Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 March 2015, Volume 31 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Phase Transformation Behavior and Microstructural Control of High-Cr Martensitic/Ferritic Heat-resistant Steels for Power and Nuclear Plants: A Review
    Xiaosheng Zhou, Chenxi Liu, Liming Yu, Yongchang Liu, Huijun Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 235-242.  DOI: .10.1016/j.jmst.2014.12.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The martensitic/ferritic steels have been used as boiler and turbine materials in power plants, and also been selected as potential materials for structural materials in nuclear reactors. In this paper, the kinetic analysis of the martensite formation and microstructural control of high-Cr martensitic/ferritic steels are reviewed. A modular approach, incorporating Fisher partitioning nucleation and anisotropic growth for impingement, was proposed to describe the martensite formation kinetics under different cooling rates. The kinetic analysis suggested a thermal-activated growth feature occurring during the martensitic transformation of martensitic steels. The microstructure can be tuned by composition optimization and various combinations of heat treatment parameters (temperature, time, severe and minor deformation). For the application in power plant, the potential of boundary-design, refinement of original austenite grain size and the final martensitic lath, pinning effect of stable carbides, in improving the performances of martensitic/ferritic steels at elevated temperatures should be investigated more thoroughly. Furthermore, efforts should be made to explore the effects of retained austenite on the improvement of high-temperature creep strength. For the application of nuclear plants, attempts should also be made to produce Fe powders with uniformly distributed oxide particles by chemical reactions.
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    Antibacterial Performance of a Cu-bearing Stainless Steel against Microorganisms in Tap Water
    Mingjun Li, Li Nan, Dake Xu, Guogang Ren, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 243-251.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.11.016
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Tap water is one of the most commonly used water resources in our daily life. However, the increasing water contamination and the health risk caused by pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have attracted more attention. The mutualism of different pathogenic bacteria may diminish antibacterial effect of antibacterial agents. It was found that materials used for making pipe and tap played one of the most important roles in promoting bacterial growth. This paper is to report the performance of an innovative type 304 Cu-bearing stainless steel (304CuSS) against microbes in tap water. The investigation methodologies involved were means of heterotrophic plate count, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy for observing the cell and subtract surface morphology, atomic absorption spectrometry for copper ions release study, and confocal laser scanning microscopy used for examining live/dead bacteria on normal 304 stainless steel and 304CuSS. It was found that the surface free energy varied after being immersed in tap water with polar component and Cu ions release. The results showed 304CuSS could effectively kill most of the planktonic bacteria (max 95.9% antibacterial rate), and consequently inhibit bacterial biofilms formation on the surface, contributing to the reduction of pathogenic risk to the surrounding environments.
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    Solder Size Effect on Early Stage Interfacial Intermetallic Compound Evolution in Wetting Reaction of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/ENEPIG Joints
    M.L. Huang, F. Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 252-256.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.01.003
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Solder size effect on early stage interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) evolution in wetting reaction between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder balls and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) pads at 250 °C was investigated. The interfacial IMCs transformed from initial needle- and rod-type (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 to dodecahedron-type (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and then to needle-type (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 at the early interfacial reaction stage. Moreover, these IMC transformations occurred earlier in the smaller solder joints, where the decreasing rate of Cu concentration was faster due to the Cu consumption by the formation of interfacial (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. On thermodynamics, the decrease of Cu concentration in liquid solder changed the phase equilibrium at the interface and thus resulted in the evolution of interfacial IMCs; on kinetics, larger solder joints had sufficient Cu flux toward the interface to feed the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 growth in contrast to smaller solder joints, thus resulted in the delayed IMC transformation and the formation of larger dodecahedron-type (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 grains. In smaller solders, no spalling but the consumption of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 grains by the formation of (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 grains occurred where smaller discrete (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 grains formed at the interface.
