Started in 1985 Semimonthly
ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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The journal has been awarded the excellent periodical in China, and its articles are covered by SCI, EI, CA, SA, JST, RJ, CSA, MA, EMA, AIA etc., PASCAL web. ISI web of Science,SCOPUS.

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      30 November 2013, Volume 29 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Bio-functional Design for Metal Implants, a New Concept for Development of Metallic Biomaterials
    Ling Ren, Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1005-1010.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.09.008
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    A new concept for development of metallic biomaterials is proposed in this article, i.e., a certain bio-function can be realized for a metal implant through continuous release of a designed bio-functional metal element from surface of the metal implant in the body environment. This creative idea has been verified to be possible by several different in vitro and in vivo experimental evidences on the Cu-bearing stainless steels and magnesium based metals. It was indicated that a trace amount of Cu release from the Cu-bearing steels could have obvious bio-functions of reduction of the in-stent restenosis (ISR), anti-bacterial infection, inhibiting the inflammatory cells and even promoting the early osteogenesis. Furthermore, the degradation of magnesium based metals in bones could promote the new bone formation, enhance the bone mineral density for the osteoporosis modeled animal, and even have strong anti-bacterial ability and strong cytotoxicity to bone tumor cells due to the enhancement of pH. Special bio-function with satisfied load-bearing capacity for metallic biomaterials will bring higher application values for the implant made of this novel material. This is an attractive direction for research and development with many challenges, but the final success will be much beneficial to the majority of patients.

     
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    Microstructures and Hardness Properties for b-Phase Tie24Nbe4Zre7.9Sn Alloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting
    J. Hernandez, S.J. Li, E. Martinez, L.E. Murr, X.M. Pan, K.N. Amato, X.Y. Cheng,F. Yang,C.A. Terrazas,S.M. Gaytan, Y.L. Hao, R. Yang, F.Medina, R.B. Wicker
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1011-1017.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.023
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    Atomized, pre-alloyed Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn (wt%) powder was used to fabricate solid, prototype components by electron beam melting (EBM). Vickers microindentation hardness values were observed to average 2 GPa for the precursor powder and 2.5 GPa for the solid, EBM-fabricated products. The powder and solid product microstructures were examined by optical and electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that they had bcc β-phase microstructure. However, it was found by transmission electron microscopy that the EBM-fabricated product had plate morphology with space ∼100–200 nm. Although the corresponding selected area diffraction patterns can be indexed by β-phase plus α″-martensite with orthorhombic crystal structure, the dark-field analyses failed to observe the α″-martensite. Such phenomenon was also found in deformed gum metals and explained by stress-induced diffusion scattering due to phonon softening.

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    Microstructure, Phase Transformation, Precipitation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of P/M Cu40Zne1.0 wt% Ti Brass Alloy via Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Extrusion
    Shufeng Li, Hisashi Imai, Katsuyoshi Kondoh
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1018-1024.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.013
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    The effect of titanium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of brass Cu40Zn has been studied via the powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The water-atomized Cu40Zn–1.0 wt% Ti alloy powder was consolidated at different temperatures in the range of 400–600 °C using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot extrusion subsequently. Results show that the super-saturated solid solution titanium element in rapidly cooled brass Cu40Zn powder created high chemical potential for a precipitate reaction, showing significant grain refinement effects on the consolidated Cu40Zn matrix. Consequently, excellent mechanical properties were obtained by precipitation hardening and work hardening after sintering and extrusion, with yield strength of 390 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 617 MPa, and Vickers micro-hardness of 192 HV, which are 28.7%, 23.4%, and 23.9% higher values than those of extruded Cu40Zn brass, respectively.

