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ISSN 1005-0302
CN 21-1315/TG
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      28 January 2006, Volume 22 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Research Articles
    Controlled Growth of One-Dimensional Oxide Nanomaterials
    Xiaosheng FANG, Lide ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 1-18. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (10236KB)
    This article reviews the recent developments in the controlled growth of one-dimensional (1D) oxide nanomaterials, including ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, SiOx, MgO, and Al2O3. The growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials was carried out in a simple chemical vapor transport and condensation system. This article will begin with a survey of nanotechnology and 1D nanomaterials achieved by many researchers, and then mainly discuss on the controlled growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials with their morphologies, sizes, compositions, and microstructures controlled by altering experimental parameters, such as the temperature at the source material and the substrate, temperature gradient in the tube furnace, the total reaction time, the heating rate of the furnace, the gas flow rate, and the starting material. Their roles in the formation of various morphologies are analyzed and discussed. Finally, this review will be concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.
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    Physical Properties and Electrochemical Performance of LiNixMn2-xO4 Cathode Materials Preparedusing a Precipitation Method
    Guoguang WANG, Jianming WANG, Wenqu MAO, Jianqing ZHANG, Chunan CAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 19-24. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1107KB)
    To improve the cycle performance of spinel LiMn2O4 as the cathode material of 4 V class Li secondary batteries, LiNixMn2-xO4 (x=0~0.3) samples were prepared using a simple precipitation method, and the effects of Ni doping on the physical properties and electrochemical performance of the samples were investigated using various methods. All LiNixMn2-xO4 (x=0~0.3) compounds show a single spinel phase, and the lattice parameter (a), the unit cell volume (v) and particle size decrease with increasing Ni content. The results of the electrochemical experiments showed that the initial charge-discharge capacity of LiNixMn2-xO4 samples in the 3.0~4.4 V range decreases with increasing Ni content except for pure LiNixMn2-xO4; however, the capacity in the 4.4~4.9 V range increases with the increasing Ni content. For spinel samples Ni substitution can contribute to the improvement of their cycle performance due to the formation of the stronger Ni-O bond, homogeneous morphology, and sub-micron sized particles, and the sample with x=0.05 has larger peak currents, higher initial capacity and better cycling capability due to its lower electrochemical and diffusion polarization than those of other samples.
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    Evaluation of Al and Some of Its Alloys as Anode Materials vs γ-MnO2 as Cathode Material and Ore Produced γ-MnO2 vs Zn Anode in KOH Solution
    A.M.A.Hashem, Kh.S.Abou-El-Sherbini, S.Zein El Abedin, H.Abbas
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 25-30. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (832KB)
    In this study electrochemical performance of Al and some of its alloys (Al-Zn, Al-Mg and Al-Mn) anodes vs MnO2 cathode were carried out in alkaline solution. The results show that the Al-Zn alloy anode has the best cell capacity among the other alloys. Cell capacity values go in the order Al-Zn>Al-Mg>Al>Al-Mn. This result is probably related to the nature of passive films formed on the surface of the alloys which examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM morphologies of Al and its alloys showed coarse grains of passive films formed on the surface of these anode materials while Al-Mn morphology shows a needle-like structure. Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) produced by electrodepositing on platinum anode from liquor resulting from reduction of low grade pyrolusite ore (β-MnO2) by sulfur slag was characterized as cathode in alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. Ore produced sample (EMD1) was performed well in comparison with EMD standard (EMD2) (commercial battery grade electrolytic manganese dioxide, TOSOH-Hellas GH-S). SEM morphology of Zn anode after cell reaction was carried out and showed that Zn anode has fine grains of passive film on its surface.
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    Electrochemical Li-storage Properties of Nanosized FeSb2 Preparedby Solvothermal Method
    Jian XIE, Xinbing ZHAO, Gaoshao CAO, Mingjian ZHAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 31-34. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (810KB)
    Li-storage intermetallic compound FeSb2 was prepared by solvothermal method and was studied as a promising anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The electrochemical Li-storage performances of this intermetallic anode were evaluated in a two-electrode cell Li/LiPF6(EC+DMC)/FeSb2. It was found that the particle size of FeSb2 powder is in nanoscale and this intermetallic anode exhibited enhanced cycling behavior comparing to its microscaled counterpart prepared by levitation-melting/ball-milling route.
