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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 January 2009, Volume 25 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Letters
    Current Status in Layered Ternary Carbide Ti3SiC2, a Review
    H.B. Zhang,Y.W. Bao,Y.C. Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 1-38. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (7876KB)

    This article provides a review of current research activities that concentrate on Ti3SiC2. We begin with an overview of the crystal and electronic structures, which are the basis to understand this material. Followings are the synthetic strategies that have been exploited to achieve, and the formation mechanism of Ti3SiC2. Then we devote much attentions to the mechanical properties and oxidation/hot corrosion behaviors of Ti3SiC2 as well as some advances achieved recently. At the end of this paper, we elaborate on some new discoveries in the Ti3SiC2 system, and also give a brief discussion focused on the "microstructure -property" relationship.

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    Complete Composition Tunability of Cu(Ni)-Ti-Zr Alloys for Bulk Metallic Glass Formation
    Ze-xiu Zhang,Chun-li Dai,Jian Xu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 39-47. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1762KB)
    In the Cu-Zr-Ti ternary system, a new composition zone of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) formation was discov-ered, locating at the 55-57 at. pct Cu, 30-31 at. pct Ti and 13-14 at. pct Zr, and near Cu-Ti binary subsystem rather than the Cu-Zr binary. For these alloys, BMG rods of 2 mm in diameter can be fabricated by using copper mould casting. It is expected that these BMG-forming alloys correlate with (L→CuTi+Cu2TiZr+Cu51Zr14) eutectic reaction that the undercooled melt undergoes during solidification. Adopting "3D pinpointing ap-proach", compositional dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) in Cu(Ni)-Ti-Zr pseudo ternary system was revisited. Optimized BMG-forming composition is located at Cu50.4Ni5.6Ti31Zr13, with a critical diameter of 6 mm for complete BMG formation. Its GFA is significantly superior to Vit 101 (Cu47Ni8Ti34Zr11) previously developed by Caltech group. The effect that the GFA of the ternary base alloy was improved by substitution of Ni for Cu is attributed to a role of retarding the crystallization of Cu51Zr14 intermetallics.
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    Crystallization and Hardness of Melt Spun Fe73Si13B9Nb4Cu1 Alloy
    J.I. Akhter,M. Iqbal,M. Siddique,M. Ahmad,M.A. Haq,M.A. Shaikh,Z.Q. Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 48-52. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (414KB)

    An alloy having composition Fe73Si13B9Nb4Cu1 was synthesized by melt spinning to investigate the kinetics of crystallization. Techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy were employed to characterize the phases produced due to annealing at various temperatures. High temperature DSC revealed two stage crystallization reactions. First stage, crystallization occurs at temperature around 514°C with the production of α-Fe (bcc) and Fe3Si phases. In the second stage, Fe2B and α-Fe (Si,Nb) phases were produced. Mössbauer results revealed the formation of Fe3Si, Fe13Si3 and Fe7Si1 in the first stage and Fe3Si, Fe13Si3, Fe2B and α-Fe (Si,Nb) phases in the second stage of crystallization. An abrupt change in average internal magnetic field was observed at 500°C. The maximum hardness value was found for the sample heat-treated at 500°C.

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    Fabrication and Wettability of ZnO Nanorod Array
    Meng Sun,Yi Du,Weichang Hao,Huaizhe Xu,Youxing Yu,Tianmin Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 53-57. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (831KB)

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared in an open system by using a simple aqueous solution method. Spindle- like, wimble-like, tower-like and hexagonal rod-like ZnO rods were obtained under different conditions. ZnO nanorod arrays with different morphology and size were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement (CAM). The size of ordered zinc oxide rods can be controlled by temperature of water bath, because this temperature can influences growing speeds in different crystal directions. Some additives, such as urea and thiourea, were introduced into reaction solution to improve quality of arrays. Surface character of ZnO nanorod arrays can be changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, which was proved to be dependence on size of air grooves on surface.

