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      28 May 1993, Volume 9 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    EDITOR'S NOTE
    Changxu Shu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 2-2. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (97KB)
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    Synthesis of CDMO from LiOH and EMD and the Performances of Li/CDMO Rechargeable Batteries
    Renmin LIU Guoliang WU Jiangshan LUO General Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals,Beijing,100088,ChinaJohn H.Kennedy Zhengming ZHANG Department of Chemistry,University of California,Santa Barbara,USAQin LIN University of Science and Technology Beijing,
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 157-160. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (342KB)
    The synthesis of CDMO from LiOH and EMD has been investigated by thermogravimetry and pow- der X-ray diffraction analysis.The results showed that it took place from below 100 to 400℃.When the proportion of Li:Mn in the starting mixture was 3:7,the measured weight loss during this process was 7.40% for heat-treated EMD and 8.33% for non-heat-treated EMD.Based on these data and X-ray diffraction results the obtained product would be 3LiMn204 - MnO2.This material was es- sentially amorphous.It can insert 4.7 Li per 3LiMn_2O_4·MnO_2,leading to a capacity of 170- 200 mAh/g and demonstrated reasonable discharge and recharge cycle performance for both test cells and practical batteries.
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    Mechanically-driven Amorphization in Metallic Systems
    Yuanda DONG Dept.of Metallurgy and Materials,Shanghai University of Technology,Shanghai,200072,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 161-166. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (465KB)
    The mechanism of mechanically-driven amorphization was extensively surveyed in various systems. It was concluded that the amorphization could occur in the systems of Cu-Zr with a negative heat of mixing (-ΔH) and Cu-Ta with a positive heat of mixing (+ΔH) by mechanical alloying of elemental powders.Such amorphization could also be started from an intermetallic compound Cu_xZr_y with no chemical reaction involved.The energy storage by mechanical attrition should be the driving force for the amorphization.The atomic distribution function and nuclear resonance spectroscopic studies show that the mechanical alloying provides a true alloying on an atomic level.The alloys formed are of a characteristic structure common to the rapidly quenched amorphous alloys.
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    Sulphidation of Fe-Nb,Co-Nb and Ni-Nb Alloys in H_2-H_2S at 700℃
    F.Gesmundo F.Viani Instituto di Chimica,Facolta di Ingegneria,Universita di Genova,Genova,16129,ItalyY.NIU Corrosion Science Lab.,Institute of Corrosion and Protection of Metals,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 167-171. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1925KB)
    The corrosion of alloys based on Fe,Co and Ni containing 15 and 30 wt-% Nb was studied at 700℃ in H_2-H_2S mixtures providing 10~(-8) atm S_2.The Fe and Co-based alloys formed duplex scales with an outer layer of pure base-metal sulphide and an inner layer containing both metals.The Nb addi- tions were not able to produce exclusive Nb sulphidation but yielded a significant decrease of the corrosion rates for both types of alloys with respect to the pure metals even though they were still much higher than that of pure Nb.The Ni-base alloys corroded rapidly forming a single complex scale layer,mainly due to the appearance of a liquid Ni-S solution.
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    Isothermal Aging Kinetics in CuZnAl Shape Memory Alloy
    Zengqi ZHAO Lab.of Physics,Baotou Research Institute of Rare Earth,Baotou,014010,ChinaFeixia CHEN Dazhi YANG Dept.of Mater.Eng.,Dalian University of Technology,Dalian,116024,ChinaEr BAO Dept.of Mater.Eng.,Yanshan University,Qinhuangdao,066004,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 172-176. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1039KB)
    Isothermal aging behaviours of a CuZnAl shape memory alloy have been investigated by means of dilatometry.The length of the specimens during isothermal aging from 190 to 280℃ increases with the aging time at each temperature.The isothermal aging kinetics fits in Avrami equation and the time exponent n decreases with the increase in aging temperature.The apparent activation energy for the isothermal aging process was measured to be 109.0kJ/mol,which is about equal to that of a relaxation internal friction peak at about 200℃ (f≈1 Hz) in the alloy.
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    Action of New Rare Earth Additions in Cemented Carbide
    Chenguang LIN General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals,Beijing,100088,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 177-184. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2418KB)
    The existence form and distribution of new rare earth additions in WC-Co,WC-TiC-Co.Cemented carbide and its actions of purification,modificaiton,solid solution strengthening and restraining phase transformation have been investigated.The results have been used to elucidate property im- provement of the alloys.