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    Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi0.85Co0.15-xAlxO2 as Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
    Xianjun ZHU, Pingchu CHEN, Hui ZHAN, Yunhong ZHOU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 35-39. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (623KB)
    LiNi0.85Co0.15-xAlxO2 samples (x=0.025, 0.05 and 0.10) were prepared by solid state reaction at 725℃ for 24 h from LiOH•H2O, Ni2O3, Co2O3 and Al(OH)3 under oxygen flow. Layered LiNiO2 simultaneously doped by Co-Al has been tried to improve the cathode performance. The results showed that substitution of optimum amount Al and Co for the Ni in LiNiO2 definitely had some beneficial effect on increasing the capacity and cycling behavior. When increasing x in LiNi0.85Co0.15-xAlxO2, the initial discharge capacity decreased and its cyclability increased. Compromising high specific capacity and good cyclability, the optimum x in LiNi0.85Co0.15-xAlxO2 was x=0.05. As a consequence, LiNi0.85Co0.15Al0.05O2 had the first discharge capacity of 186.2~mAh/g and a capacity of 180.1 mAh/g after 10 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves indicated that the co-doped LiNiO2 showed suppression of the phase transitions as compared with LiNiO2.
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    Formation Energies of the Lithium Intercalations in MoS2
    Aiyu LI, Huiying LIU, Zizhong ZHU, Meichun HUANG, Yong YANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 40-44. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (977KB)
    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the lithium intercalations in MoS2. The formation energies, changes of volumes, electronic structures and charge densities of the lithium intercalations in MoS2 are presented. Our calculations show that during lithium intercalations in MoS2, the lithium intercalation formation energies per lithium atom are between 2.5 eV to 3.0 eV. The volume expansions of MoS2 due to lithium intercalations are relatively small.
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    Improved Electrochemical Performance of Orthorhombic LiMn1-xCrxO2 Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method
    Xiaoyan TU, Guanglie LU, Yuewu ZENG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 45-49. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (572KB)
    Single phase chromium-substituted orthorhombic LiMn1-xCrxO2 (0≤x≤0.05) were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of Mn2O3, Cr2O3 and lithium hydroxide aqueous solution. Structure and morphologies of the o-LiMn1-xCrxO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Compared to the particle size of o-LiMnO2 ranging from 50 to 150 nm, the Cr-doped one is larger with about 500~nm, which is agglomerated by small grains. There are high stacking faults in nanosized grains that cause easier phase transformation from the orthorhombic to the spinel-like structure on cycling. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy image analysis of electrochemically cycled o-LiMn1-xCrxO2 (x=0, 0.05) samples showed that the nanodomain structure in o-LiMn0.95Cr0.05O2 was comparatively perfect to that in o-LiMnO2. Particle agglomeration and the relatively perfect crystal structure are two key factors for improving cycle performance of o-LiMn0.95Cr0.05O2. The obtained o-LiMn0.95Cr0.05O2 can reach a maximum discharge capacity of 174 mA•h•g-1 at 0.1 C rate in seventh cycle. The discharge capacity fade rate of the samples decreased with increasing Cr amount. Furthermore, o-LiMn0.95Cr0.05O2 gives a highest discharge capacity of 150 mA•h•g-1 at a high current rate of 0.5 C, and retains 130 mA•h•g-1 after 40 cycles.
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    Influences of Preparation Conditions and Melt Treatment Procedureson Melt Treatment Performance of Al-5Ti-Band Al-10Sr Master Alloys
    Pengfa FENG, Jinglin TANG, Xinyan JIN, Shuangshou LI, Daben ZENG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 50-54. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1097KB)
    The influences of preparation conditions of Al-5Ti-B (as-cast and hot-rolled) and Al-10Sr (as-cast and hot-extruded) and melt treatment procedures on the grain refinement and modification performance of A356 alloy are experimentally studied. For the two master alloys, the 50% reduction is sufficient to meet the demands of the efficient grain refinement and modification of A356 alloy. When Al-5Ti-B is introduced into the melt prior to degassing, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-5Ti-B will be greatly increased due to the better dispersity of TiB2 particles. Al-5Ti-B master alloy is less prone to affect the modification effect of Al-10Sr when they are used together.