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    Preparation of New Type Ni-P Micro/Nano Metal Material Based on Bacteria Shape
    Xin Liang,Jianhua Liu,Songmei Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 58-62. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (782KB)

    A new type of Ni-P alloy with rod-shape was prepared by electroless deposition method based on the shape of Nocadia, a kind of bacteria. The material was characterized by microbiological method, scanning elec- tron microscope, energy dispersion spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrant sample magnetometer. It was found that Ni-P alloy deposited on Nocadia surface was amorphous when pH=8.0. The amount of Ni crystalline increased with pH of plating solution. Ni-P nano-particles deposited on active locations on the surface at the initial stage, and then ho- mogeneous Ni-P film formed with time. Nocadia remained their original rod shape after Ni-P nano-particles deposition. The new type metal material formed of Ni-P alloy with nano-particles was prepared. The mag- netization of the material prepared at pH=9.7 is greater than that prepared at pH=8.0. The magnetic loss of the material prepared at pH=9.7 is less than 0.1. The dielectric loss exceeds 0.3 when frequency is higher than 14 GHz, which is 1.5 at 18 GHz. The new type Ni-P metal material with Nocadia shape has dielectric loss property.

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    Combination of Instrumented Nanoindentation and Scanning Probe Microscopy for Adequate Mechanical Surface Testing
    Enrico Tam,Mikhail Petrzhik,Dmitry Shtansky,Marie-Paule Delplancke-Ogletree
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 63-68. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1259KB)

    The elastic indentation modulus and hardness of standard bulk materials and advanced thin films were deter- mined by using the nanoindentation technique followed by the Oliver- Pharr post-treatment. After measure- ments with different loading/unloading schemes on chemically polished bulk titanium a substantial decrease of both modulus and hardness vs an increasing loading time was found. Then, hard nanostructured TiBN and TiCrBN thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering (using multiphase targets) on substrates of high roughness (sintered hard metal) and low roughness (silicon) were studied. Experimental modulus and hardness characterized by using two different nanoindenter tools were within the limits of standard deviation. However, a strong effect of roughness on the spread of the experimental values was observed and it was found that hard- ness and elastic indentation modulus obeyed a Gaussian distribution. The experimental data were discussed together with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) images of typical imprints taken after the nanoindentation tests and the local topography´s strong correlation with the results of nanoindentation was described.

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    Salt-assisted Low Temperature Solid State Synthesis of High Surface Area CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles
    Runhua Qin,Fengsheng Li,Wei Jiang,Li Liu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 69-72. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (431KB)

    A novel salt-assisted low temperature solid state method using CoCl2?6H2O, FeCl3?6H2O and NaOH as pre- cursor and using NaCl as a dispersant to synthesize high surface area CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, has been investigated. The effects of the molar ratio of added salt and calcination temperature on the characteristics of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area analysis. Results showed that the introduction of leachable inert inorganic salt as a hard agglomeration inhibitor in the mixture precursor led to the formation of high dispersive CoFe2O4 nanoparticles; and the increase in specific surface area from 28.28 to 73.97 m2/g, and the saturation magnetization is 84.6 emu/g.

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    (N, F)-codoped TiO2 Nanocrystals as Visible Light-activated Photocatalyst
    Yanling Meng,Jiansong Chen,Ying Wang,Hanming Ding,Yongkui Shan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 73-76. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (293KB)

    (N, F)-codoped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with active visible light response were prepared by using a simple sol-gel approach. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggested that the substitutional N and F species replaced the lattice oxygen atoms in TiO2 nanocrystals. Such nanocrystals showed strong absorption from 400 to 550 nm, which was mainly induced by nitrogen doping. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile was hindered by fluorine doping at high calcination temperatures, which was verified by XRD patterns. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms revealed the absence of mesopores in these nanocrystals. The (N, F)- codoped TiO2 nanocrystals showed satisfying photocatalytic activity on the photo-degradation of methylene blue under visible light.

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    Residual Strains in a Nanometer Thick Cr Film Measured on Micromachined Beams
    Z.M. Zhou,Yong Zhou,Ying Cao,Haiping Mao
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 77-80. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (494KB)

    A Cr film with a 75 nm thickness sputtered on a Si substrate was used to fabricate microbridge and microcan- tilever samples with the MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technique. The profile of the buckled beams was measured by using the interference technique with white light and fitted with a theoretical result. The uniform residual strain in the bridge samples was deduced from the variation of buckling amplitude with the beam length. On the other hand, the gradient residual strain was determined from the deflection profile of the cantilever. The residual uniform and gradient strain in the Cr film are about 4.96×10-3 and 4.2967×10-5, respectively.