     
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    Influence of Features of Interphase Boundaries on Mechanical Properties and Fracture Pattern in MetaleCeramic Composites
    Sergey Psakhie, Vladimir Ovcharenko, Baohai Yu, Evgeny Shilko, Sergey Astafurov,Yury Ivanov, Alexey Byeli, Alexey Mokhovikov
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1025-1034.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.002
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    The results of a theoretical study on the influence of strength of interphase boundaries in metal–ceramic composite on macroscopical characteristics of composite response such as strength, deformation capacity, fracture energy and fracture pattern are presented. The study was conducted by means of computer-aided simulation by means of movable cellular automaton method taking account of a developed “mesoscopical” structural model of particle-reinforced composite. The strength of interphase boundaries is found to be a key structural factor determining not only the strength properties of metal–ceramic composite, but also the pattern and rate of fracture. The principles for achievement of the high-strength values of particle/binder interfaces in the metal–ceramic composition due to the formation of the wide transition zones (areas of variable chemical composition) at the interphase boundaries are discussed. Simulation results confirm that such transition zones provide a change in fracture mechanism and make the achievement of a high-strength and a high deformation capacity of metal–ceramic composite possible.

     
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    Structural and Spectroscopic Characterizations of ZnO Quantum Dots Annealed at Different Temperatures
    Geeta Rani, P.D. Sahare
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1035-1039.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.015
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    Here, we report the synthesis and characterizations of sol–gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) using zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and lithium hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH·H2O) as raw material. The as-prepared ZnO QDs was annealed at different temperature (400, 700, and 900 °C) and the structural, optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV–Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The powder XRD patterns of the obtained samples showed the formation of single-phase wurtzite structure and the morphological changes have been observed with increasing annealing temperature. In the absorption spectra, the optical band gap of nanocrystalline ZnO QDs decreased from 3.18 to 3.11 eV and the particle size increased with increasing temperature. In the PL spectra, a broad green emission peak related to defect levels in the visible range of the spectra have been recorded.

     
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    Polar Influence of the Organic Modifiers on the Structure of Montmorillonite in Epoxy Nanocomposites
    Fu-Chun Liu, En-Hou Han, Wei Ke, Nan Tang, Junbiao Wan, Guilai Yin,Jingwei Deng,Kangwen Zhao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1040-1046.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.014
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    The epoxy nanocomposites with similar amines (CH3(CH2)17NH2 and CH3(CH2)17N(CH3)3Cl) treated montmorillonite clays have been investigated by wide-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Different nanocomposite structures, intercalation and exfoliation were formed by the reaction of octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride-exchanged and octadecylamine-exchanged clays with epoxy resin and phenalkamine as the curing agent, respectively. Results showed that the exfoliated nanocomposite can be obtained when octadecylamine with the lower polarity was used as a modifier. However, the intercalated nanocomposite can be obtained when octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride with higher polarity was used as a modifier.

     
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    CTAB Assisted Synthesis of CuS Microcrystals: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Electrical Properties
    Chunyan Wu, Guofang Zhou, Dun Mao, Zihan Zhang, Yiliang Wu, Wenjian Wang,Linbao Luo, Li Wang, Yongqiang Yu, Jigang Hu, Zhifeng Zhu, Yan Zhang, Jiansheng Jie
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1047-1052.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.09.004
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    CuS microcrystals were successfully prepared through a mild solvothermal reaction in ethylene glycol (EG) with the assistance of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). An interesting morphology evolution from flower-like microspheres to hollow microspheres, and finally to smooth nanoflakes was observed when increasing the amount of CTAB. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–vis spectroscopy. It was found that the amount of CTAB played an important role in determining the morphology of the CuS microcrystals. Electrical measurement reveals that the as-prepared CuS microspheres were of high conductivity, which might favor their device applications. It is expected that CuS microcrystals with controlled morphologies and structures will have important applications in solar cells. This simple but effective method could also be extended to the controlled growth of other inorganic microcrystals.

     
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    Facile Synthesis of SnO2 Nanotube Arrays by Using ZnO Nanorod Arrays as Sacrificial Templates
    Yafang Tu, Qiuming Fu, Xiaojuan Niu, Jianping Sang, Zhijie Tan, Xianwu Zou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1053-1058.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.09.003
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    SnO2 nanotube arrays have been synthesized by means of a simple and low-cost method. The ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by aqueous chemical growth method were used as templates. By liquid phase deposition, SnO2 nanotubes were obtained with proper deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the morphologies and structures of the products, and the formation mechanism was discussed according to the experimental results.