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    Improvement in the Adhesion Between Electrode of a SOFC and Ag Paste as a Current Collector by Au Deposition
    Sang Koo Jeon, Seung Hoon Nahm, OhHeon Kwon
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 257-263.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.015
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    This paper reports the use of Au films to improve the performance of the stacked solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on the characterization of the interface and the adhesion between the electrodes of the SOFCs and the Ag paste. The specimens were manufactured to perform the experiment as follows. A SiO2 wafer with a 300 μm notch was attached to the electrodes of a SOFC by a Ag paste and Au film, which were deposited on the electrodes by sputtering for 1 min or 5 min deposition time and annealed at 300 °C for 1 h. The four-point bending test was performed, which resulted in the formation of an extended crack at the tip on the wafer notch, and the crack propagation was observed using a stereo microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD). Consequently, the interfacial adhesion energy and the effect of the Au film between the each electrode and the Ag paste can be evaluated. On the cathode, the interfacial adhesion energy without Au film was 2.59 J/m2 (upper value) and the adhesion energy increased to 11.59 J/m2 (upper value) and 15.89 J/m2 (lower value) with the Au film. On the anode, the interfacial adhesion energy without Au film was 1.74 J/m2 (upper value), which increased to 11.07 J/m2 (upper value) and 14.74 J/m2 (lower value) with the Au film. In addition, the interface areas were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to estimate the interface delamination.
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    De-twinning and Texture Change in an Extruded AM30 Magnesium Alloy during Compression along Normal Direction
    D. Sarker, J. Friedman, D.L. Chen
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 264-268.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.11.018
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    Twinning and de-twinning are the salient deformation mechanisms in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the de-twinning process involving a reversible motion of twin boundaries in an extruded AM30 magnesium alloy after re-compression along the normal direction (ND) of pre-compressed samples along the extrusion direction (ED). {101¯2} extension twins were first introduced at a compressive strain of 3.7% along the ED. The subsequent compressive deformation along the ND induced a gradual shrinkage of twins with increasing cumulative true strain, and the complete de-twinning occurred at a strain of ~7.7%. The twin width decreased linearly with increasing true strain. Texture measurements verified the rotation of c -axes of hcp unit cells towards the anti-compression direction due to {101¯2} extension twinning after compression along the ED, and a gradual return of c -axes to the initial orientation due to twin shrinking or de-twinning during the following compression along the ND. The {101¯2} twinning corresponded to the formation of new texture components C{1¯21¯0}<0001> and D{011¯0}<0001> and a decrease in the initial texture components A{0001}<21¯0> and B{0001}<101¯0>, while the twin shrinking or de-twinning was characterized by a gradual vanishing of components C{1¯21¯0}<0001> and D{011¯0}<0001> and an increase in the components A{0001}<21¯0> and B{0001}<101¯0>.
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    Effect of Long-term Thermal Exposure on Microstructure and Stress Rupture Properties of GH3535 Superalloy
    T. Liu, J.S. Dong, L. Wang, Z.J. Li, X.T. Zhou, L.H. Lou, J. Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 269-279.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.07.021
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    The evolution of microstructure and the stress rupture properties of long term thermally exposed GH3535 alloy have been investigated. It was found that M6C carbides presented in the solid solution heat treated samples. During long term thermal exposure at 700 °C, fine M12C carbides precipitated preferentially at grain boundaries. These carbides coexisted with the pre-exiting M6C. The stress rupture life of 700 °C/1000 h exposed sample under creep testing at 650 °C/324 MPa is 93 h. It is much longer than that of the solid solution samples. No noticeable changes could be detected in both the microstructure and stress rupture lives when the samples were exposed for time longer than 1000 h M12C carbides were found to be beneficial to the creep properties. The cracks initiated at the interface of M6C carbides and matrix, which led to a lower creep rupture life.
