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CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 January 1993, Volume 9 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Articles
    Magnetic Multilayers
    J.P.Renard Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale,Batiment 220,CNRS URA 22,Université Paris-Sud,91405,Orsay-Cedex,France
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 1-8. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (830KB)
    Magnetic multilayers are artificially structured materials made of ultrathin films of two different mate- rials,alternately ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic.They exhibit new magnetic properties differ- ent from those of bulk materials.We review the magnetic properties of metallic magnetic multilayers and focus on interface magnetic anisotropy,giant magnetoresistance and interlayer couplings,which are of great promise for applications to high density magnetic storage.
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    Biomimetic Design and Test of Composite Materials
    Benlian ZHOU International Centre for Materials Physics,Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 9-19. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (4819KB)
    A series of superior properties will make composites the most important structural materials in the next century.But they are difficult to design owing to the complexity of structure and processing. Biomaterials had been naturally selected and evolved for millions of years,a great variety of their ra- tional composite structures could be taken as our reference in the biomimetic design of composite materials.There are many difficult problems in the current study on composite materials such as: brittleness of continuous fibers and difficulties in interface design;easy pull-out of short fibers from matrix causing failure in reinforcing;being less easy in selecting the aspect ratio of whiskers and dif- ficulties in finding the way of toughening composites of ceramic matrices as well as the way of heal- ing inner damages.After describing the distinct composite features,the functional adaptability and self-healing ability of biomaterials,several examples o.f biomimetic design of composite materials have been listed in this paper:the optimum design of composites simulating bamboo structure;the fine structure of bamboo fibers;the dumb-bell model simulating animal bone;the model on the pull-out of fiber with fractal-tree structure and some tentative works on the healing of inner damage in composite materials The methodology of biomimetic design and its future have been given at the ast part of this paper.
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    Surface Structure and High-frequency Magnetic Properties of the Amorphous [Co_(0.94-x)Fe_(0.06)(MoMn)_x]_(77)(SiB)_(23) Alloys
    Lijun CHEN Yuzhi LIU Gingzhen XU Haisheng SHI Shanghai Iron and Steel Research Institute,Shanghai,200940,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 20-24. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1218KB)
    The relationship between the high-frequency magnetic properties and surface structure of the amorphous [Co_(0.94-x)Fe_(0.06)(MnMo)_x]_(77)(SiB)_(23) alloys annealed at 400-500℃ then control-cooled was investigated using XRD,TEM and XPS techniques.The results have shown that the high-frequency losses of the present alloys ob- viously reduced after suitable treatment.A crystalline layer with ultrafine grains of γ-Co formed on the surface of the amorphous ribbons.The size of the grains is 10-20 nm.The thickness of the layer is less than 0.1 μm.The sur- face of the crystalline layer is covered with an extremely thin oxide film which is very uniform and dense with thickness of less than 30 nm,the size of grains of the oxide is less than 10 nm.These ultrafine grains and the dense oxide film effectively refine the magnetic domains and increase the resistance of the layers of the magnetic core,consequently the losses at high frequency are fairly reduced.
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    Solidification Microstructures of a Single-crystal Superalloy under Ultra-high Temperature Gradient Conditions
    Zhuangqi HU Huaming WANG Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,ChinaY.Murata M.Morinaga Toyohashi University of Technology,Toyohashi,Aichi,440 Japan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 25-31. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2684KB)
    The solidification microstructures and solute segregation of a newly developed hot corrosion resistant single-crystal Ni-base superalloy were investigated with a zone-melting and ultra-high thermal gradient unidirectional solidification apparatus.Compared with the microstructures solidified at conventional low thermal gradient conditions,the dendrite arm spacings,the interdendritic microporosity and γ/γ' eutectic,and the severity of solute segregation of the single-crystal superalloy solidified at ultra-high thermal gradient conditions were considerably reduced.It was shown that the microstructure solidified under ultra-high thermal gradient condition is ideal for the full exploitation of the excellent property potentials of single-crystal superalloys.