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    A New Attempt to Obtain Bulk Nanocrystalline Steel
    Shengjie Yao,Linxiu Du,Xianghua Liu,Guodong Wang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 81-84. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (859KB)

    Bulk nanocrystalline steel sample was obtained in laboratory through refining of austenite grains and controlled rolling. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that some textures are evolved in the process of the treatment and two typical carbides are classified according to their size and location. The tensile strength of the nanocrystalline sample is obviously lower than conventional consideration, and scanning electron microscopy observation shows that the existence of the first type of carbide is considered as the main reason for the failure.

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    Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposited Thin Films of Cobalt Oxide Prepared via Cobalt Acetylacetonate
    C.U. Mordi,M.A. Eleruja,B.A. Taleatu,G.O. Egharevba,A.V. Adedeji,O.O. Akinwunmi,B. Olofinjana,C. Jeynes,E.O.B. Ajayi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 85-89. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (690KB)

    The single solid source precursor, cobalt (II) acetylacetonate was prepared and characterized by infrared spec- troscopy. Thin films of cobalt oxide were deposited on soda lime glass substrates through the pyrolysis (metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD)) of single solid source precursor, cobalt acetylaceto- nate, Co[C5H7O2]2 at a temperature of 420°C. The compositional characterization carried out by rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), showed that the films have a stoichiometry of Co2O3 and an average thickness of 227±0.2 nm. A direct energy gap of 2.15±0.01 eV was calculated by the data obtained by optical absorption spectroscopy. The morphology of the films obtained by scanning electron mi- croscopy, showed that the grains were continuous and uniformly distributed at various magnifications, while the average grain size was less than 1 micron for the deposited thin films of cobalt oxide.

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    Creep Behavior and Its Influence on the Mechanics of Electrodeposited Nickel Films
    Zengsheng Ma,Shiguo Long,Yong Pan,Yichun Zhou
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 90-94. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (608KB)

    In order to improve the accuracy and comparability of hardness and elastic modulus measurements in nanoin- dentation, an evaluation of the creep behavior and its influence on the mechanical properties of the electrode- posited nickel film has been conducted. The influence of loading time and hold period on the hardness and elastic modulus results at maximum load 5000 μN has also been examined. It is found that with increasing the loading time, the creep value is decreased. However, the creep value is increased when the hold period is increased. The elastic modulus results are more reliable if the hold period is longer. If the hold period is long enough, the loading time has no remarkable effect on the hardness and elastic modulus measured.

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    Effect of Oxide Inclusions on Electrochemical Properties of Aluminium Sacrificial Anodes
    M. Emamy,A. Keyvani,M. Mahta,J. Campbell
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 95-101. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1943KB)

    Oxide films are incorporated into melts by an entrainment process, and are expected to be present in most metals, but particularly cast Al alloys. The oxides are necessarily present as folded-over double films (bifilms) that are effectively cracks. Their effect on the electrochemical behaviour of cast Al-5Zn-0.02In sacrificial anodes was studied in 3 wt pct sodium chloride solution using the NACE e±ciency evaluation. Three methods were employed to entrain progressive amounts of oxide in the alloy, including the addition of Al-Zn-In maching chips to the charge, increasing the pouring height, and agitating the melt. The introduction of oxide bifilms in the cast alloy resulted in the deterioration of the electrochemical properties of the sacrificial anodes, such as current capacity and anode e±ciency, and introduced increasing variability in these properties. The results suggest that corrosion behaviour is strongly related to the presence of bifilms suspended in the liquid alloy because bifilms provide crack paths allowing the corrodant to penetrate deeply into the metal matrix, and simultaneously provide localized galvanic cells because of the precipitation of Fe rich intermetallic compounds on their outer surfaces.