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    Effect of Solidification Rate on Microstructure and Solid/Liquid Interface Morphology of Ni-11.5 wt% Si Eutectic Alloy
    Chunjuan Cui, Jun Zhang, Tian Xue, Lin Liu, Hengzhi Fu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 280-284.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.09.025
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study Ni-Ni3Si eutectic in situ composites are obtained by Bridgman directional solidification technique when the solidification rate varies from 6.0 μm/s to 40.0 μm/s. At the low solidification rates the lamellar spacing is decreased with increasing the solidification rate. When the solidification rate is higher than 25 μm/s, the lamellar spacing tends to be increased, because the higher undercooling makes the mass transport less effective. The adjustments of lamellar spacing are also observed during the directional solidification process, which is consistent with the minimum undercooling criterion. Moreover, the transitions from planar interface to cellular, then to dendritic interface, and finally to cellular interface morphologies with increasing velocity are observed by sudden quenching when the crystal growth tends to be stable.
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    General Trends in Electronic Structure, Stability, Chemical Bonding and Mechanical Properties of Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics TMB2 (TM = transition metal)
    Yanchun Zhou, Huimin Xiang, Zhihai Feng, Zhongping Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 285-294.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.09.014
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    The electronic structure, stability, chemical bonding and mechanical properties of 3d, 4d and 5d transition metal diboride TMB2 were investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. All the primary chemical bonds, i.e., metallic, ionic and covalent have contributions to the bonding of TMB2. The number of valence electrons of transition metals or the valence electron concentration (VEC) of TMB2 has strong effects on the lattice parameters, stability and mechanical properties of TMB2. Both lattice constants a and c decrease with VEC, but c decreases faster than a, which is attributed to the enhanced TM d-B p (sp2) bonding. Bulk modulus B of TMB2 increases continuously with VEC due to the enhanced TM d-B p (sp2) and TM dd bonding. Shear modulus G increases with VEC, reaching a maximum at VEC = 3.33, and then decreases with further increase of VEC. YB2 and MnB2 have low Young's modulus and are predicted to have good thermal shock resistance. According to Pugh's criterion (G/B < 0.571), MnB2, MoB2 and WB2 are predicted as ductile or damage tolerant ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs).
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    Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Prepared by TBA-based Gel-casting
    Liuyuan Li, Hongjie Wang, Shaochang Su
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 295-299.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.016
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    In this work, the effects of ratio of monomer to cross-linker (AM/MBAM) and solid loading on the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)-based gel-casting process were investigated. It was found that, when the ratio of monomer to cross-linker was 8, and the solid loading was 50 wt%, the mechanical properties of sintered samples were the most excellent, which resulted from the uniform pore size distribution and well-grown rod-like β-Si3N4 grains. In that case, the porosity and flexural strength of sintered samples were 50% and 125 MPa, respectively.
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    Facile Synthesis as well as Structural, Raman, Dielectric and Antibacterial Characteristics of Cu Doped ZnO Nanoparticles
    Javed Iqbal, Nauman Safdar, Tariq Jan, Muhammad Ismail, S.S. Hussain, Arshad Mahmood, Shaheen Shahzad, Qaisar Mansoor
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 300-304.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.06.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Here, undoped and Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that Cu ions are successfully doped into ZnO matrix without altering its wurtzite phase. The single wurtzite phase of ZnO is retained even for 10 wt% Cu doped ZnO sample. It is observed from the electron microscopy results that higher level of Cu doping varies the morphology of ZnO NPs from spherical to flat NPs. Moreover, the particle size is found to increase with the increase in Cu doping level. Raman spectroscopy results further confirm that Cu dopant has not altered the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Impedance spectroscopy results reveal that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss have increasing trend with Cu doping. Cu doping has been found to slightly decrease the bactericidal potency of ZnO nanoparticles.