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    Experimental Study on Characteristics of NiMnGaMagnetically Controlled Shape Memory Alloy
    Fengxiang WANG, Wenjun LI, Qingxin ZHANG, Chenxi LI, Xinjie WU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 55-58. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (756KB)
    The static and dynamic magnetic controlling characteristics of NiMnGa magnetically controlled shape memory alloy (MSMA) were experimentally studied. The results show that the characteristics of induced strain with respect to the magnetic field are nonlinear with saturation nature, and dependent on the temperature as well as the load applied to the MSMA. The magnetic shape memory effect can be observed only in complete martensite phase at room temperature. The magnetic permeability of MSMA is not constant and reduces with the increment of magnetic field. The relative saturation magnetic permeability of MSMA is about 1.5.
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    FEM Modeling of Crack Propagation in a Model Multiphase Alloy
    Lihe QIAN, Seishi NISHIDO, Hiroyuki TODA, Toshiro KOBAYASHI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 59-65. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1447KB)
    In this paper, several widely applied fracture criteria were first numerically examined and the crack-tip-region J-integral criterion was confirmed to be more applicable to predict fracture angle in an elastic-plastic multiphase material. Then, the crack propagation in an idealized dendritic two-phase Al-7%Si alloy was modeled using an elastic-plastic finite element method. The variation of crack growth driving force with crack extension was also demonstrated. It is found that the crack path is significantly influenced by the presence of α-phase near the crack tip, and the crack growth driving force varies drastically from place to place. Lastly, the simulated fracture path in the two-phase model alloy was compared with the experimentally observed fracture path.
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    Parametric Optimization to Minimise the Surface Roughnesson the Machining of GFRP Composites
    K.Palanikumar, L.Karunamoorthy, R.Karthikeyan
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 66-72. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (732KB)
    The present investigation focuses on the parametric influence of machining parameters on the surface finish obtained in turning of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The experiments were conducted based on Taguchi's experimental design technique. Response surface methodology and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the composite machining process to perform the optimization. The results revealed that the feed rate was main influencing parameter on the surface roughness. The surface roughness increased with increasing the feed rate but decreased with increasing the cutting speed. Among the other parameters, depth of cut was more insensitive. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close to each other, which indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the surface roughness on the machining of GFRP composites with 95% confidence intervals. Using such model could remarkablely save the time and cost.
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    Preparation of Cu-based Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites
    Yufeng SUN, Yuren WANG, Bingchen WEI, Weihuo LI
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 73-77. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (893KB)
    Cu47Ti34Zr11Ni8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) matrix composites containing in situ formed TiC particles and δ-TiCu dendrite phase were developed by copper mold cast. The thermal stability and microstructure of the composites are investigated. Room temperature compression tests reveal that the composite samples exhibit higher fracture strength and distinct plastic strain of 0.2%~0.5%, comparing with that of the corresponding Cu47Ti34Z11Ni8 monolithic BMG.
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    Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis, Microstructureand Mechanical Properties of TiC-TiB2-Cu Composites
    Chuncheng ZHU, Xinghong ZHANG, Xiaodong HE, Qiang XU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 78-82. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (514KB)
    TiC-TiB2-Cu composites were produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis combined with pseudo hot isostatic pressing using Ti, B4C and Cu powders. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the final products were only TiC, TiB2 and Cu phases. The clubbed TiB2 grains and spheroidal or irregular TiC grains were found in the microstructure of synthesized products. The reaction temperature and grain size of TiB2 and TiC particles decreased with increasing Cu content. The introduction of Cu into the composites resulted in a drastic increase in the relative density and flexual strength, and the maximum values were obtained with the addition of 20 wt pct, while the fracture toughness was the best when Cu content was 40 wt pct.
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    Property Characteristics of a TiB2P/Al Composite Fabricatedby Squeeze Casting Technology
    Min ZHAO, Gaohui WU, Zuoyong DOU, Longtao JIANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 83-86. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (613KB)
    TiB2P/Al composite was successfully fabricated by squeeze casting technology. Its mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated. The elimination of Ti-Al intermetallic compound was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. At 45% volume fraction, the bending strength at ambient temperature was 934 MPa. And the fracture modes included ductile failure of Al matrix and brittle fracture of TiB2 particles. In dry sliding wear mode, severe plastic deformation and adhesive wear were found on the worn surfaces of the SiCP/Al composite. But no obvious characteristics of adhesion or abrasion wear were observed on that of the TiB2P/Al composites. At the steady stage, the friction coefficient of the SiC2P/Al composite was about 0.6. While that of TiB 2P/Al composite was only about 0.16~0.17.