     
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    Prediction of Failure Modes during Deep Drawing of Metal Sheets with Nickel Coating
    Jie Wu, Zengsheng Ma, Yichun Zhou, Chunsheng Lu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1059-1066.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.001
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    To optimize the process parameters, it is necessary to exactly predict failure modes during deep drawing of coated metal sheets, where two main failure forms are fracture and wrinkling. In this paper, finite element simulations based on continuous damage mechanics were used to study the failure behavior during a cylindrical deep drawing of metal sheets with nickel coating. It is shown that taking the effect of blank holder force into account, these two failure modes can be predicted. The simulation results are well consistent with that obtained from experiments.

     
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    Abrasion Resistance Enhancement of Ultrafine-structured WCeCo Coating Fabricated by using in situ Synthesized Composite Powder
    Haibin Wang, Xiaoyan Song, Chongbin Wei, Yang Gao, Guangsheng Guo
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1067-1073.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.020
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    The ultrafine WC–Co composite powder was synthesized by a newly developed rapid route based on in situ reactions. By using the as-synthesized composite powder, the granulation processing was then carried out to prepare the ultrafine-structured thermal spraying feedstock. The influences of the heat-treatment process on density of the feedstock powder, phase constitution and wear resistance of the resultant WC–Co coatings fabricated by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were investigated. The results showed that increasing the heating temperature and extending the holding time leaded to remarkable increase in the density and flowability of the feedstock powder. As a result, the decarburization of the in-flight particles could be decreased and the wear resistance of coating was significantly enhanced. The present study demonstrated that the developed techniques for the ultrafine powder and its thermal-sprayed coatings had very promising applications in scaling up to produce ultrafine-structured cermet coatings with excellent performance.

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    Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Coated on Different Semiconductive SiC Foam Supports
    Dong Hao, Zhenming Yang, Chunhai Jiang, Jinsong Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1074-1078.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.08.021
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    Different semiconductive SiC foam supports were prepared by varying the sintering temperature and atmosphere, and with or without alkaline solution treatment and high temperature oxidation following a macromolecule pyrogenation combined with reaction bonding method. Nano-TiO2 particles were immobilized onto these SiC foam supports by a composite sol–gel method. The phase, surface morphology, the type of conduction and the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2–SiC composite photocatalysts were studied. The TiO2 coated on p-type Si-free SiC support showed the highest photocatalytic efficiency in degradation of 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (4-ABS) in aqueous solution as compared to that coated on n-type SiC support and p-type SiC supports with residual Si or SiO2 on the surface. The result showed that the TiO2 coatings immobilized on p-type semiconductive SiC foam supports exhibited obviously higher photocatalytic activity in comparison to that coated on n-type SiC foam support. The pn heterojunctions formed between the p-type SiC supports and n-type TiO2 coatings might be able to account for the better charge separation and transfer as well as the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2–SiC composite photocatalyst.

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    Synthesis and Characterization of Tl-1223 Substituted by Scandium
    R. Awad, A. Al-Zein, M. Roumie, I.H. Ibrahim
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1079-1084.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.09.009
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    X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, electrical resistivity and AC-magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed for polycrystalline superconducting samples of type TlBa2Ca2xScxCu3O9δ (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6). The powder X-ray diffractograms indicate that the tetragonal structure of Tl-1223 is not affected by Sc-substitution whereas the lattice parameters are changed. The X-ray analysis indicates that the low-contents of scandium (x) enhance the formation of Tl-1223 and reduce the secondary phases. The grain-size determined by SEM decreases as x increases. The electrical resistivity measurements show suppression in the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, and an increase in both the residual resistivity and the superconducting transition width as x increases. The suppression in Tc is attributed to the hole-filling mechanism.

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    Development and Characterization of Al2O3 Dispersed Al/Mg/Cu/Ti Matrix Composite
    Sumit Chabri, Subhranshu Chatterjee, Santanu Pattanayak, Himel Chakraborty,Nandagopal Bhowmik, Arijit Sinha
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1085-1090.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.07.004
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    The effect of dispersion with different weight fractions of Al2O3 particles in metallic matrices (Al/Mg/Ti/Cu) fabricated by powder metallurgy was investigated. In the case of 15 wt% Al2O3 reinforced composites, peak hardness was attained which subsequently decreased with increasing the content of Al2O3. A correlation between the microhardness and nanomechanical properties at submicron scale was examined for all the composites. Specific strength and specific modulus were measured in order to figure out the performance of the composites.

