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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      20 May 2014, Volume 30 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Orginal Article
    Annealing-induced Hardening in a Nanostructured Low-carbon Steel Prepared by Using Dynamic Plastic Deformation
    L.X. Sun, N.R. Tao, M. Kuntz, J.Q. Yu, K. Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 731-735.  DOI: org/10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Lamellar nanostructures were induced in a plain martensitic low-carbon steel by using dynamic plastic deformation at room temperature. The nanostructured steel was hardened after annealing at 673 K for 20 min, with a tensile strength increased from 1.2 GPa to 1.6 GPa. Both the remained nanostructures and annealing-induced precipitates in nano-scale play key roles in the hardening.
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    Functionally Graded Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced Aluminium Matrix Bulk Materials Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
    Hansang Kwon, Marc Leparoux, Akira Kawasaki
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 736-742. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Functionally graded (FG) carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-silicon carbide (nSiC) reinforced aluminium (Al) matrix composites have been successfully fabricated using high-energy ball milling followed by solid-state spark plasma sintering processes. The CNTs were well-dispersed in the Al particles using the nSiC as a solid mixing agent. Two different types of multi-walled CNTs were used to add different amounts of CNTs in the same volume. The ball milled Al-CNT-nSiC and Al-CNT powder mixtures were fully densified and demonstrated good adhesion with no serious microcracks and pores within an FG multilayer composite. Each layer contained different amounts of the CNTs, and the nSiC additions showed different microstructures and hardness. It is possible to control the characteristics of the FG multilayer composite through the efficient design of an Al-CNT-nSiC gradient layer. This concept offers a feasible approach for fabricating the dual- nanoparticulate-reinforced Al matrix nanocomposites and can be applied to other scenarios such as polymer and ceramic systems.
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    Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of BaTiO3 Nanofibers Prepared via Electrospinning
    Yan Wei, Yu Song, Xuliang Deng, Bing Han, Xuehui Zhang, Yang Shen, Yuanhua Lin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 743-747. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    BaTiO3 nanofibers of about 400 nm in diameter were synthesized via electrospinning. The evolution of the morphology and phase composition of the BaTiO3 nanofibers was studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction within the annealing temperature of 750e1050 o C. Higher annealing temperature led to rougher surface and better crystallization of the BaTiO3 nanofibers. Below 1050oC, the BaTiO3 nanofibers maintained its large aspect ratios and could still be regarded as individual nanofiber. The dielectric permittivities of the BaTiO3 nanofibers (εr~820) were calculated with the MG equation by considering the porous bulk specimens as composites of BaTiO3 nanofibers and air. The ferroelectric properties of the BaTiO3 nanofibers were measured by using a ferroelectric analyzer coupled with an atomic force microscope. P-E loop measured for the BaTiO3 nanofiber exhibits small hysteresis.
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    Humidity Effect on Transport Properties of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
    Muhammad Usman, Kamran Rasool, S.S. Batool, Z. Imran, Mushtaq Ahmad, Hira Jamil, M.A. Rafiq, M.M. Hasan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 748-752.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.12.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Rutile TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method with an average diameter of ~30 nm TiO2 nanoparticle device was then fabricated on glass substrate. Aluminum electrodes were defined using photolithography and vacuum evaporation. A suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared in isopropanol using ultrasonic agitation. The nanoparticles were deposited between the electrodes. The device was tested by AC electrical measurements at 40%-90% relative humidity (RH). The impedance of the TiO2 nanoparticles decreases by about 80 times with the increase in RH from 40% to 90% at 100 Hz. The response time and the recovery time were 4 s and 5 s, respectively between 40% and 90% RH. At 100 Hz, the sensitivity of the aluminum electrode TiO2 nanoparticle device in the range of 40%-90% RH was 17 MΩ/%RH. Complex modulus analysis also confirms the increase in DC conductivity of TiO2 nanoparticles as RH increases.
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    Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Acid and UV Ozone Treated Nanodiamond Epoxy Nanocomposites
    Sobia A. Rakha, Naveed Ali, Yasir A. Haleem, Fakhre Alam, Aqeel A. Khurram, Arshad Munir
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 753-758.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.12.011
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Nanodiamond (ND) powder was successfully activated by wet chemical method and by exposure of UV/O3 in a chamber followed by mixing in triethylenetetramine (TETA) solution. The reinforcement role of activated ND in the mechanical properties of epoxy matrix was studied. Both treatments, i.e. acid and UV/O3 provide ND surface with chemical functionalities for adhesion with epoxy resin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the attachment of surface groups to the ND particles. The low content of acid and UV/O3 activated ND was dispersed ultrasonically in the epoxy matrix separately to make nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated under three point bending. The strong interactions among activated ND particles and the epoxy resin provide efficient load transfer interfaces, which enhances the mechanical properties of the composites. It was found that the flexural strength, modulus, and toughness of 0.1 wt% ND loaded nanocomposites have been enhanced up to 85%, 57%, and 39%, respectively for UV/O3 treated ND powder. It is also found that the optimum ND concentration to achieve maximum reinforcement is 0.1 wt% while higher concentrations lead to decrease in mechanical properties. The significant improvement of the mechanical properties of the ND/epoxy nanocomposites is attributed to the good dispersion of the functionalized ND in epoxy matrix.
