/cm and 1000°C/cm in the starter and helical grain selector was obtained at three withdrawal rates. The study indicates the three dimensional solidification simulation by finite element method is a powerful tool for understanding solidification and predicting defects in single crystal investment castings.
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    Evaluation of Surface Cracks Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing
    Luming LI, Songling HUANG, Peng ZHENG, Keren SHI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 319-321. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (626KB)
    The magnetic field distribution characteristics of surface cracks with various widths are discussed based on finite element (FEM) results. The crack depth was 0.20 mm, the width range was from 0.02 to 1.00 mm. The results showed that crack width and lift-off (the distance between surface and sensor) will influence signals. Discussed in this paper is the influence of various lift-off parameters on the peak to peak values of the normal component in magnetic flux leakage testing. The effects can be applied to evaluate surface breaking cracks of different widths and depths. An idea is presented to smooth narrow, sharp crack tips using alternating current (AC) field magnetization.
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    Study on the Relationship between Lamellar Spacing and Growth Rate in the Regular Eutectic Growth by Monte-Carlo Simulation
    Weimin WANG, Junming LIU, Zhiguo LIU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 322-324. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (491KB)
    A modified Monte-Carlo (MC) method to simulate the regular growth of binary eutectic alloys is presented. It is found that the growth rate has a linear dependence on the chemical potential difference between the solid and liquid; the relation between the lamellar spacing λ and growth rate R accords well with the prediction of Jackson-Hunt (JH) theory unless the growth rate is very low.
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    Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO1.5 Binary System
    Shuigen HUANG, Lin LI, O.V.D.Biest, J.Vleugels, Peiling WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 325-327. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (635KB)
    An optimal set of thermodynamic parameters of the ZrO2-CeO1.5 system has been obtained using phase diagram data by modern CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) technique. The liquid and other solid solution phases were regarded as substitutional solution. The ordered ZrO2-CeO2O7 phase was treated as a stoichiometric compound. The ZrO2-CeO2 system has been re-optimized with new reference state. A comparison between the ZrO2-CeO2 system and ZrO2-CeO1.5 system has been made through calculation. With the calculation, the experimental information is well reproduced and a good agreement is obtained.
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    A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys Part II: Exploring the Correction Factor Function
    Xingqiu CHEN, Hailan LI, Xueyong DING, P.Rogl, R.Podloucky
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 328-331. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (765KB)
    A new method of revising activity values has been derived based on the so called correction factor function for binary alloys with a large difference between two components. The correction factor is a function of physical properties formed by the difference of two components. Its absolute value increases with the enhancement of the difference in the character of components. It can be either positive or negative and the rules for selecting the sign of correction factor have been analyzed. Results are in good agreement with the experimental values.
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    Evaluation of the Ignition Temperature in Thermal Explosion Synthesis of TiAl3 by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
    Tao WANG, Meili ZHU, Junshan ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 331-334. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (729KB)
    Application of the Semenov theory of spontaneous ignition to evaluation of the critical temperature (T'c) in thermal explosion (TE) synthesis was conducted with the Ti-75at pct Al binary system using nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different heating rates. And the critical temperature for isothermal TE is predicted to be 728.9°C by the multiple linear regression of T'cs evaluated according to Semenov theory, which is close to the range of 740~745°C obtained from the isothermal DSC observation. This result proves that Semenov theory of spontaneous ignition is also feasible for TE synthesis in binary metallic systems like Ti-75 at. pct Al system.
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    Study on Interface between Sub-micron Particles and Matrix in Al2O3p/Al Composites
    Longtao JIANG, Dongli SUN, Gaohui WU, Qiang ZHANG, Jianfeng CHEN, Norio KOUNO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 341-343. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1193KB)
    The microstructural characteristic of 1070Al matrix composites reinforced by 0.15µm Al2O3 particles whose volume fraction was 40% was investigated by TEM and HREM. The results showed that the interface between the matrix and reinforcements was clean and bonded well, without any interfacial reaction products. There were some preferential crystallographic orientation relationships between Al matrix and Al2O3 particle because of the lattice imperfection on the surface of Al2O3 particles.