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    Diffusion in FSW Joints by Inserting the Metallic Foils
    S. Gholami Shiri, A. Sarani, S.R. Elmi Hosseini, G. Roudini
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1091-1095.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.07.003
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    The aims of this investigation were to study diffusion phenomenon in friction stir welding (FSW) joints and its influence on the tensile strength of joints. To study diffusion in stir zone, various metallic foils were inserted between two pure aluminium plates. The thin foils of pure copper, pure zinc, brass and Cu–Zn–Ni alloy with the thickness of 250 μm were used as metallic foils. The transversal cross sections of welds were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) system. The spot analyses near the metallic foils indicated that diffusion occurs from foils into the aluminium plates during welding; consequently, the strength of stir zone increases even by 50%. Besides, the metallic foils could reveal the flow of metal after FSW process.

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    1, 4-Bis (2-nitrobenzylidene) thiosemicarbazide as Effective Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel
    P. Mohan, G. Paruthimal Kalaignan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1096-1100.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.07.006
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    The inhibition efficiency of 1, 4-bis (2-nitrobenzylidene) thiosemicarbazide (BBTS) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 mol/L HCl was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance methods. Inhibition efficiency (IE), corrosion rate and surface coverage were evaluated at different concentrations of BBTS. The results of the investigation showed that this compound had good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid and BBTS was a mixed-type inhibitor. BBTS chemisorbed at the electrode surface obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm and formed a stable surface complex on the mild steel surface. The synergistic effect of halide ion in acid solution suggested a co-adsorption of BBTS inhibitor by the adsorbed iodide ion.

     
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    Formation and Dissociation of Bamboo-like ErD2/ErD3 Grains
    J.H. Liang, H.H. Shen, S.M. Peng, X.G. Long, X.S. Zhou, L. Yang, X.T. Zu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1101-1103.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.04.006
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    The formation and dissociation of Er deuteride grains were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, in-situ X-ray diffraction and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Pure Er film shows classic columnar structure, while the Er deuteride film was observed as bamboo-like morphology. The in-situ X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the diffraction peaks of 27.39°, 28.43°, 31.71°, and 39.95° are ascribed to the crystal planes of (002), (110), (111), and (112) of ErD3 phase, respectively. It is also confirmed that by in-situ X-ray diffraction technique, ErD3 grains would be dissociated at temperature exceeding 400 °C. This result is consistent with the conclusion obtained by thermal desorption spectroscopy.

     
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    Fabrication of N-acetyl-L-cysteine-capped CdSe-polyelectrolytes @ Hydroxyapatite Composite Microspheres for Fluorescence Detection of Cu2+ Ions
    Pengfei Li, Aihua Yao, Tian Zhou, Deping Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29 (11): 1104-1110.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jmst.2013.06.009
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    N-Acetyl-l-cysteine-capped CdSe–polyelectrolytes @ hydroxyapatite (NAC–CdSe–PEs@HA) composite microspheres were fabricated through a stepwise layer-by-layer method and used for fluorescence detection of Cu2+ ions. The hollow HA microsphere was confirmed to be an ideal host to load CdSe quantum dots (QDs) due to their large surface area, well-defined porous structure, and large inner hollow size. Furthermore, the introduction of polyelectrolyte layers contributed to the increase of the loading amount and the electrostatic interaction between microsphere and QDs. Experiments results showed that among various metal ions investigated, Cu2+ exhibited the highest quenching effect on the fluorescence of CdSe QDs loaded in the composite microspheres. Additionally, the composite exhibited improved sensibility in detecting Cu2+ due to the presence of HA microspheres. Importantly, it is easy to separate and recycle the composite microspheres from the detection solution due to their relatively large size and high stability, thereby avoiding secondary contamination.

     
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CN: 21-1315/TG
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