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    A Facile Synthetic Approach to Reduced Graphene Oxide-Fe3O4 Composite as High Performance Anode for Lithium-ion Batteries
    Yanhong Chang, Jing Li, Bin Wang, Hui Luo, Linjie Zhi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 759-764.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    O4 (rGO-Fe3O4) composite has been prepared via a facile and effective hydrothermal method by synthesizing Fe3O4 nanospheres on the planes of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Characterizations suggest the successful attachment of Fe3O4 nanospheres to rGO sheets. The rGO-Fe3O4 composite (66.7 wt% of Fe3O4 in the composite) exhibits a stable capacity of 668 mAh g-1 without noticeable fading for up to 200 cycles in the voltage range of 0.001-3.0 V, and the superior performance of rGO-Fe3O4 is clearly established by comparison of the results with those from bare Fe3O4 nanospheres (capacity declined to 117 mAh g-1 only at the 200th cycle). The excellent electrochemical performance of rGO-Fe3O4 composite can be attributed to the fact that the uniform dispersion of the Fe3O4 nanospheres growing on the rGO sheets avoids aggregation during Li uptake-release cycling, which is desired for cycle stability. Meanwhile, the rGO sheets afford not only elastic buffer to alleviate the volume variations of Fe3O4 nanospheres, but also good ionic and electronic transport medium in the electrode.
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    Photoelectrochemical Performance of Nb-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Fabricated by Hydrothermal Treatment of Titanate Nanotubes in Niobium Oxalate Aqueous Solution
    Lizhen Long, Liangpeng Wu, Xu Yang, Xinjun Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 765-769.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.010
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Nb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of titanate nanotubes in niobium oxalate aqueous solution. The effect of Nb doping and rutile content on the photoelectrochemical performance based on TiO2 powder electrodes was investigated. The results show that Nb-doped TiO2 with a small amount of rutile exhibits the enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cell. The highest photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.53% is obtained for 1% Nb-TiO2 containing a small amount of rutile. When a small amount of rutile contained in 2% Nb-TiO2, a higher photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.77% is achieved.
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    Synthesis of Nanocrystalline FeS2 with Increased Band Gap for Solar Energy Harvesting
    Somnath Middya, Animesh Layek, Arka Dey, Partha Pratim Ray
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 770-775.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.01.005
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of FeS2 of higher band gap energy (2.75 eV) by using capping reagent and its successive application in organic-inorganic based hybrid solar cells. Hydrothermal route was adopted for preparing iron pyrite (FeS2) nanoparticles with capping reagent PEG-400. The quality of synthesized FeS2 material was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analyzer, and Raman study. The optical band gap energy and electro-chemical band gap energy of the synthesized FeS2 were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry. Finally band gap engineered FeS2 has been successfully used in conjunction with conjugated polymer MEHPPV for harvesting solar energy. The energy conversion efficiency was obtained as 0.064% with a fill-factor of 0.52.
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    Influences of Reaction Parameters and Ce Contents on Structure and Properties of Nano-scale Ce-HA Powders
    L.J. Sun, D.G. Guo, W.A. Zhao, L.Y. Wang, K.W. Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 776-781.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.06.001
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Ce-incorporated apatite (Ce-HA) nano-scale particles with different Ce percentage contents (atomic ratio of Ce to Ce + Ca is 5%, 10% and 20%, respectively) were synthesized via a simple wet chemical method in this study. The crystal structure, chemical groups, thermal stability, crystal morphologies and crystal sizes of the Ce-HA nano-particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, pH value, and the atomic ratio of Ce to Ce + Ca on the structure and performance of Ce-HA particles were studied. The results show that the lattice constants, particle sizes, crystallinity and thermal stability of Ce-HA vary with the doped Ce contents. With the increase of Ce content, the lattice constants of the Ce-HA nano-particles remarkably increase but the particle size, crystallinity and thermal stability gradually decrease. The reaction temperature as well as the reaction time has no significant effect on the properties of the final products, while the pH value has a direct relationship with their final chemical composition. The obtained Ce-HA nano-size particles possess potential application in preparing artificial bone implants, bone tissue engineering scaffold and other bioactive coatings.
