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CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 March 1993, Volume 9 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Articles
    Properties of Evaporated Si_(1-x)Sn_x and Si_(1_x)Sn_x:H Amorphous Alloys
    M. Vergnat;M.Gerl+, Laboratoire de Métallurgie Physique et Science des Maériaux (U.R.A.au C.N.R.S.No. 155), Universite de Nancy 1, France
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 79-88. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1242KB)
    Amorphous Si_(1-x)Sn_x alloys have been prepared by co-evaporation onto substrates maintained at liquid nitrogen temperature. Their atomic structure is investigated using density measurements, scanning high-energy electron diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The optical and electrical properties are reported. Then, a method to hydrogenate the films during the evaporation process is described and applied to the preparation of amorphous semiconductors from pure silicon to pure tin. Finally, multilayers of type Si / Si:H / ... or Si:H / Si:D / ... are studied. The modulation of hydrogen is shown by low-angle neutron scattering and measurements of hydrogen diffusivity are presented.
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    Influence of Rare-earth Elements on Mechanical Properties of Palladium
    Yuantao NING+;Fei WEN;Huaizhi ZHOU;Deguo DENG, Institute of Precious Metals Kunming, 650221, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 89-95. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1334KB)
    The influence of 0.1-0.6 at.-%RE additions (RE= La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Yb) on the mechanical properties of Pd was studied. All above RE additions increased not only the strength properties at ambient temperature but also the tensile strength, creep rupture time and activation en- ergy at high temperatures, simultaneously increased the elongation of Pd. In the range of dilute con- centration, the strength properties of Pd-RE alloy enhanced linearly with RE concentration. When the strength properties of Pd-RE alloys were normalized at 0.1 at.-%RE, it was found that light RE elements had stronger effect on the properties of Pd than heavy RE, whereas Eu, Yb, Ce had anoma- lous effect. In all Pd-RF alloys, Pd-Eu alloy had the highest strength properties, successively Pd-Yb and Pd-Ce alloy. The effect mechanisms of RE in alloy, such as purifying impurities, increasing recrystallization temperature, refining grain size. expanding crystal lattice, increasing dislocation den- sity and decreasing stacking fault energy, forming stable RE oxidation by internal oxidation, and so on, were observed. They were strengthening sensitive factors. The influence of the factors on strength properties and elongation of Pd was discussed.
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    Analysis of Interfacial Coating Effect on Thermal Stress in Composites
    Yuqing WANG+;Benlian ZHOU;Zuoming WANG;Changxu SHI, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 96-100. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (453KB)
    A preliminary model for the analysis of thermo-mechanical behaviour of interfacial coatings on the fibers in unidirectional composites have been developed on the solution of thermo-elastic mechan- ics. Thermal stress would be introduced into the composite during cooling because of the mismatch of thermo-mechanical properties among their components. The low modulus coating can effectively reduce the interracial stress caused by different thermal expansion coefficient between fibers and ma- trix, no matter how high or low the expansion coefficients of coatings are in CF/Al and SiC/Ti composite systems, however, high modulus coating can decrease the interfacial compressive stress, only when the thermal expansion coefficient of coating is lower.
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    First Cycle Effect of Polycrystalline CuZnAl Shape Memory Alloy during Thermal-Mechanical Cycling
    Wenge LIU+;Min ZHU;Dazhi YANG, Dept. of Materials Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, ChinaZhongguang WANG, State Key Laboratory for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 11001
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 101-106. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (3298KB)
    The thermal-mechanical (T-M) cycles at constant strain of a polycrystalline CuZnAl alloy have been studied in the. present work. In-situ optical microscopic observations have been made to reveal the features of the phase transitions during T-M cycling. The variation of stress-temperature (S-T) curves and electrical resistance-temperature (R-T) curves accompanying with T-M cycling have been measured by tensile test and electrical resistance measurements. It has been found that the polycrystalline CuZnAl alloy shows apparent morphology changes and properties variations in the first cycle during T-M cycling which is called the first cycle effect in the present work. The stable transformation procedure in the T-M cycle is: martensiteparent phase +residual acicular martensite. This residual martensite possesses the character of stress-induced martensite.