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    Variations of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Si-B-O-N Ceramics with Sintering Temperatures
    Junbao ZHANG, Guangwu WEN, Tingquan LEI, Dechang JIA, Jiancun RAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 343-346. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1409KB)
    Si-B-O-N powder without B-O bonds synthesized by polymeric precursor were hot-pressed into ceramics at different temperatures. The variations of microstructure and mechanical properties of Si-B-O-N ceramics have been investigated. Crystallization of Si-B-O-N ceramics occurred at about 1400°C. Density, elastic modulus, and flexural strength of the ceramics increased with the increasing sintering temperatures, and reached to their maximum values at 1600°C. By contrast,hardness and fracture toughness of the ceramics monotonically changed with increasing sintering temperatures. Hardness decreased, while the fracture toughness increased. The principal toughening mechanisms including crack deflection, crack bridging and plate grain pulling-out effects are discussed
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    Thermal Shock Behaviour of Alumina-Iron Composites
    M.M.El-Sayed Seleman, Xudong SUN, Liang ZUO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 347-350. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1249KB)
    Thermal shock behaviour was investigated for two morphologically different composites comprising an alumina matrix and 20 vol. pct Fe particles for a wide range of quenching temperature differences (∆T=100~800°C) and compared to a monolithic alumina. The retained strength and critical quenching temperature difference, ∆Tc, of the two composites were a significant improvement over the values for the respective monolithic alumina. Crack lengths and densities were shown to be greater for the alumina than for the two composites at all quenching temperature differences. The thermal shock resistance parameters for monolithic alumina and the two composites were calculated according to their mechanical and physical properties. The calculated results agree well with the experimental one and indicate possible explanations for the differences in thermal shock behaviour.
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    Corrosion Behavior and Protection Efficiency of 2024Al and SiCp2024Al Metal Matrix Composite
    Chunlin HE, Changsheng LIU, Fengqin LI, Qingkui CAI, Zhiming SHI, Liqing CHEN, Jing BI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 351-353. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (653KB)
    The corrosion resistance of 2024 Al and SiC particle reinforced 2024 Al metal matrix composite (SiCp/2024Al MMC) in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated with electrochemical method and immersion test, and the corrosion protection of sulfuric acid anodized coatings on both materials was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the SiCp/2024Al MMC is more susceptible to corrosion than its matrix alloy in 3.5% NaCl. For 2024Al, the anodized coating provides excellent corrosion resistance to 3.5% NaCl.The anodized coating on the SiCp/2024Al provides satisfactory corrosion protection, but it is not as effective as that for 2024Al because the structure of the anodized layer is affected by the SiC particulates.
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    A Study of Diamond Growth Instability at High Temperature-High Pressure
    Jianjun CUI, Musen LI, Longwei YIN, Guiyi WAN, Zhaoyin HAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 354-356. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1108KB)
    In this paper, crystal growth instability of diamond was studied in a Fe-Ni-C system at high temperature-high pressure (HPHT). As any other crystal grown from solution, the flat or smooth growth interface of the diamond crystal is highly sensitive to growth conditions. The growth front interface should be of great importance to understand the diamond growth process. The presence of cellular growth interface by transmission electron microscopy indicated that there existed a narrow constitutional supercooling zone in front of the growth interface. Several parallel layers with cellular interface by TEM directly suggested that the diamond grows from the solution of carbon in the molten catalyst layer by layer, which is in accordance with the result obtained by scanning electron microscopy in this paper. Impurities are trapped by rapidly advancing growth layers during the diamond growth and they impose a great effect on the growth front stability. As the growth front interface approaches the impurity particle to a distance of about 10-5~10-7 cm, appreciable molecular forces begin to operate between them, and the impurity particle is trapped as the growth rate reaches a critical value. As a result, the driving force for crystallization under the impurity particles becomes smaller, the front buckles under the particle. An impurity naturally reduces the growth rate to a different extent.