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    Resistance Behaviour of Nanocrystal Nickel
    Jirong SUN Yingzi ZHANG Guanghui RAO Yong LIU Shichao LIU Institute of Physics,Academia Sinica,Beijing,100090,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 185-189. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1065KB)
    The resistance behaviour of nanocrystal nickel was studied from 4 to 720 K and 0 to 20 Kbar.A linear variation of the resistance was found at low temperatures.It showed that under high temperatures, that system transformed to a more stable state,with the relaxation process taking place by stages and influenced by exerted pressures.The property,especially the stability,of nanocrystal was closely re- lated to the compacting pressure,
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    Nucleation and Formation of Stable and Metastable Phases in Undercooled AI-Li Melts
    Shenglong DAI Guifu YU Minggao YAN Institute of Aeronautical Materials,Beijing,100095,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 190-194. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (471KB)
    A modified nucleation and competitive growth kinetic theory considering unsteady nucleation and effect of composition in dilute binary alloys was suggested,based on which the selections of δ.δ' and α phases in undercooled Al-Li melts were summarized by both isothermal and continuous cool- ing treatment methods.
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    Potential Response Analysis of Exponentially Decaying Polarizing Current of Electrode and its Use in the Study of Stress Corrosion Cracking(SCC)of Stainless Steel
    Yanliang HUANG Ming LU Chunan CAO Haichao LIN Ming LU Corrosion Science Laboratory,Institute of Corrosion and Protection of Metals,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 195-198. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (460KB)
    A study on the potential response of exponentially decaying polarizing current of electrode was car- ried out.The appearance of critical point of the potential-time response of exponentially decaying current was ensured from theoretical analysis,and this is the theoretical foundation of the critical point method for the measurement of corrosion current of metals.The comparison of the corrosion currents measured by the critical point and static methods for the system of 321 stainless steel in 0.5N HCI+0.5N NaCI solution at static state shows that the results agree very well.Finally.the tran- sient corrosion currents of 321 stainless steel in 0.5N HCI+0.5N NaCl solution at different strain level are listed.
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    A New Model for Predicting Ternary Thermodynamic Properties of Solution Phase and Its Application
    Zhiyu QIAO Xianran XING Shuzhen DUAN University of Science and Technology Beijing,Beijing,100083,ChinaChaogui ZHENG Beijing University,Beijing,100871,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 199-204. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (492KB)
    A new geometric asymmetric model for predicting the thermodynamic properties of ternary system from three sub-binaries is presented in this paper.Its analytical expression with good calculating ac- curacy is most simple in all asymmetric models.The new model was applied to predict the enthalpies of mixing of the Bi-Ga-Sn.Au-Ag-Sn and NaCl-KCl-CaCl_2 ternary systems which were in good agreements with experimental data.Based on thermodynamic principles,the importance of the choice of asymmetric component is also discussed.The error analysis indicates that in the case of judging the asymmetric component in ternary system according to the thermodynamic criterion the deviation is minimum.It is of great significance to improve the calculating accuracy for predicting thermodynamic properties of ternary solution phase from the sub-binary ones.
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    Surface Yielding of Metals by X-ray Diffraction
    Xiuying GAI Jiabao LI Zengqiao KANG State Key Lab.for Fatigue and Fracture of Materials,Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,ChinaJiawen HE Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an,710049,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 205-209. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (472KB)
    Surface yielding of metallic material was measured with strain gage and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that.when the residual stress in the transverse direction is involved,the surface yield strength should be evaluated with biaxial Mises criterion.For a medium carbon high strength steel, the yield strength of the bulk material is 581 MPa and the surface yield strengths for 0.05% and 0.1%plastic strain are about 436 MPa and 463 MPa respectively.The 0.05% yield strength will approximately increase to 788 MPa after shot peening.In the early stage of plastic deformation, strain hardening in the surface layer is quite different from that of the bulk sample.
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    Characterization and Growth Morphology of the Ultrafine Manganese Particles
    Jian XU Xiukui SUN Wenxiu CHEN Wenduo WEI State Key Laboratory of RSA,Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang 110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 210-214. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (2161KB)
    In present work.the ultrafine manganese particles were prepared by gas evaporation method.The structure,size distribution,growth morphology and surface oxidation for the particles were investi- gated by using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy.The results indicated that three types of the particles,with the structure of α-Mn,β-Mn and one unknown,respectively existed in the man- ganese particles.The growth morphology of the particles depended on the size and intrinsic structure.When exposed to air,the particles were slightly oxidized only in the surface layer and sta- ble in air.