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    Structural, Optical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Zirconia Nanoparticles by Biobased Protocol
    S. Gowri, R. Rajiv Gandhi, M. Sundrarajan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 782-790.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.002
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Biological entities and inorganic materials have been in constant touch with each other ever since inception of life on earth. This method has lots of merits such as not requiring complex procedures, template supporting etc. In this work, Aloe vera plant mediated synthesis of tetragonal zirconia nanoparticles has been performed and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been provided for characterizing the nanoparticles. Formation of homogeneously distributed spherical zirconia nanoparticles of 50-100 nm in size is predicted. The antimicrobial and antifungal properties are also investigated for synthesis of zirconia nanoparticles and the treated cotton by agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial pathogens and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, respectively.
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    Thermal and Oxygen Barrier Properties of Chitosan Bionanocomposites by Reinforcement of Calcium Carbonate Nanopowder
    Sarat K. Swain, Satyabrata Dash, Sudhir K. Kisku, Rajesh K.Singh
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 791-795.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.12.017
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Chitosan and calcium carbonate nanopowder (chitosan/CaCO3) bionanocomposites were prepared by solution method. Interaction between chitosan and CaCO3 was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Structure and surface morphology of chitosan/CaCO3 bionanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), respectively. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of chitosan/CaCO3 bionanocomposites was studied in order to establish the elements of composition. Thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a substantial increase of thermal stability of virgin chitosan was noticed due to incorporation of CaCO3 nanopowder. The oxygen permeability was reduced by three times as compared to the raw chitosan due to the dispersion of nano CaCO3 filler. Biodegradability and resistance towards dilute acid and alkali of the prepared bionanocomposite were investigated. The bionanocomposite having gas barrier and thermal stable property may be suitable for packaging and biomedical applications.
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    Fabrication and Characterization of Electrodeposited Ni-SiC-h/BN Composite Coatings
    Gobinda Gyawali, Hyung-Suk Kim, Khagendra Tripathi, Tae-Ho Kim, Soo Wohn Lee
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 796-802.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.05.008
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Ni-SiC-h/BN composite materials were prepared by electrodeposition technique with the dispersion of SiC (10 g/L) and h/BN nanosheets (10 g/L) in a nickel sulfamate electrolytic bath. Different ratio of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrymethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants were used to evaluate the effect of surfactants on the properties of the electrodeposited composite coatings. The coating samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers microhardness test, scratch and tribology tests. The results revealed that the co-deposition of nanoparticles was significantly influenced by surfactants during electrodeposition process. Pyramidal or polyhedral nickel crystallites were observed at higher ratio of SDS/CTAB while smaller oval grains with refined surface morphologies were obtained at lower ratio of SDS/CTAB surfactants. In addition, wt% of particles co-deposition was increased, and Vickers microhardness, wear and coefficient of friction of the electrodeposited composite coatings were improved at increased CTAB and decreased SDS contents in the electrolyte during electrodeposition process.
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    Combined Effect of Aluminum Content and Layer Structure on the Oxidation Performance of Ti1-xAlxN Based Coatings
    Jihua Peng, Dongyi Su, Chengxi Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 803-807.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2014.03.020
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    TiN, Ti1-xAlxN single layer coatings and TiN/Ti1-xAlxN multilayer coatings were deposited on SKH51 tool steel substrate by arc ion plating. The coatings were annealed in air to study the effect of aluminum and film structure on the oxidation performance. The surface morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The element distribution on the cross section was analyzed by electron probe microscopy. It is found that the oxidation resistance of these Ti1-xAlxN based coatings is mainly attributed to aluminum content in them. In comparison with the Ti1-xAlxN single layer coating, the TiN layer inserting into the Ti1-xAlxN in a multilayer coating increases the tendency of Ti diffusion toward the surface and forms a Ti-enriched top surface oxide layer, thus degrades the oxidation resistance. As far as the oxidation resistance is concerned in this study, Ti0.33Al0.67N single layer coating performs the best among all coatings. The kinetic of oxidation behavior of all coatings presents two definite stages. One is a slow oxidation growth which conforms to parabolic law, and the other presents severe mass gain with oxidation duration. The annealing time for severe oxidation initiation is responsible to Fe2O3 formation in the oxide scale.