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    Behavior of Aramid Fiber/Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber Hybrid Composites under Charpy Impact and Ballistic Impact
    Yan WU, Weihong ZHONG, Zhijie SUN, Abdolghane Torki, Zuoguang ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 357-360. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (900KB)
    The aramid fiber/UHMWPE (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) fiber hybrid composites (AF/DF) were ma-nufactured. By Charpy impact, the low velocity impact behavior of AF/DF composite was studied. And the high velocity impact behavior under ballistic impact was also investigated. The influence of hybrid ratio on the performances of low and high velocity impact was analyzed, and hybrid structures with good impact properties under low velocity impact and high velocity were optimized. For Charpy impact, the maximal impact load increased with the accretion of the AF layers for AF/DF hybrid composites. The total impact power was reduced with the decrease of DF layers and the delamination can result in the increase of total impact power. For ballistic impact, the DF ballistic performance was better than that of the AF and the hybrid ratio had a crucial influence. The failure morphology of AF/DF hybrid composite under Charpy impact and ballistic impact was analyzed. The AF/DF hybrid composites in suitable hybrid ratio could attain better performance than AF or DF composites.
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    Effect of Thickness on the Structure and Tribological Properties of MoSx Coating
    Jihui WANG, E.Wieers, L.M.Stals, J.P.Celis
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 361-364. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1334KB)
    MoSx coatings were prepared by bipolar-pulse DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering system with the variation of coating thickness at different Ar pressures. The composition and surface morphology were determined by using energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopy; the structural characterisation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The friction and wear properties were investigated by fretting tests in air with less than 10% and 50% relative humidity.At 0.40 Pa pressure, (002) basal plane orientation was formed throughout the coatings. At 0.88 Pa and 1.60 Pa pressures, (002) basal plane orientation was only noticed in the first stage of coating growth (around 0.20 µm in thickness), and then edge orientations with their basal planes perpendicular to the surface would be evolved in the coatings. Humidity has a minor influence on the coatings that have (002) basal plane orientation, whereas the tribological properties of MoSx coatings with edge orientations are greatly affected by humidity. The mechanisms of coating growth and friction and wear processes are discussed.
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    Alabaster and Selenite Gypsum: I-Dehydration-Rehydration Comparison Studies
    El-Sayed I.Al-Wakeel
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 365-368. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1302KB)
    Two types of gypsum raw materials, selenite and alabaster, were used to prepare dental stone (α-hemihydrate). Gypsum lumps (0.8~2.5 cm) were hydrothermally treated at 135, 160 and 180°C for 6, 2 and 1 h respectively. The physicochemical properties and composition characteristics of the α-hemihydrates prepared from selenite and alabaster raw gypsum were determined. The results indicated that both the selenite and alabaster raw gypsum show the same chemical and mineralogical composition of calcium sulphate dihydrate. They differs only in their microstructure, selenite raw gypsum exhibits perfect regular crystals while alabaster gypsum, on the other hand, exhibits irregular, large size and interlocked crystals. Selenite is more accessible to dehydration than alabaster raw gypsum. The α-hemihydrate samples prepared from alabaster raw gypsum showed a very short setting time and a lower compressive strength values in relation to that prepared from selenite gypsum. The compressive strength values of the all prepared samples were higher than that specified by A.D.A specification for dental use. To optimize the setting time of both products further studies are needed.
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    Flexural and Impact Resistance of FRC/Bamboo Laminate
    Wu YAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 369-371. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (574KB)
    The flexural and impact resistance of a newly developed FRC/bamboo laminate have been investigated. The laminate considered in this study was combined with reformed bamboo plate and extruded fiber reinforced cementitious (FRC) sheet. Innovated from the raw bamboo, reformed bamboo showed high tensile strength and high strength to weight ratio. It can not only remarkably strengthen the FRC sheet but also reduce the total weight of the laminate. Flexural and impact load, broken energy, deflection and duration were measured. Test results showed that the flexural strength value for the laminate can be improved to greater than 90 MPa, while the impact resistance is increased more than 10 times for the laminate when compared with the FRC sheet only.