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    Polycarbonate/Polypropylene/Fibrillar Silicate Ternary Nanocomposites: Morphology and Mechanical Properties
    Xiang GAO, Lixin MAO, Ming TIAN, Liqun ZHANG, Riguang JIN
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 87-92. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1029KB)
    Polycarbonate (pc)/polypropylene (pp)/silicate attapulgite (AT) ternary nanocomposites were first prepared via the two-step melt blending process. Phase structure of the ternary composites was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), in which the morphology of encapsulation of AT by PP in the PC matrix were observed. The mechanical properties of the ternary composites were investigated using the tensile tester and Izod impact tester. The results show that encapsulation of AT by PP in PC enhances the toughness of the matrix effectively and give the best tensile and impact strength.
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    Dynamics of Polymeric Fluids 1. The Molecular Theory of Die Swell: A Set of Equation on Swelling Ratio in Extrudates
    Mingshi SONG, Guixian HU, Zhihong YANG, Qiang XU, Sizhu WU
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 93-107. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (935KB)
    The structural model of the multiple-transient networks and the mechanism of the multiple-reptation entangled chains due to the dynamic reorganization in the entangled sites were extensively applied on the die swell of polymeric liquids in the steady simple shear flow. The total (recoverable and unrecoverable) viscoelastic free energy of deformation and flow, the constitutire equation and the expression of the simple shear (tanψ) were deduced from the conformational probability distribution function of the entangled polymer chains. It found that: (1) the magnitudes of simple shear (tanψ) depended not only on the free recoil (or recoverable strain) but also on the viscous heating (or unrecoverable strain); (2) the total recoil may be resolved into the instantaneous and delayed recoil. Based on these facts, the functions of the partition and two experiential fractions of the recoverable ( ) and the unrecoverable ( ) conformations for the recoil and viscous heating of polymeric liquids were defined correspondingly. Then the correlation of the instantaneously and ultimately (or total) recoverable strains to the (N1/τ12)W and the fraction of trans-form conformation was obtained. After introducing the condition of uniform two-dimensional extension (αx=αy=α, αz=α-2) and the swell ratio (B=α), two sets of equations on the instantaneous and ultimate swelling ratios (BE, BEVT) were obtained, and a method to determine the fraction of the recoverable transform conformation were proposed. The equations of BE and BE5 were verified by the experimental data of HDPE (high denisity polyethylene) at two different high temperatures. It shows that the molecular theory of die swell can be used to predict the correlation of the swelling to the (N1/τ12)W and the fraction of trans-form conformation.
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    Determination of Water Sorption in Freestanding EpoxyFilm by Capacitance Method Using EIS
    Yinghua WEI, Lixin ZHANG, Wei KE
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 108-112. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (535KB)
    Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) technique was adopted to evaluate the water sorption behaviour of an epoxy freestanding film in a 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride solution at 20℃. The methods for obtaining the capacitance data from EIS data were compared. The Brasher-Kingsbury (BK) and corresponding modified version (Modi-BK) models were used to calculate the water uptake in film and the gravimetric results were presented for comparisons. According to the discussion of the discrepancy of water content in film obtained from two models, a new method was proposed to indicate the organic film structure.
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    Arc-Discharge Synthesis and Microstructure Characterizationof AlN Nanowires
    Zhijie LI, Zhiqi SHEN, Fu WANG, Lianlong HE
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 113-116. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (540KB)
    AlN nanowires with a hexagonal structure were synthesized using an improved arc-discharge method and their microstructures were characterized using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The synthesized AlN nanowires were of various shapes. Their diameters ranged from 20 to 110~nm and the lengths were up to 20μm. Most of the AlN nanowires were coated by an amorphous layer of aluminum oxide. Fabrication yield was about several grams. The growth mechanism was considered to be a vapor-liquid-solid process and an Al droplet formed on the top of as-grown AlN nanowire played a role of catalyst.