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    Phase Transformations in ZrO_2 after Shock Loading
    Sergey N.Kulkov Alexander G.Melnikov Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science,The Russian Academy.of Science,Siberian Branch,Tomsk,634055,RussiaYanchun ZHOU Shengqi CHEN Zhe QU Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 32-36. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1949KB)
    The effects of shock loading on the morphology,grain growth during heating and phase transforma- tion of ZrO_2 have been investigated.It is shown that shock loading may be efficiently used to modify submicron ceramic powders with nanocrystalline structure.After shock loading,the critical diameter of ZrO_2 particles transformed from tetragonal to monoclinic decreased due to stored strain energy. Annealing of powders resulted in reversible transformation to the tetragonal without considerable grain growth up to 1200℃.
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    Multi-range Fractals in Materials
    Qiwei LONG (C.W.Lung) International Centre for Materials Physics,Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang 110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 37-40. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (315KB)
    A new model of multi-range fractals is proposed to explain the experimental results observed on the fractal dimensions of the fracture surfaces in materials.The relationship of multi-range fractals with multi-scaling fractals has been also discussed.
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    FEM Simulation of the Hydroforming Process of Spherical Vessels from Combination Frustum Shells
    Shihong ZHANG Zhongren WANG (Z.R. Wang) Yingchun GUO Jianyi WANG Dept.of Materials Science and Technology.Harbin Institute of Technology,Harbin,150006,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 41-46. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (760KB)
    The dieless hydroforming of spherical vessels from combination frustum shells is put forward in the present paper,and the forming process is developed by means of elastoplastic finite element method and experiments.In this paper the principle and experimental procedure of the new technology are introduced,the simulation method and the calculating assumptions are presented,the deformation process and the deformation characteristics of the shells are discussed,as well as the stress and strain distributions of the shell during bulging are analysed.
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    Influence of Stress Ratio and Loading Condition on Near-threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour
    Daolun CHEN B.Weiss R.Stickler University of Vienna,Wahringer Street 42,A-1090 Vienna,AustriaZhongguang WANG State Key Laboratory for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials,Institute of Metal Research.Academia Sinica,Shenyang 110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 47-52. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (543KB)
    Near-threshold fatigue crack propagation behaviour of a cold-worked copper tested with distinct fa- tigue testing systems under different stress ratios has been investigated.The emphasis was placed on the evaluation of crack closure effect as well as the effective fatigue threshold,It was found that the fatigue threshold for R=0 is higher than those for R=-1 and R=0.4,for which almost the same threshold value was derived.Compared with the conventional closure evaluation method,the pro- posed new closure evaluation method can generally interpret the dependence of the fatigue thresh- old on stress ratio and loading condition,and leads to a higher and relatively constant effective fa- tigue threshold of about 3 MPa·m~(1/2) for the cold-worked copper at different stress ratios and loading conditions.
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    Superplasticity and Diffusion Bonding of Ti_3AI Intermetallic Compounds
    Yi GUO Peng LIU Yiwen WU Zijing HE Dong LI Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 53-56. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1826KB)
    The superplasticity of Ti_3Al intermetallic compounds has been investigated in this paper.The Ti-14Al-21Nb ternary alloy showed 477% elongation at the strain rate of 1.49×10~(-5) s~(-1) and 950℃.The elongation of Ti-14Al-21 Nb-3Mo-1V quinary alloy approached to 573% at the strain rate of 4.52×10~(-5) s~(-1) and the same temperature,and it was found that the elongation value in- creased to 1096.4%as temperature was raised up to 980℃ at the same strain rate.Ti_3Al base al- loys were bonded by diffusion bonding technology and good joints were created,the simulated specimens were performed by SPF/DB process.
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    Problems in the Determination of Internal Stresses in Plasma Assisted CVD TiN Films
    Kewei XU Jiawen HE Huijiu ZHOU Research Institute for Strength of Metals,Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an,710049,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 57-60. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (423KB)
    The measurement of internal stresses in a PACVD TiN film proved experimentally to be difficult by a conventional X-ray diffraction technique.The linear relationship between 2θ and sin~2(?) could hardly be reached in some cases.Nevertheless.a good confirmation between the variation of FWHM-sin~2(?) and 20-sin~2(?) was revealed for every nonlinear forms.It followed that the effect of nondistributed micro-strains might exist in plasma assisted vapor deposited films,which usually have a strong crystal orientation,and the method of effectively separating macro-stress and micro-strain must be applied for the precise determination of internal stresses in PACVD films.