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    Solution of an Inverse Problem of Heat Conduction of 45 Steel with Martensite Phase Transformation in High Pressure during Gas Quenching
    Heming CHENG, Tianchun HE, Jianbin XIE
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 372-374. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (549KB)
    In order to simulate thermal strains, thermal stresses, residual stresses and microstructure of the steel during gas quenching by means of the numerical method, it is necessary to obtain an accurate boundary condition of temperature field. The surface heat transfer coefficient is a key parameter. The explicit finite difference method, nonlinear estimation method and the experimental relation between temperature and time during gas quenching have been used to solve the inverse problem of heat conduction. The relationship between surface temperature and surface heat transfer coefficient of a cylinder has been given. The nonlinear surface heat transfer coefficients include the coupled effects between martensitic phase transformation and temperature.
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    Hydrogen-induced Cracking of Weld Metal of Austenitic Stainless Steels
    Chuan PAN, Zhengbang LI, Zhiling TIAN, Dongtu LIANG, Lijie QIAO, Wuyang CHU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 375-377. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (548KB)
    For 308L and 347L weld metals of austenitc stainless steels (ASS), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) occurred during dynamically charging under constant load. The threshold stress intensity for HIC, KIH, decreased linearly with the logarithm of the concentration of diffusible hydrogen C0 in the weld metals and the rolled plate of type 304L ASS, i.e., KIH=85.2-10.7ln C0 (308L),KIH=76.1-9.3ln C0(347L), and KIH=91.7-10.1ln C0(304L). The fracture mode for HIC in the three type of ASS changed from ductile to brittle with the decrease in the applied stress intensity KI or/and the increase in C0. The boundary line between ductile and brittle fracture surfaces was KI-54+25exp(-C 0/153)=0.
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    Production, Properties and Microstructures of Mg-RE-Zn-Zr (RE=MM, Nd) Alloy
    Kun YU, Wenxian LI, Songrui LI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 378-380. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1005KB)
    The Mg-MM and Mg-Nd master alloys were prepared through the ingot metallurgy method under the protection of a special flux. The thermodynamic behaviors of different rare earth elements in the molten Mg alloys were investigated. Two experimental alloys,Mg-3.0 wt pct MM-0.7 wt pct Zn-0.7 wt pct Zr and Mg-2.8 wt pct Nd-0.7 wt pct Zn-0.7~wt pct Zr, were prepared. The hardness and tensile properties of experimental alloys were measured and the microstructures were observed. The results showed that the rare earth elements could react greatly with the Mg chloride in the flux. The Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy displayed a good aging hardening effect. The dispersed metastable phase β'(Mg3Nd) is an important strengthening phase to improve the tensile properties of this alloy. So the Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy has better tensile properties and elongation than those of the Mg-MM-Zn-Zr alloy, and the ductile fracture character could be observed. The microvoid coalescence is the dominant fracture mechanism in this alloy.
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    Morphology and Phase Compositions of Hydroxyapatite Powder Particles Plasma-sprayed into Water
    Yupeng Lü, Ruifu ZHU, Shitong LI, Musen LI, Tingquan LEI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 381-382. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (655KB)
    Hydroxyapatite powder particles were plasma sprayed into water, their inner structures and phase compositions were studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the molten HA particles have a central hollow morphology and high crystallinity. The hollow morphology was caused by sublimated P2O5 and H2O, which will have an effect on surface morphology, cohesive and adhesive strength as well as dissolution and degradation of coating. The high crystallinity is attributed to lower cooling speed in water.
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    Nickel Oxide as an Electrode Material for Supercapacitors
    Kui LIANG, Ai CHEN, Li HE, Wei WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2002, 18 (04): 383-384. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (427KB)
    The preparation of Ni oxide films and their capacitive mechanism are discussed in this paper. Nickel oxide film electrodes perform pseudocapacitance in aqueous KOH and NaOH but perform double layer capacitance in LiClO4/PC (propylence carbonate). The effect of increasing the specific capacitance was observed when Ni oxide film electrodes are doped with Co. A specific capacitance of around 70 F/g was achieved when using Ni oxide films doped with Co as electrodes and 1 mol/L aqueous KOH or NaOH as an electrolyte.
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CN: 21-1315/TG
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