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    Vanadium-Doped Semi-Insulating 6H-SiC for Microwave Power Device Applications
    NING Li-Na Zhi-Hong FENG Ying-Ming WANG Kai ZHANG Zhen FENG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 102-104. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (333KB)

    Two-inch semi-insulating SiC bulk crystals with resistivity higher than 1×106 ­Ωcm were achieved by vanadium doping during sublimation. Secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry (SIMS) was employed to determine the concen- tration of impurities in the crystals, such as B, Al, V and N. These results indicated that the concentration of nitrogen and aluminum kept on decreasing and the concentration of B and V was almost constant during the whole growth. An inner crucible was used to control the exhausting of vanadium, which made the uniformity of the high resistivity (>1×106 ­Ωcm) in the wafer up to 80%. High-performance AlGaN/GaN high-electron- mobility-transistor (HEMT) materials and devices were grown and fabricated on semi-insulating 6H-SiC sub- strates. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility at room-temperature was 1795 cm2/V•s. The charge carrier concentration of the substrate determined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) test was 7.3×1015 Ωcm−3. The device with a gate width of 1 mm exhibits a maximum output power of 5.5 W at 8 GHz, which proves the semi-insulating property of the substrates indirectly.

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    Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bi- and Cu-Substituted Ca3Co4O9 Oxides
    Haoshan Hao,Limin Zhao,Xing Hu
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 105-108. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (470KB)

    Bi- and Cu-substituted Ca3Co4O9 samples were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method and the e?ect of element substitution on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties was investigated. Partial substitution of Cu for Co leads to an increase in electrical conductivity and a decrease in Seebeck coe±cient due to the rise of hole concentration. The microstructure of Cu-substituted sample is almost unchanged compared with undoped Ca3Co4O9. On the other hand, partial substitution of Bi for Ca gives rise to a significant increase in the grain size, and c-axis-oriented structure can be formed in Ca2.7Bi0.3Co4O9, resulting in an obvious increase in electrical conductivity. Cu and Bi co-substitution further increases the grain growth and the electrical conductivity of Ca2.7Bi0.3Co3.7Cu0.3O9. Thus, Cu and Bi co-substitution samples possess the optimal thermoelectric performance at high temperature and the highest value of power factor can reach 3.1×10-4 Wm-1?K-2 at 1000 K.

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    The Infiltration Process and Texture Transition of 2D C/C Composites
    Hejun Li,Guozhong Xu,Kezhi Li,Chuang Wang,Wei Li,Miaoling Li
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 109-114. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (737KB)

    2D needle-punched fiber felt was infiltrated by a kind of rapid isothermal chemical vapor infiltration technique. The infiltration process and texture transition of the infiltrated C/C composites were investigated. The porosity and the variations of the cumulative pore volume were determined by mercury porosimetry. The texture of matrix carbon was studied under a polarized light microscope. The results show that the relative mass gain of the sample increases directly as the infiltration time at the initial stage until 20 h, and subsequently the increasing rate of the relative mass gain decreases gradually with the prolonging of infiltration time. Three layers of pyrocarbon were formed around fibers. Low-textured pyrocarbon was obtained at the initial stage. With the densification going on, high-textured pyrocarbon was formed on the surface of low-textured pyrocarbon. Then, low-textured pyrocarbon was produced again during the final stage of densification. The texture transition is ascribed to the variation of the ratio of cumulative inner surface area to volume of pores and the gas partial pressure in pores.

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    Thermal Oxidation of Silicon Carbide Substrates
    Xiufang Chen,Lina Ning,Yingmin Wang,Juan Li,Xiangang Xu,Xiaobo Hu,Minhua Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 115-118. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (472KB)

    Thermal oxidation was used to remove the subsurface damage of silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces. The anisotropy of oxidation and the composition of oxide layers on Si and C faces were analyzed. Regular pits were observed on the surface after the removal of the oxide layers, which were detrimental to the growth of high quality epitaxial layers. The thickness and composition of the oxide layers were characterized by Rutherford backscat- tering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Epitaxial growth was performed in a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The substrate surface morphol- ogy after removing the oxide layer and gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer surface were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the GaN epilayer grown on the oxidized substrates was superior to that on the unoxidized substrates.