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    Grain Boundary Sliding in Fatigue of Pure Aluminum
    Wenlin HE;Qishan ZANG+;Zhongguang WANG, State Key Laboratory for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 107-110. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (596KB)
    The distributions of plastic strain near grain boundaries induced by fatigue loading were investigated by the fiducial grid method in pure aluminum specimens, and the resulted grain boundary sliding (GBS) was systematically analysed. The results show that the strain field near a grain boundary is nonuniform. GBS is restricted by the junction of grain boundaries and causes discontinuities of both displacement and strain. A peak value of shear strain was created in short-range area across the grain boundary. GBS plays an important role in cyclic softening and secondary hardening. The control fac- tor of GBS is the relative orientation between two grains and the macro orientation of the grain boundary rather than the ∑ value of the boundary.
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    Preparation of Sintered Titanium Anode and Its Electrochemical Properties
    Jiangming LU;Bangna ZHOU;Zhongxing YU;Shiguan CHEN+, Shanghai University of Technology, Shanghai 200072, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 111-115. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1095KB)
    In this paper, the sintered Ti anodes (STA) with Ti suboxide intermediate layers and β-MnO_2 active layers were investigated in detail. At usual industrial current densities, the oxygen evolution overpotential on STA is reduced by 350 mV compared with lead anodes. According to the equation obtained experimentally, the service life of STA may be expected to be more than 3 years. After los- ing activity, STA may be recoated with β-MnO_2 active layers and used again. The electrocatalytic activity and the service life of the reused anodes remained almost unchanged. The possible reasons for losing activity of STA during the anodic evolution of oxygen were investigated by means of elec- tron probe microanalysis, electron scanning microscope and X-ray diffraction.
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    Morphology and Microstructure of Sputtered Superalloy Coating
    Bangjie XIA+;Hanyi LOU;Lixin ZHANG, Corrosion Science Laboratory, Institute of Corrosion and Protection of Metals, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 116-120. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (972KB)
    The morphology and microstructure of magnetron sputtered coating of superalloy K38G on cast al- loy K38G have been investigated by means of SEM, TEM and XRD. The results indicate that the sputtered coating is identical to the substrate in chemical composition but it is composed only of γ phase without γ'. The sputtered superalloy coating presents columnar structure and the grain size is in the range of 20-100 nm. There are a great number of planar defects such as stacking faults and microtwins in the coating. The morphology and microstructure of the sputtered coating may have close relation to the remarkable increase of oxidation resistance of the coating.
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    Surface Layer of Ni_(68)P_(18)Cr_(14) Amorphous Alloy
    Honggang JIANG+;Bingzhe DING;Jingtang WANG, State Key Lab. for RSA, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 121-124. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (342KB)
    In Ni_(68)P_(18)Cr_(14) amorphous alloy, the dominant component elements Ni and P were in lower content in the surface layer, while Cr was enriched. There was a P enrichment region just below the surface oxide layer, which was supposed to enhance the surface segregation of Cr. Nickel was less oxidized than Cr.
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    Thermal Stability of Amorphous Hydride Mg_(50)Ni_(50)H_(54) and Mg_(30)Ni_(70)H_(45)
    Quanmin YANG;Yongquan LEI+;Changpin CHEN;Jing WU;Qidong WANG, Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng., Zhejiang Univresity, Hangzhou, 310027, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 125-128. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (382KB)
    The thermal stability of amorphous ternary hydrides Mg_(50)Ni_(50)H_(54) and Mg_(30)Ni_(70)H_(45) and their corre- sponding amorphous binary alloys Mg_(50)Ni_(50) and Mg_(30)Ni_(70) were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). Samples of the amorphous alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying and the amorphous hydrides were obtained by charging the alloys with gas- eous hydrogen at 3.0 MPa and 423 K. It was found that the amorphous hydrides released most of their hydrogen before the crystallization of the essentially hydrogen depleted amorphous alloy. The crystallization temperature of amorphous Mg_(50)Ni_(50)H_(54) elevated and that of amorphous Mg_(30)Ni_(70)H_(45) did not change in relation to the original binary amorphous alloy. This is very excep- tional for amorphous hydrides. The reason for the effects of hydrogen absorption/desorption on the crystallization of amorphous alloys was discussed.