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    Effect of Alumina Dispersion on Microstructural and Nanomechanical Properties of Pulse Electrodeposited Nickel-Alumina Composite Coatings
    Ankur Gupta, Swetha Barkam, Debrupa Lahiri, R. Balasubramaniam, Kantesh Balani
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 808-813.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.12.013
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    abstract:Nickel-gamma alumina (Ni-γAl2O3) composite coatings were synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition technique with different concentrations of alumina (0, 10, 20 and 50 g/L) in Watt's bath. Both ultrasonic vibration and magnetic-stirring were utilized to disperse Al2O3 and to achieve its optimum loading. Microstructure shows that agglomerates occur at higher loadings, but 10 g/L Al2O3 addition in bath has shown uniform dispersion of alumina with improved mechanical properties such as hardness, Young's modulus and yield strength by 40%, 46% and 35%, respectively, when compared to that of pure Ni coating. Further, elasto-plastic indentation mechanics has shown that strength at 29% strain is enhanced to 110.5 GPa for 10 g/L Al2O3 electrophoretically deposited Ni-γAl2O3 coating when compared to that of electrodeposited Ni (81.8 GPa).
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    Sol-Gel Coating with 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as Precursor for Corrosion Protection of Aluminium Metal
    Rajendran Babhu Vignesh, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Mathur Gopalakrishnan Sethuraman
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 814-820. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Sol-gel coatings offer a number of advantages over other methods of protection for metallic materials. In the present work, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was used as the precursor for sol-gel coating on aluminium metal. The gelation of MPTS sol-gel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies. The formed film was found to be stable up to 350°C as evident from thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction study and scanning electron microscopy supported the formation of MPTS coating on aluminium surface while the characterization of the coating was done by FT-IR studies. The corrosion inhibition potential of the sol-gel coatings on metal in 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl solution was assessed as a function of different concentrations of MPTS using electrochemical polarization and impedance measurements. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing MPTS concentration. The results of the study unravel the use of MPTS as a precursor in the formation of sol-gel coating over aluminium surface so as to protect the metallic surface from corrosion in neutral environment.
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    High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Dy-doped CaMnO3 Ceramics
    Bin Zhan, Jinle Lan, Yaochun Liu, Yuanhua Lin, Yang Shen, Cewen Nan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 821-825. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Dy-doped CaMnO3 ceramics have been synthesized by co-precipitation method combined with the solid-state reaction. Phase composition and microstructure analysis indicate that high density and pure CaMnO3 phase can be achieved. The electric conductivity can be enhanced by Dy doping, and result in a slight increase of the thermal conductivity. The highest dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.15 has been obtained at 973 K for x=0.02 sample, which is about 4 times larger than that of the pure CaMnO3, which indicate that CaMnO3 can be a promising candidate for n-type thermoelectric material at high temperature.
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    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Dissimilar Butt Friction Stir Welding of Severely Plastic Deformed Aluminum AA 1050 and Commercially Pure Copper Sheets
    H. Barekatain, M. Kazeminezhad, A.H. Kokabi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 826-834. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    In this study, AA 1050 aluminum alloy and commercially pure copper in annealed and severely plastic deformed conditions were used. The technique used for imposing the severe strain to the sheets was constrained groove pressing (CGP) process. The annealed and severely plastic deformed sheets were subjected to friction stir welding (FSW) at different rotation and traverse speeds. Cu was placed in advancing side. Constant offset of approximately 1 mm was used toward Al side for all welds. A range of welding parameters which can lead to acceptable welds with appropriate mechanical properties was found. For the FSWed CGPed samples, it was observed that the welding heat input caused grain growth and decrease in hardness value at Al side of the stir zone. It was found that, generally the weakest parts of weld joints of annealed and CGPed samples were Al base metal and stir zone, respectively. Further investigations showed that several forms of intermetallic compounds were produced.
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    Surface Passivation Performance of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 on p-type Silicon Substrates
    Yanghui Liu, Liqiang Zhu, Liqiang Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Hui Xiao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2014, 30 (8): 835-838. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF
    Surface passivation performances of Al2O3 layers deposited on p-type Czochralski Si wafers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated as a function of post-deposition annealing conditions. The maximal minority carrier lifetime of ~4.7 ms was obtained for Al2O3 passivated p-type Si. Surface passivation mechanisms of Al2O3 layers were investigated in terms of interfacial state density (Dit) and negative fixed charge densities (Qfix) through capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization. High density of Qfix and low density of Dit were needed for high passivation performances, while high density of Dit and low density of Qfix degraded the passivation performances. A low Dit was a prerequisite to benefit from the strong field effect passivation induced by high density of negative fixed charges in the Al2O3 layer.
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ISSN: 1005-0302
CN: 21-1315/TG
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