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    Preparation and Characterization of MWCNTs/E44
    Yan GAO, Zhenjia WANG, Rui WANG, Ji LIANG, Luke WANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 117-122. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (5876KB)
    Epoxy resin was modified by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an in situ method. The composite was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its abrasive wear resistance and tensile properties were tested. The results show that the function groups found on the surface of MWCNTs helped to improve the resin's crack resistance, and the cracks were found notably reduced in the composite. Although the resin and MWCNTs were bonded physically, the tensile properties and wear resistance of the composite were improved notably when an optimum amount of MWCNTs were filled in Epikote-44 (E44). When 5 wt pct acidified MWCNTs were filled in E44, the elastic modulus, breaking strength and wear resistance of the composite increase to 226.7%, 303.3% and 272.55% (153.29%), respectively.
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    Kinetics Investigation of Sintering of Nanometer Size Metal Clusters:A Molecular Dynamics Study
    Xing ZHAO, Shaoqing WANG, Caibei ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 123-126. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (493KB)
    The sintering process of nanometer size gold clusters is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation in the frame of embedded atomistic method. Several molecular dynamics simulation techniques are used to observe and describe the evolution of the sintering process. The energy distribution for single cluster is examined and the snapshots of sintering process of two clusters are recorded. The evolution of sintering is also described by plotting the mass center changes with time for each cluster. The variations of kinetic and potential energy during the process of sintering are monitored and measured to analyze the dominant mechanisms of sintering from the energy point of view.
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    Characterization and Photoluminescence Properties of AluminaNanowires Elaborated by Arc-Plasma
    C.Arnoult, X.Devaux, H.Rinnert, M.Vergnat
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 127-129. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (1066KB)
    Ultrafine powders containing alumina nanowires are synthesized by DC arc plasma from pure aluminium metal. Nanowires grow only when reactive gases are composed of nitrogen and less than ten percent of oxygen. Nanowires have the diameters ranging from 20 to 80 nm and lengths ranging from hundreds nanometers to tens of micrometers. A first assumption of the mechanism process is proposed, in which nanowires grow starting directly from the aluminium. Photoluminescence measurements show that the powders have three emission peaks around 435, 530 and 750 nm resulting from different kinds of defects such as oxygen vacancies, aluminium interstitial ions and surface defects.
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    Investigation on Aging-induced Softening of Eutectic Microstructurein SnBi/Cu Interconnect by Nanoindentation
    Chunzhong LIU, Ji CHEN, P.L.Liu, Jianku SHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 130-134. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (875KB)
    Nanoindentation was used to probe softening of the eutectic microstructure in a SnBi/Cu interconnect following thermal aging. Tests were conducted at constant loading rates and under constant loads to characterize the flow stress and creep behavior of the eutectic microstructure. Aging was found to reduce the flow stress but to increase strain-rate sensitivity of the eutectic SnBi microstructure. While the reduction in the flow stress was related to the coarsening of the eutectic microstructure, the increased creep rate sensitivity was resulted from additional contribution of grain boundary movement to indentation creep.
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    Effect of Interstitial Hydrogen on Cohesive Strength of Al Grain Boundary with Mg Segregation
    Xiaoguang LIU, Xiaowei WANG, Jingyang WANG, Hongyan ZHANG
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 135-138. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (551KB)
    The effect of interstitial hydrogen on the cohesion of the Al ∑=11(113) grain boundary (GB) is investigated based on the thermodynamic model of Rice-Wang using the first-principles density function calculation. The results indicate that interstitial H behaves as an embrittler from "strengthening energy" analysis. The reduced GB cohesion due to the presence of H at the GB is attributed to the low affinity between H and Al, and the weakened bonding of Al atomic pairs perpendicular to GB plane.
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    Design of Quenching Process for Large-sized AISI P20 SteelBlock Used as Plastic Die
    Dongli SONG, Jianfeng GU, Jiansheng PAN, Xin YAO
    J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2006, 22 (01): 139-144. 
    Abstract   HTML   PDF (5628KB)
    For large-sized AISI P20 steel block used as plastic die with a thickness of more than 200~mm, appropriate quenching processes are the key to obtain much thick hardened layer. In this paper, different quenching processes of AISI P20 steel block such as oil quenching, direct water quenching, water quenching with pre-cooling and water quenching with pre-cooling and self-tempering were numerically investigated by computer simulation based on the detailed discussion on the mathematical models of quenching processes including partial differential equations of heat transfer, thermal physical properties, latent heat, heat transfer coefficient and calculation of phase transformation, The results show that the water quenching with pre-cooling and self-tempering process can not only effectively avoid quenching cracks, but also obtain deeper harden depth than oil quenching.
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