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    Influence of Surface Nanocrystallization on Ti Ion Implantation of Pure Iron
    Xu Li, Yanli An, Yinghui Wei, Huayun Du, Lifeng Hou, Chunli Guo, Hongbo Qu, Yide Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 305-310.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2015.01.001
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    In order to increase the depth or concentration of Ti ion implantation of pure iron, the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), which can fabricate a nanometer-grained surface layer without porosity and contamination in a pure iron plate, was used before ion implantation. Ti ion was implanted into the SMA treated sample and coarse-grained counterpart by using a metal vapor vacuum arc source implanter. The changing of depth and concentration of Ti was studied in a function of implantation time. By optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, the grain size of the nano structured surface was studied. Micro-hardness, friction and wear behavior of nano surface layers were studied. By energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy, the chemical composition and concentration of Ti ion in the surface implantation layer were studied. Experimental results showed that the concentration of Ti increased dramatically compared with untreated coarse-grained samples, which is attributed to the existence of higher density of defects (supersaturated vacancies, dislocations, non-equilibrium grain boundaries etc.) and compression stress field in the SMA treated nanocrystallined surface layer. The interaction between the defects and the implanted solute atoms leads to the increment of solid solubility. But the implantation depth showed inconspicuous change. It is shown that the ion range is just relevant to the energy and mass of the ion, dose of injection, the mass and density of target material.
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    Microstructure Stability of V and Ta Microalloyed 12%Cr Reduced Activation Ferrite/Martensite Steel during Long-term Aging at 650 °C
    Xiang Xiao, Guoquan Liu, Benfu Hu, Jinsan Wang, Wenbin Ma
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 311-319.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.028
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In view of developing novel alloys for applications in supercritical water-cooled reactor fuel cladding and in-core components, a 12%Cr reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steel with good corrosion resistance and irradiation performance was developed. V and Ta were added to form fine MX type carbonitrides and enhance the high temperature creep rupture strength. Microstructure stability of the steel during long-term aging at 650 °C was studied experimentally combined with the simulation of Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software. The results show that the precipitates in the steel during long-term aging contain M23C6, MX and Laves phase. M23C6 carbides play a major role in the stabilization of the tempered martensite lath structure by exerting a large Zener pinning force as compared with MX and Laves phase. Adding V and Ta in the steel can not only promote MX precipitation, but also refine M23C6 carbides and thus improve the thermal stability of lath/subgrains, which is beneficial to the improvement of high temperature microstructure stability of the 12%Cr RAFM steel.
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    Effect of Preparation Temperature on the Aging Properties of Waste Polyethylene Modified Asphalt
    Changqing Fang, Mengya Zhang, Ruien Yu, Xiaolong Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 320-324.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.04.019
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, waste polyethylene (WPE) was used as a modifier for base asphalt. In our previous studies, we have examined a variety of polymer modifiers for asphalt. By contrast, little research has focused on the preparation process, such as preparation time, preparation temperature and shear rate. The effect of preparation temperature on aging properties of WPE-modified asphalt was investigated in this work. The experimental materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physical properties were determined by conducting asphalt penetration, softening point and ductility tests. The results show that increasing the preparation temperature results in an increased softening point of WPE-modified asphalt while decreased penetration and ductility. In addition, this variation was accentuated by aging the experimental materials. The modification process of WPE is a physical process. During the asphalt modification process, the WPE aged as the preparation temperature increased. The results revealed that 190 °C is the most suitable preparation temperature, and the post aged asphalt demonstrated improved high temperature stability.
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    Friction and Wear Behavior of Resin/Graphite Composite under Dry Sliding
    Zhenguo Zhu, Shuo Bai, Junfeng Wu, Li Xu, Ting Li, Yong Ren, Chang Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2015, 31 (3): 325-330.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.10.004
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    The friction and wear behavior of resin/graphite composite has been investigated using a pin-on-disc configuration under dry sliding condition. The results showed that the resin/graphite composite exhibited much better mechanical and tribological properties compared with the unimpregnated graphite. The friction coefficient was reduced by addition of furan resin, which could also prevent the “dusting” wear at loads more than 15 MPa. The steady and lubricated transfer film was easily formed on the counterpart surface due to the interaction of furan resin and wear debris of graphite, which was useful to reduce the wear rate of the resin/graphite composite. The composite is highly promising for mechanical sealing application and can be used at high load for long time sliding.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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