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    Two-dimensional Model of the Microstructural Evolution in Hot-strip Rolling Processes of C-Mn Steels by Computer Simulations
    Zhenyu LIU Wei WANG Guodong WANG Qiang ZHANG Northeast University of Technology,Shenyang,110006,ChinaDongqing MA Guoliang WU Jingshan LI Benxi Iron and Steel Company,Benxi,117000,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 215-218. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (302KB)
    In the present paper,the two-dimensional comprehensive model,which integrates the temperature model developed by the authors using finite difference methods and microstructural evolution model,has been developed.By using different microstructural evolution equations developed by Sellars,Senuma et al.and Easka et al.,the comparison studies have been made,which present that (1) the calculated γ-grain sizes show good agreements with the measured;(2) these equations show consistencies at the end of finishing stands.
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    Effect of Strain Rate on the Mechanical Properties of Ti-24Al-11Nb
    Guoliang CHEN Yandong WANG Wangyue YANG Zhuqing SUN Runrong REN Dept.of Materials Science and Engineering,Beijing University of Science and Technology,Beijing,100083,ChinaShijie ZHU Suhua AI Lab.of Fatigue and Fracture for Materials,Institute of Metal Res
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 219-222. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1170KB)
    The effect of strain rate on the bend ductility and notch fracture toughness of Ti-24Al-11 Nb was studied,it was found that the strain rate with a range of 1.17×10~(-5)~1.17 ×10~(-3) at 20℃ had nega- tive influence on both properties based on different microstructures.
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    Possible Phenomena of Stochastic Behaviour of Shear Deformed Aluminum
    S.V.Alekseev S.G,Psakhie V.E.Panin Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences,Siberian Branch.Tomsk,634055,Russia
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 223-225. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (217KB)
    The influence of shear deformation on the behaviour of Mg and Zn impurities as well as self-interstitial atoms in Al was studied using molecular dynamics method.The profilies of potential relief were calculated in directions of possible migration of interstitials.It was found that under load- ing the location of interstitial atoms may be undefined.It means that the system of determined parti- cles may go into stochastic regime of behaviour.
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    Correlation of the Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Ni_3Al Alloys with Their Electronic Structure
    Wen DENG Liangyue XIONG Chiwei LUNG International Centre for Materials Physics,Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,ChinaShuhe WANG Jianting GUO Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 226-228. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (309KB)
    The electronic structure of Ni_3Al alloys with different B contents has been investigated by measuring the positron lifetime spectra.The segregation of B atoms to defects could form strong covalent bondings with Ni and Al atoms and make the electronic structure in those locations similar to that in bulk,thus strengthen their cohesion.The interaction of B atoms,which were solid-solutioned in the crystal lattice of Ni_3Al in a manner of occupying interstitial sites,with Ni and Al atoms resulted in the increase of the density of valent electrons,thus increased the bonding cohesion in bulk.The im- provement of the mechanical properties of Ni_3Al alloys by B doping was due to both“grain bounda- ry effect”and“bulk effect”of B,which correlated with their electronic structure.
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    Studies of Correlations between Surface Composition Changes and Ion Bombardment Fluences of Multicomponent Materials
    Liping ZHENG Xiqing XIA Mingyao LI Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research,Academia Sinca,Shanghai,201800,ChinaRisheng LI Lab.of Atomic Imaging of Solids,Institute of Metal Research,Academia Sinica,Shenyang,110015,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 229-231. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (246KB)
    Correlations between surface composition changes and ion bombardment fluences were studied for multicomponent materials by using a dynamic Monte Carlo program,including the preferential sputtering and bombardment-induced Gibbsian segregation (BIGS) processes.For the case of 1 keV KR-~(10)B_(0.02)~(11)B_(0.08) (the most simple multicomponent material system),it is found that the ~(10)B composition enriches at the surface at low fluences but depletes at the surface at high fluences.For the case of 1 keV Ar-Pt_(0.5)Cu_(0.5).it is found that the Cu composition at the topmost surface is always under the bulk composition between zero and high fluences,but the evident composition gradient of Cu(the segregation species) exists in the surface at low fluences.The effects of the preferential sputtering and BIGS processes on above two surface composition profiles are also discussed.
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    Nano-Structure Observed in Highly Doped Silicon Crystalline
    Zhiheng LU Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University,Beijing,100875,ChinaDachan WANG Yan LUO Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics,Beijing Normal University,Beijing,100875,China
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 232-234. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (793KB)
    It was reported that due to the non-linear electrical phenomena,the super-saturated arsenic in silicon single crystalline precipitates during post processing at low temperatures to form different structures.The structure with spatial period of 1.7 to 2.3 nm was observed firstly by TEM on the sample.
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    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 1993, 9 (3): 235-235. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (112KB)
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