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    Fabrication and Properties of DC Magnetron Sputtered Indium Tin Oxide on Flexible Plastic Substrate
    Hui Lin,Junsheng Yu,Nana Wang,Shuangling Lou,Yadong Jiang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 119-122. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (336KB)

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at low temperature by DC magnetron sputtering from an In-Sn (90{10 wt pct) alloy target were studied. The correla- tion between deposition conditions and ITO property was systematically investigated and characterized. These as-deposited ITO films were used as the anode contact for flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated FOLEDs with a structure of PET/ITO/NPB (50 nm)/Alq (20 nm)/Mg:Ag (100 nm) showed a maximum luminance of 2125 cd/m2 at 13 V.

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    Study on β-TCP Coated Porous Mg as a Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Material
    Fang Geng,Lili Tan,Bingchun Zhang,Chunfu Wu,Yonglian He,Jingyu Yang,Ke Yang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 123-129. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (961KB)

    Three-dimensional honeycomb-structured magnesium (Mg) scaffolds with interconnected pores of accurately controlled pore size and porosity were fabricated by laser perforation technique. Biodegradable and bioactive β- tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) coatings were prepared on the porous Mg to further improve its biocompatibility, and the biodegradation mechanism was simply evaluated in vitro. It was found that the mechanical properties of this type of porous Mg significantly depended on its porosity. Elastic modulus and compressive strength similar to human bones could be obtained for the porous Mg with porosity of 42.6%-51%. It was observed that the human osteosarcoma cells (UMR106) were well adhered and proliferated on the surface of the β- TCP coated porous Mg, which indicates that the β-TCP coated porous Mg is promising to be a bone tissue engineering scaffold material.

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    Effect of Solid Solution Supersaturation on Precipitation of γ′ in Rapidly Quenched Ni-Al Binary Alloys
    A. Samadi,A. Abdollah-zadeh,S. Behrouzghaemi,S.H. Razavi
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 130-134. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (674KB)

    The effect of solid solution supersaturation on the precipitation of γ′  in rapidly quenched Ni-Al binary alloys containing 11.6, 14.2 and 16.5 at. pct Al was investigated. The samples were solutioned at 1250°C, quenched in iced brine, and then analyzed by electron microscopy and XRD (X-ray diffraction) techniques. In Ni-11.6 at. pct Al alloy, ordering and phase separation took place simultaneously, resulting in a uniform distribution of γ′ . A transition from uniform to bimodal γ′  phase distribution occurred in the composition range between 14.2 and 16.5 at. pct Al. This transition was accompanied by changes in the morphology of γ′  precipitates. The microstructural observations were discussed in view of both kinetics and crystallographic considerations.

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    Pulsed-Laser Annealing of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film
    S.K. Sadrnezhaad,E. Rezvani,S. Sanjabi,A.A. Ziaei Moayed
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 135-140. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1579KB)

    Local annealing of amorphous NiTi thin films was performed by using an Nd:YAG 1064 nm wavelength pulsed laser beam. Raw samples produced by simultaneous sputter deposition from elemental Ni and Ti targets onto unheated Si (100) and Silica (111) substrates were used for annealing. Delicate treatment with 15.92 W/mm2 power density resulted in crystallization of small spots; while 16.52 and 17.51 W/mm2 power densities caused ablation of the amorphous layer. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were performed to characterize the microstructure and surface morphology of the amorphous/crystallized spot patterns.

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    Internal Friction on the Bake-Hardening Behavior of 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP Steel
    Renyu Fu,Yu Su,Ping Ye,Xicheng Wei,Lin Li,Jicheng Zhang
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2009, 25 (01): 141-144. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (585KB)

    The bake-hardening (BH) values and the "internal friction-temperature" spectrums were studied for the baked 0.11C-1.67Mn-1.19Si TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) specimens with 0%, 2% and 6% prestrain. Results show that the experimental TRIP steel deserves good bake-hardening ability and Cottrell atmosphere is the reason for its bake hardening characteristic. It is also concluded that both the number and the saturation degree of Cottrell atmosphere might affect the BH value of TRIP steel.

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