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    Behaviour of Rare Earths in Low Sulphur Steel
    Qin LIN+;Aisheng LIU;Wen YE;Zongsen YU, Dept. of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 129-132. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (318KB)
    In steels 16Mn and X60 with low S content (0. 003~0. 005%), rare earth metals (REM) still show ef- fects on purifying the molten steel and controlling the sulphide morphology. The optimum ratio of RE/S is about 2. 0, which causes lower content of oxygen and inclusions and higher impact toughness. The amount of REM in solid solution in the steel was determined by means of inductive coupling plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The dissolved REM in low S steel could decrease the propor- tion of pearlite and increase the strength of the steel.
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    H-plasma In-situ Cleaning and Lattice Damage Elimination
    Chenguang GONG+;Fuchu SHEN;Biguang YE;Jian CHEN, Zhenjiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 133-135. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (429KB)
    This article discusses the silicon lattice damage induced during H-plasma in-situ cleaning and finds that the substrate temperature, plasma power, processing time, all affect the extent of the distortion of the surface and its curability.
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    Reduction of Stibnite at Moderate Temperature
    Zhonghua LIU+;Chunpeng LIU, Dept. of Metallurgy, Kunming Institute of Technology, Kunming, 650093, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 136-138. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (933KB)
    Reduction of stibnite with hydrogen in the presence of calcium oxide has been experimentally inves- tigated at moderate temperature. The results reveal that the effluent generated in the reduction pro- cess contains much less air-polluting substance H_2S, and that the reaction activation energy is 63. 3 kJ/mol. The form of antimony changes considerably when the reaction temperature varies.
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    Exchange Interactions and Ferromagnetism of Pr_(n+1)Co_(3n+5)B_(2n)-type Compounds
    Zhidong ZHANG+;Changheng WU;Zhenchen ZHONG;Xiaokai SUN;Y.C. Chuang, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 139-141. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (357KB)
    In present investigation exchange interactions of Pr_(n+1)Co_(3n+5)B_(2n)-type compounds have been evalu- ated in the light of molecular-field theory. The exchange interactions and ferromagnetism in these compounds are discussed in terms of lattice parameters and interatomic distance between Co atom.
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    Formation and Properties of Nanocrystalline (Fe_(0.99)Mo_(0.01))_(78)Si_9B_(13) Alloy
    Xuedong LIU+;Jing tang WANG;Bingzhe DING, State Key Lab. of RSA, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 142-144. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (391KB)
    Polycrystalline Fe-Mo-Si-B alloys with grains sized from 15 to 200 nm were prepared by means of the crystallization method. A critical phenomenon was observed in the variations of microhardness and electrical resistivity with respect to the annealing temperature. The critical temperature is 893 K which corresponds to the average grain size of 45 nm.
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    Effective Medium Approximation for Nonlinear Composite Media
    Guoqing GU+, International Centre for Materials Physics, Academia Sinica, 110015, Shenyang, ChinaGe CHEN, College of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Mechanical Engineering, 200093, ShanghaiK.W.Yu, Department of Physics, Chin
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 145-147. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (256KB)
    We build the perturbation expansion method for nonlinear composite media and extend the EMA for nonlinear effective conductivity. Using the solutions of boundary-value problems of a cylindrical in- clusion, we derive formulae for nonlinear effective conductivity.
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    Intrinsic Localized Modes in an Order-parameter-preserving Antiferromagnet
    Wuming LIU+;Shaoyun FU;Benlian ZHOU, International Centre for Materials Physics, Institute of Metal Research, Academia Sinica, Shenyang, 110015, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 148-152. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (725KB)
    Intrinsic localized modes in an order-parameter-preserving antiferromagnet are investigated with employing the Dyson-Maleev transformation and the coherent-state ansatz. These modes which be- low the magnon frequency band correspond to a local large-angle, low-frequency precessional mo- tion of spins, quantum states of which are characterized by the indefiniteness of the number of rele- vant magnons.
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    Effects of Sintering on the Microstructure and Critical Current Density of Ag-sheathed BiPbSrCaCuO Superconducting Tapes
    Junhua LIU+, Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, ChinaZutang WANG, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 153-155. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (441KB)
    The effects of sintering on the microstructure and the critical current density of Ag-sheathed BiPbSrCaCuO (2223) superconducting tapes prepared by the powder-in-tube technique were in- vestigated. The microstructure of oxide layer and the J_C at 77 K were strongly dependent on the sintering condition. The optimum sintering temperature, time and cooling rate to maximize J_C values were in the range about 840-850℃, 100-200 h and 50-100℃/h, respectively.
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    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (2): 157-158. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (138KB)
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