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    Microstructure-Property Correlation in AI_4C_3 Dispersion Strengthened Al Composite
    Jing BI Zongyi MA Shengjin WU Yuxiong LU Hongwei SHEN Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 61-64. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1399KB)
    The microstructure and tensile properties of Al_4C_3 dispersion strengthened Al composite fabricated by reaction milling technique were investigated.It is indicated that the rod-like Al_4C_3 dispersoids having a diameter of 0.02-0.03 μm and a length of 0.1-0.3μm are formed by reaction of C with Al, and uniformly distributed in the Al matrix.The interface between Al_4C_3 and Al is clean and the interfacial bonding is good.The matrix consists of the subgrains which have the size of 0.3-0.4μm, and most of the Al_4C_3 dispersoids are distributed on the subgrain boundaries.The 11 vol.-% Al_4C_3/Al composite exhibits an UTS (ultimate tensile strength) of 400 MPa and an elongation-to-failure of 8.0%.
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    Computerized Simulation of Structure of NaAIO_2 Melt
    Chi XU Ming LI Nianyi CHEN Shanghai Institute of Metallurgy,Academia Sinica,Shanghai,200050,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 65-67. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (249KB)
    The structure of NaAlO_2 melt has been studied by computerized simulation using Monte Carlo method.The radial distribution functions and Local structure of this melt are calculated.It has been found that NaAlO_2 melt contains ionic clusters formed by corner-sharing AlO_4 tetrahedra,sodium ions and xNa~+.yO~(2-) ionic clusters.
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    Thermodynamic Behaviour of Fe-S-RE,Fe-Csat.-S-RE,Ni-S-RE,Cu-S-RE Solutions
    Ting DU Longmei WANG Yeming WU Yuqing ZHANG Aisheng LIU Central Iron and Steel Research Institute,Beijing,100081,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 68-70. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (196KB)
    The temperature dependences of the equilibrium constants for the reactions RES_((S))=[RE]+[S]. (RE=Ce,La,Nd,Sm,Y),of the standard Gibbs energies for the RES formed and of the interaction coefficients between RE elements and S for the Fe-base,Ni-base and Cu-base solutions are sum- marized.
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    A Microcomputer Fitted Method for Determination of the True ODF of Hexagonal Materials according to the Maximum-Entropy Estimate
    Liqing CHEN Fu WANG Zhide LIANG Dept.of Materials Science and Engineering,Northeast University of Technology.Shenyang,110006,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 71-73. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (262KB)
    A method which is especially suitable for microcomputer calculation of the true orientation distribution function (ODF) according to the maximum-entropy estimate is proposed for hexagonal system polycrystalline materials with physical symmetry.The resultant computational software system has been also designed and first carried out in a microcomputer PANAFACOM-U1200 being on line with the X-ray diffractometer D/max-3A.The simu- lated calculation shows that the method is concisely pragmatic and easily popularized,while the results obtained are trust worthy.
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    Fabrication of BSCCO Nanocrystal Superconductors
    Cheng ZHANG Xin WANG Yongzhong WANG Guiwen QIAO Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 74-76. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1177KB)
    Nanocrystal materials have their special properties because of very small grain size.Nanocrystal superconductors were prepared by crystallizing the amorphous slices with nominal composition of Bi_(1.6)Pb_(0.4)Sr_2Ca_4Cu_5O_x at certain temperature.The measurements of R-Tcurve and x data prove all the crystallized samples have superconducting transition though their Meissner effect is weak.All the nanocrystal superconductors are mainly constituent of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_y phase by the analysis of X-ray diffraction.
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    The First Pacific Rim International Conference on Advanced Materials and Processing
    Hangzhou China,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (1): 77-78. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (645KB)
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CN: 21-1315/TG
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